Introduction to Oil Refining

World’s Largest Refineries*
Company 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Paraguana Refining Center SK Corporation LG-Caltex ExxonMobil Refining Singapore Reliance Petroleum Ltd Hovensa LLC S-Oil Corp. ExxonMobil Refining, USA ExxonMobil Refining USA Sidanco Norsi BP Amoco plc Kuwait National Petroleum Co BP Amoco plc Shell Eastern Petroleum Pte Ltd National Iranian Oil Co
Source: Oil and Gas Journal

Location

Crude Capacity b/cd

Judibana, Falcon, Venezuela 940,000 Ulsan, South Korea 817,000 Yosu, South Korea 633,600 Jurong/Pulau Ayer Chawan 568,500 Jamnagar, India 540,000 Saint Croix, Virgin Islands 525,000 Onsan, Korea 520,000 Baytown, TX 516,500 Baton Rouge, LA 488,500 Angarsk, Russia 440,700 Kstovo, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia 437,792 Texas City, TX 437,000 Mina Al-Ahmadi, Kuwait 427,500 Whiting, IN 410,000 Pulau Bukom, Singapore 405,000 Abadan, Iran 400,000

* Plants with 400,000 b/cd or more capacity

How the World’s Largest Refiners Rank
Rank (1-1-00) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Rank (1-1-99) 1 2 7,16 3 4 5 6 9 8 10 20, — 12 13 11 23, — 14 15 — 17 18 19 21 22 25 24 Company Royal Dutch/Shell Exxon Corp. BP Amoco plc Petroleos de Venezuela SA Sinopec Mobil Corp. Saudi Aramco China National Petroleum Corp. Petroleo Brasileiro SA Petroleos Mexicanos TotalFina SA National Iranian Oil Co. Texaco Inc. Chevron Corp. Repsol-YPF SA Kuwait National Petroleum Co. Agip Petroli SpA Nippon Mitsubishi Oil Elf Aquitaine Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC Pertamia Tosco Corp Bashneftekhimzavody Conoco, Inc. SK Corp. Crude Capacity, b/cd* 4,230,000 3,646,000 2,793,000 2,595,000 2,507,000 2,117,000 1,922,000 1,763,000 1,760,000 1,662,000 1,587,000 1,474,000 1,429,000 1,418,000 1,145,000 1,058,000 1,030,000 998,000 956,000 935,000 930,000 920,000 866,000 832,000 817,000

* Includes partial interest in refineries not wholly owned by the company. Source: Oil and Gas Journal

952.401.092.058 81.152 19.018 4. America & Caribbean Total Regions 13.402 12.640 6.549.303 3.940 3.422 2.900 390. of Distillation.435 572.193.517 1.977.848.643.710 674.340.753 152. Refineries b/cd 203 108 100 45 46 182 72 756 19.491.048.060 Catalytic Catalytic HydroHydrocracking refining b/cd b/cd 706.615 2.002 1.802 Catalytic Reforming b/cd 1.136 Region Asia-Pacific Western Europe E.870 107.254.098.955.100 416.600 4.850.195 2.416 584.964 127.150 1.694 1.701.384 417.466 290.485.131.293 11.804 6.370 470.154 Catalytic Cracking b/cd 2.220 Source: Oil and Gas Journal .500 470.724 26.885 1.434.128.997 14.756. b/cd 3. Europe & FSU Middle East Africa North America S.607 5.050 107.759.520 2.560.575.067 8.996.Regional Look at Worldwide Refining Operations Crude No.044.918 400.942.556 862.448.796 Vacuum Distillation.810 8.698.053.020.283 3.548 99.998 5.

200 275. Inc. USA Chevron USA Products Co.945 Source: Oil and Gas Journal . Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Company BP Amoco plc Exxon Co. Citgo Petroleum Corp. Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC Mobil Oil Corp. Motiva Enterprises LLC Equilon Enterprises LLC Sunoco. Koch Refining & Marketing Valero Energy Corp.500 355.000 739.700 920.418. Orion Refining Corp. Phillips Petroleum Co.000 531.300 534.600 1.000 617.550 707.000 350.350.000 928.800 237.000 14.000 268.000+B/CD Capacity Located in the U.S.600 512. Atlantic Richfield Co.000 842.500 969.Companies with 200. Inc.975 577.000 935. Inc. Clark Refining & Marketing Conoco.000 564. Tosco Refining Co. Tesoro Petroleum Corp. Ultramar Diamond Shamrock Corp.175.000 275. Lyondell-Citgo Refining LP Fina Oil & Chemical Co. Total Number of Refineries 7 4 6 7 4 5 4 5 4 4 2 5 4 4 4 5 3 2 3 3 1 2 1 89 Crude Capacity b/cd 1. Williams Co. Coastal Refining & Marketing.000 200.220 417.

