DIFFUSION & INTEGRATION OF TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION (EDUC 8841) FINAL PROJECT MILTON B.

FRANCIS

The GradeCam Innovation Presentation to the Board of Directors by Milton B. Francis

THE INNOVATION

GRADECAM

Defense of the Innovation
Innovative technology has impacted the world ever since technology was first launched. In this, the 21st century, that impact is constantly making a debut in different technology launches.

Innovation Technology Tools Selection

- GradeCam - iPad - SMART Response interactive response systems (SMART Rirs)

Of the three innovative technology tools identified, my selective innovation would be the GradeCam.

Defense of the Innovation continues
What is GradeCam?

This technology tool is a student-performance scanner that can be used in the classroom by both teachers and students to grade multiple choice tests. The GradeCam image-recognition software works with a camera to grade tests from bubble forms and to generate statistics and reports on student performance to the teacher¶s electronic gradebook, all within a second.

More

Defense of the Innovation
Rejected Innovation Reason for Rejection

Justification of Selection

Technology innovations are good, and they serve the purpose for which they were designed, however, not all technology innovations can be adoptable, as there are iPad factors which hinder their acceptance. 

High cost Inadequate use across subjects

SMART Rirs 

Not easily accessible Not simple

Pre-Diffusion of GradeCam
Generation of the ideas for Innovation
NEED RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT COMMERCIAL - IZATION The GradeCam package consists of a 300 DPI scanner with a special built in camera, GradeCam score credit labels, and GradeCam bubble sheets. In addition, the user must include a computer (desktop/laptop), and the downloaded GradeCam software.

Teachers at my school are inundated with work: Preparation of lesson & unit plans; grading of test, H/W, quiz; tutoring; bulletin boards; intervisitations; student work analysis, etc.

Research idea: Started with Tami Porter, cofounder of GradeCam Inc.

Research background: The research on the benefits of formative assessments seems to be convincing.

GradeCam was developed over years of collaboration with technology experts experienced in designing productivity tools. In diagnosing the problem with GradeCam during its development, the developers were careful in using the camera that is compatible with the software.

Commercialize GradeCam Package includes the following:

+

Innovation-Decision Timeline

TIMELINE

2003

2004 ± 2005

2006 ± 2007

2008

2008 ± Present

INNOVATIONDECISION

KNOWLEDGE

PERSUASION

DECISION

IMPLEMENTATION

CONFIRMATION

COMMUNICATION CHANNEL

Technology conferences and expositions

Technology conferences and expositions

Internet

Internet

Internet

Individual (Teachers¶ feedback)

Technology conferences and expositions

Technology conferences and expositions

Technology conferences and expositions

Individual (Teachers¶ feedback)

Individual (Teachers¶ feedback)

Individual (Teachers¶ feedback)

The husband and wife team, Tami and Rick Porter, founders of Grade-Cam, has been developing educational products for over ten years. Grade-Cam was conceived in 2003. by Tami Porter former middle school teacher. She, along with her husband and their son, fully developed Grade-Cam over the next three to four years. The goal of Grade-Cam is to improve education by reducing the stress of everyday teaching. This has been the organization¶s theme, as it developed Grade-Cam as can be seen in the timeline below.

GradeCam Online Scanner Launched

Grade-Cam S-Curve
S-Curve GradeCam Adoption
100% 90% 80% 70% Innovation (% ) 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2003 2004 2005 2006 Years 2007 2008 2009 2010

In the process of diffusion, the innovation adoption experience a phase that relates to the statistical shaped bell-curve, except that, emphasis is not placed on the latter part of this curve. Rogers (2003) said µthe time element of the diffusion process allows us to classify adopter categories, and to draw diffusion curves¶. He further said of these curves, µwhen plotted over time on a frequency basis, the cumulative numbers of adopters plotted, results in an S-shaped curve¶.

The Perceived Attributes/Rate of Adoption of GradeCam
The GradeCam innovation was targeted at the education sector, particularly the classroom environment. As the inventors of the product said µGradeCam is a student-performance scanner for the classroom¶. (GradeCam website). The innovators and early adopters of this innovation were, indeed, the classroom teachers. Rogers (2003) identified five perceived attributes/strategies of innovation: Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. He associated each of these attributes with the rate of adoption of an innovation by the social system. The GradeCam inventors use some of these attributes in diffusing the innovation. The strategies that are most persuasive in convincing the adoption of the Observability GradeCam are trialability and compatibility.

GradeCam¶s Critical Mass and Change Agents

As I continue my proposal to the Board of Directors in considering the adoption of the GradeCam Innovation , the focus will now be on the µpoint¶ of critical mass and on some of the key personnel in the organization.

GradeCam¶s Critical Mass and Change Agents
A change agent is who Rogers (2003) called µan individual who influences clients¶ innovation-decisions in a direction deemed desirable by a change agency¶. This agency, ladies and gentlemen of the Board, is our organization, or better yet, our school. In addition to myself, as the technical expert on this innovation, I would include the principal the main leadership of the institution. Both of us will lead the way in this adoption as we aimed at fulfilling the duties of a change agent.