335 1.000 220.008.540 1.000 210.000 208.179. Royal Dutch/Shell TotalFina SA BP Amoco plc Agip Petroli SpA Repsol YPF SA Elf Aquitaine Cia Espanola de Petroles Petrogal EP Seras SpA Veba Oel/Huhr Oel Isab SpA Louis Dreyfus (Wilhelmshafen) DEA Mineraloel AG PCK Schwedt AG OMV AG Neste Oy Statoil Mongstad Total 9 12 7 6 7 5 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 67 1.507.656.000 762.000+B/CD Capacity Located in Western Europe Rank Company Number of Refineries Crude Capacity b/cd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Exxon Corp.000 225.837 Source: Oil and Gas Journal .969.200 790.000 200.430 304.632 1.300 285.800 1.600 200.300 334.333.000 246.000 10.Companies with 200.000 235.

Royal Dutch/Shell TotalFina SA BP Amoco plc Agip Petroli SpA Repsol YPF SA Elf Aquitaine Cia Espanola de Petroles Petrogal EP Seras SpA Veba Oel/Huhr Oel Isab SpA Louis Dreyfus (Wilhelmshafen) DEA Mineraloel AG PCK Schwedt AG OMV AG Neste Oy Statoil Mongstad Total 9 12 7 6 7 5 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 67 1.430 304.000 225.632 1.000 200.333.600 200.000 220.507.540 1.656.000 10.000 208.200 790.969.008.300 334.000 210.300 285.Companies with 200.000 762.837 Source: Oil and Gas Journal .000 246.179.800 1.335 1.000+B/CD Capacity Located in Latin America Rank Company Number of Refineries Crude Capacity b/cd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Exxon Corp.000 235.

335 1.333.000 220.200 790.000+B/CD Capacity Located in Asia Pacific Rank Company Number of Refineries Crude Capacity b/cd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Exxon Corp.507.008.000 208.656. Royal Dutch/Shell TotalFina SA BP Amoco plc Agip Petroli SpA Repsol YPF SA Elf Aquitaine Cia Espanola de Petroles Petrogal EP Seras SpA Veba Oel/Huhr Oel Isab SpA Louis Dreyfus (Wilhelmshafen) DEA Mineraloel AG PCK Schwedt AG OMV AG Neste Oy Statoil Mongstad Total 9 12 7 6 7 5 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 67 1.540 1.000 210.430 304.000 10.300 334.000 225.600 200.Companies with 200.837 Source: Oil and Gas Journal .000 246.179.000 762.800 1.300 285.969.000 235.000 200.632 1.

Crude Distillation Refinery Flow Overview VAPOR RECOVERY GAS & LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) STRAIGHT RUN GASOLINE NAPT HA Octane High Gasoline REFINERY FUEL GAS LPG REGULAR GASOLINE PREMIUM GASOLINE SOLVENTS AVIATION FUELS DIESELS HEATING OILS LUBE OILS GREASES ASPHALTS INDUSTRIAL FUELS REFINERY FUEL OILS TYPICAL PRODUCTS HYDRO TREATIN G REFORMING Reform ate HYDRO TREATIN G MIDDLE DISTILLATE Crud e Oil HEAVY GAS OIL VACUUM GAS OIL SOLVENT EXTRACTIO N Gasoline between FCC/Hydrocracki ng HYDRO TREATIN G FC C CAT CRACKIN G GASOLI NE LUBE STOCKS HYDRO CRACKIN G SOLVENT DEWAXING GASOLINE & NAPHTHA LUBE OILS WAXES PROPANE DEASPHAL TER VISBREAKE R GASOLINE & NAPHTHA FUEL OIL ASPHALT GASOLINE & NAPHTHA COKE DELAYED COKER TREATING AND BLENDIG COKE .

Breaking down the constituents according to boiling point There are normally two steps involved: Atmospheric Distillation and Vacuum Distillation This is the process that uses the most number of pumps in the refinery  Pump application:    Crude Charge Reflux and Tops Intermediate Reflux    Gas Oil Naphtha. Kerosene & Diesel Topped Crude .Crude Distillation    First major processing unit in the refinery Distillation .

Atmospheric Distillation Unit CRUDE CHARGE HEATER 250OF WATE R GAS COMPRESS OR REFLUX DRUM REFLUX PUMP 150 .200OF STEAM 400 500OF Intermediate Reflux Pump 300 400OF GASOLINE NAPHTHA STEAM DESALTER HEATER 750OF ATMOSPH ERIC TOWER SIDE CUT STRIPPER S 500 600OF 700OF GAS OIL TOPPED CRUDE TO VACUUM TOWER .

Vacuum Distillation Unit TO VACUUM EJECTORS WATE R EXCHANG ER TOPPED CRUDE 850OF 2550 MM Hg VACUUM TOWER (FLASHER) EXCHANG ER LIGHT GAS OIL HEAVY GAS OIL ASPHALT HEATER Suction 750OF FLASHER EXCHANG ER BOTTOMS PUMP .

Catalytic Cracking  Refining process used for the manufacture of the gasoline and petrochemical feedstocks from the heavier portions of the heavier portion of the crude oil Cracking occurs at 25 to 35 psig Centrifugal single and multistage pumps for cold and hot service Special attention to be paid to the slurry oil pump Utilize a special catalyst. crystalline alumina silicate to promote the cracking of the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into light ones     .

Catalytic Cracking Unit FLUE GAS TO POWER RECOVERY REGENERATO R 25-35 psig 12001300OF 1000OF REGEN CATALYST FRESH FEED REACT OR 25-35 psig 1000OF STEA M SLURR Y SPENT SETTLE CATALYST R AI R AIR BLOW ER SLURRY PUMP 600-700OF SLURRY PUMP 600-700OF FRACTIONAT OR WATER WET GAS COMPRESS OR GAS TO ADSORB ER GASOLI NE LIGHT GAS OIL HEAVY GAS OIL RISER (MIXER ) RECYCLE SLURRY DECANT OIL .

Hydrocracking  Another process for making gasoline out of heavier feedstocks Able to crack those oils that are not easily cracked by catalytic cracking Able to make distillates and light oils from residual oils External supply of hydrogen + catalyst is required Cracking occurs at 1000 to 2000 psig Multistage barrel type centrifugal pumps designed to operate at temperatures of 700-800OF and pressure above 200 psig      .

Hydrocracker H2 MAKE UP COMPRESS H2 OR RECYCLE RECYCLE 2000 COMPRESSOR PSIG 600OF TO FUEL GAS H2 SEPARATED FROM LIQUID FRACTIONAT OR LOW PRESSURE SEPARATOR HIGH PRESSURE H2 SEPARATOR CATALY O FURNACE 800 F ST 2000 FIXED CRUDE PSIG 1st BED STAGE REACT OR COOLE HYDRAU R 1st STAGE LIC FEED TURBINE PUMP S H2 MAKE UP COMPRESS OR GA S NAPHT HA DIES EL 2nd STAGE FEED PUMP 700800OF FURNACE H2 RECYCLE RECYCLE COMPRESS OR 2nd STAGE REACTOR COOLE R FURNACE .

Catalytic Reforming       A process to produce high octane gasoline without the addition of lead The final product is blended with the other gasoline produced in the Cat Cracker and Hydro Cracker to meet the required octane Hydrogen molecules are not broken up but simply rearranged Catalyst containing platinum Hydrogen atmosphere Small number of process pumps required Mostly single stage overhung for medium temperature and pressure .

) NAPHT HA EXCHANGER FEED PUMP STABILIZE R High COOLE Octane Gasoline R .Catalytic Reforming Unit New H2 produced during reaction NET HYDROGE N TO H2 SYSTEM H2 MAKE UP COMPRESS COOLER OR H2 & oil heated together) H2 RECYCLE COMPRESS OR Platinu m Catalys t REACTO R 900OF High Octane Gasoline REFLU X PUMP REBOILER STEAM REACTO R 900OF REACTO R 900OF HEATER HEATER HEATER SEPARATO R COOLE R Separate H2 To (Reheating to maintain temp.

: sulphur.g.  Pressure range is about 1200 psig. multi-split type. Major pump application is the feed pump. nitrogen) from products and feedstocks by reacting them with hydrogen and catalyst: H2 + S = H2S Hydrotreaters are popular to meet the new environmental standards.  Pump type is usually a horizontally-split.   .Hydrotreating  Process of removing undesirable elements (e.

NH3 stick to catalyst REACT OR 700800OF VENT GAS COMPRES SOR HYDRAULIC TURBINE WATER REFLUX PUMP REBOILER STEAM STRIPP ER EXCHANGE R FEED PUMP HEATER COOLE R HYDROGEN SEPARATO R DESULPHURI ZED PRODUCT .Hydrotreater H2 MAKE UP COMPRESS OR H2 RECYCLE COMPRESS OR PROPANE & LIGHTER WATER H2 RECYCLE H2S.

Hydrogen Plant FLUE GAS STEAM FEED GAS STEAM GAS COOLER WATE R STEAM REFORMER FURNACE SHIFT CONVERTE R H2 METHANA TOR WATE R H2 COMPRESSOR CO2 WATE R CO2 REGENERATO R ADSORBER CO2 REMOVAL PROCESS .