1) The need to change clientele 2) Establishing an information exchange relationship 3) Diagnose problems 4) Create intent to change in the client 5) Translate intent into action 6) Stabilize adoption and prevent discontinuance 7) Achieve a terminal relationship

Rogers also identified the roles of this agent, and listed them as follows:

But, how can these seven roles effect positive social change within this school? (See notes)

Members of the Board as you have seen on the Sigmoid function , or the S-curve, the GradeCam has already achieved its point of critical mass within the social strata of the education system.

This occurred between the years 2005 and 2006, at 10%, when a steep rise in the curve began.

At this phase of the Innovation over 10% of the µearly majority¶ of classroom teachers exposed to the Innovation started to adopt it.

The Organizational Adoption

of the GradeCam

Innovation-Decision Types 
Adopting the GradeCam as an individual would be more than welcoming, but I am not the only one who will be utilizing this software, so it would be better if the organization adopts it.  Organization innovation-decisions are two-fold; it may be done collectively or authoritatively  Rogers said µcollective innovation-decisions are choices to adopt/reject an innovation that is made by a consensus among the members of a system, and authority innovation-decisions are choices to adopt/reject an innovation that are made by a relatively few individuals in a system who possess power, high social status, or technical expertise¶

Innovation Champion 
The GradeCam innovation is expected to be adopted by the authority of the organization, the Board of Directors, who is being advised by me, the instructional technologist of the organization, who is also their technology expert.  As the individual with the highest technology position in the organization, I am automatically the innovation champion.  An innovation champion, according to Rogers, is an individual who throws his/her weight behind the innovation, thus overcoming indifference or resistance that the new idea may provoke in an organization.

Reasons for Adoption 
       Increase the speed with which the teachers grade tests. Maintain accurate record of students¶ scores Do immediate analyses of student-work Give immediate feedback to students on their performance Plan lessons in a timely manner as soon as feedback is given Plan differentiated lessons that will meet the needs of different students, effectively Use the time spent on grading test as tutoring hours Improve and enhance the teachers¶ skills in the use of technology

A Win-Win Situation 
It behooves you that the adoption of the GradeCam innovation by this organization will be worthwhile for its continued improvement.  All stakeholders will reap the benefits and success that this innovation will bring to us.

LADIES AND GENTLEMAN OF THE BOARD

THANK YOU

REFERENCE 
GradeCam corporation announces new version of GradeCam online. (2010, January). Retrieved December 19, 2010, from Multimedia and Internet @ schools. http://www.mmischools.com/Articles/News/Breaking-News/GradeCam- CorporationAnnounces-New-Version-of-GradeCam-Online-60668.aspx  Measuring the iPad¶s potential for education. Retrieved December 19, 2010, from The Journal: Transforming education through technology. http://thejournal.com/articles/2010/01/27/measuring-the-ipads-potential-for- education.aspx New version of GradeCam is first online assessment solution to use a document camera to grade paper-based quizzes and tests (2010, January). Retrieved December 19, 2010, from EdNET Insight. http://www.ednetinsight.com/news-alerts/technology-headlines/newversion-of- gradecam-is-first-online-assessment-solution-to-use-a-document-camera-tograde-paper-based-quizzes-and-tests.htm Rivero, V. (2010, January). Extra credit: Gradecam. Tools for learning: Assessment tools. Retrieved December 19, 2010, from Multimedia and Internet @ schools. http://www.mmischools.com/Articles/Editorial/Features/TOOLS-FOR- LEARNINGAssessment-Tools-60442.aspx SMART Response interactive response systems. Retrieved December 19, 2010, from SMART Technologies. http://smarttech.com/us/Solutions/Education+Solutions/Products+for+education/Complemen tary+hardware+products/SMART+Response   

REFERENCE 
Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.  United States Trademark application http://xrint.com/trademarks/us/78780001 

Nagel, D. GradeCam takes test scanning online. The Journal. http://thejournal.com/articles/2010/01/13/gradecam-takes-test-scanning-online.aspx 

2011 NSBA Annual Conference 

Exhibit guide at the Phoenix Convention Center

GradeCam Resources 
            Video 1 Video 2 Video 3 GradeCam Scan GradeCam Wiki GradeCam Company Background GradeCam Flyer GradeCam Manual GradeCam Software (Download) GradeCam Web site GradeCam in the News 1 GradeCam in the News 2 GradeCam in the News 3

THANKS to Dr. Almasude (Class Instructor) Learning Community Members Deborah Forrest Elaine Gagne Nicholas Jarrell Shannon Gray and the other members of EDUC 8841/7101 Diffusion and Integration of Technology in Education

A Milton B. Francis Production 2011 Copyright

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