Vertically Integrated Hydrocarbon Processing Plant Polyester Polyester Products Products Molding Molding Fabric Fabric Textured/Twisted/Dyed Yarn Spun Yarn Textured/Twisted/Dyed Yarn Spun Yarn Polymer Polymer Filament Yarn Filament Yarn PTA PTA Polypropylene Polypropylene MEG MEG EO EO Oxygen Oxygen PX PX PVC PVC Products Products Molding Molding Linear Alkyl Linear Alkyl Benzene Benzene N-Paraffins N-Paraffins Polyvinyl Polyvinyl Chlorides Chlorides VCM VCM EDC EDC C12 C12 Caustic Caustic Polymer Polymer Fibre Fibre Polyester Polyester Granulate Polyester Resins Granulate Polyester Resins Polyethylene Polyethylene A L U E Finish ed Produ cts Fibres & Fibre Intermedi V ate EthyleneMethane PropyleneTouleneXylene TouleneXylene Benzene Fuel GasEthyleneMethane Propylene Benzene Fuel Gas FEEDSTOCK CRACKER FEEDSTOCK CRACKER Natural Natural Gas Gas Caustic Unit Caustic Unit Salt Salt A D D E D Polymer s & Chemica ls LPG NaphthaGasolineKerosene Diesel Sulphur Fuel Oil GasolineKerosene Diesel Sulphur Fuel Oil LPG Naphtha OIL REFINERY OIL REFINERY OIL & GAS EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION OIL & GAS EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION Refini ng Oil & Gas .

Fibres and Petrochemicals Complex Process Block Diagram MNP Kerose ne Benze ne Napht ha Acetic Acid MEG Central Utilities DG STG BOILER N-Paraffin LAB LAB LAB Para Xylene Para Xylene PTA PTA PTA PSF PFY Polymer Polymer Chips Chips Polyme r Chips PFY PSF .

Petrochemicals and Polymers Complex Process Block Diagram Acetic Acid PX NH3 Ethylen e EDC Naphth a NGL Central Utilities C2 Wat HRSG er Cracker Cracker Gas C3 GT/STG Pow er Salt Caustic Soda C4 Caustic/ Caustic/ EDC Plant EDC Plant PTA MEG MEG MEG VCM VCM HDPE HDPE PE PE PP C4 + Heavier C4 + VCM VCM PVC PVC PVC PVC PET PET EOD EOD POY POY PET/P OY EOD EO EG PVC HDPE / LLDP P EP C4 + Heavier Polymer PVC s .

Process Pump (ANSI) .

Process Pump (ANSI) .

Double Row Angular Contact Ball Bearings SKF 3200. 3300. 5200. and 5300 Series         30O Contact Angle High Load Capacity High Speed Rating Normal and CB Clearance Steel Cage Conrad (A Suffix) and Filling Slot (E Suffix) Designs Seals (RS1 Suffix) and Shields (Z Suffix) Snap Rings (NR Suffix) .

Double Row Angular Contact Ball Bearings SKF DR 2000 Series        40O Contact Angle Optimized Ball Complement High Load Capacity High Speed Rating CB Clearance Standard Dimensionally Interchangeable with 3300/5300 Series Machined Brass Cage .

Heavy Duty Process Pump (API) .

Heavy Duty Process Pump (API) .

Single Row Angular Contact Ball Bearings SKF 7200 and 7300 Series       40O Contact Angle Universally Matchable High Load Capacity High Speed Rating CB Clearance Standard Cage Options  Machined Brass (M)  Pressed Brass (Y)  Pressed Steel (J)  Polymer (P) Back-to-Back Face-to-Face .

Single Row Angular Contact Ball Bearings MRC Pumpac 8000 Series        Matched Set of 40O and 15O Contact Angle Bearings 40O Machined Brass Cage High Load Capacity Thrust Load Direction High Speed Rating Insensitive to Skidding Should Only be Used When the Axial Load is Predominantly in One Direction Chevron to be Oriented in the Direction of Load 15O .

etc. lube oil. fuel oil. hydro cracking. fans. petrochemical feed stock? Are downstream petrochemical plants part of the refinery? How many pumps.Questions on an Oil Refinery   What is the size of the plant in terms of crude oil processing? What kind of processes are employed: atmospheric distillation. compressors. cat cracking. cat reforming. are used?    . electric motors. blowers. hydro treatment? What products are made: gasoline. vacuum distillation.

5 to 7 years depending on maintenance practices Potential for mechanical seals is 4 to 6 times that of bearings     .Oil Refinery Bearing Sales Potential  1000 barrels/day yield a total bearing potential of USD 300-500 depending on maintenance practices 50% of the total bearing potential is for pump bearings 100 pumps yield a total bearing potential of USD 800-1200 MTBF is 1.

00 1.00 3.00 0.00 5.00 2.00 % 4.Annual Total Maintenance Costs As a % of Plant Replacement Value 6.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 Plant Number Data Supplied By Reliability Technologies© .

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