y Introduction y Cryptography y Cryptographic algorithms y Steganography y Advantages and Disadvantages y Applications y Conclusion y Future scope y References

y As the internet and other forms of electronic communications become more prevalent . y Data security deals with security during transmission of data. y Commonly used technologies are cryptography.authentication.steganography.nonrepudiation and integrity control.INTRODUCTION y Security has became a more sensible issue either it may be in real world or in cyber world. y The main problem that occurred in network security are secrecy.electronic security is becoming increasingly important .

y The word cryptography means secrete writing. .CRYPTOGRAPHY y The art of protecting the information by transforming it into an unreadable format . y Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data.called cipher text.

An example key is: plain alphabet : abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz cipher alphabet: phqgiumeaylnofdxjkrcvstzwb An example encryption using the above key: y plaintext : defend the east wall of the castle y ciphertext: giuifg cei iprc tpnn du cei qprcni . The text we will encrypt is 'defend the east wall of the castle'.Example y Here is a quick example of the encryption and decryption steps involved with the simple substitution cipher. y Keys for the simple substitution cipher usually consist of 26 letters (compared to the caeser cipher's single number).

. y Non-repudiation: Both the sender & receiver are unable to deny the transmission.NEED OF CRYTOGRAPHY y Confidentiality :ensuring that no one can read message expect the intended receiver. y Data integrity :Only authorized parties are able to modify computer system assets and transmitted information. y Authentication :the process of proving ones identity.

TYPES OF ALGORITHMS y Secret key Cryptography (symmetric) y Public key Cryptography (asymmetric) y Hash function .

y Key must be known by both parties .SECRET KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY y Follows symmetric algorithms. y Single key is used to encrypt and decrypt.

private key (a secret) public key (well known)  Public keys are used for encryption  Private keys are used for decryption .PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY  Follows asymmetric algorithms.  Each entity has two keys.

Instead a fixed hash value is computed based upon the plain text that makes it possible for either the contents or length of plain text to be recovered. . y Hash function is easy to compute.HASH FUNCTION y Hash function also called message digest &one way encryption. are algorithms that in one sense use no key.

Video or Audio file . y Steganography in the modern day sense of the word usually refers to information or a file that has been concealed inside a digital Picture.STEGANOGRAPHY y Steganography is a art & science of hiding the fact that communication is taking place. y Steganography is the practice of hiding private or sensitive information within something that appears to be nothing out of the usual.

TYPES OF STEGANOGRAPHY y Secret message is hidden in different forms: .

y feature coding: coding done using certain text features. y line-shift coding: lines are vertically shifted. by applying each bit of code word to a particular document. . y word shift coding: code words are horizontally shifted.STEGANOGRAPHY IN TEXT y The code word is embedded in the document by altering textual features.

STEGANOGARPHY IN IMAGES y Image Steganography has come quite far in recent years with the development of fast. Image encoding techniques least significant bit insertion masking and filtering techniques transformations . Image compression 2.powerful graphical computers. y The techniques used are: 1.

.STEGANOGRAPHY IN AUDIO y Low bit encoding method is used to hide information inside audio files which is similar to LSB used in images. y Echo data hiding is another method of hiding information inside an audio file. y Spread spectrum is another method used to hide the information inside the audio file. This method works by adding random noises to the signal information is conceal inside a carrier and spread across the frequency spectrum.

however more the information that is hidden the more noticeable it will become. .STEGANOGRAPHY IN VIDEOS y Steganography in videos is similar to that of in images. y When only small amount of information is hidden inside the video it is generally isn t noticeable at all. apart of information is hidden in each frame of video.

y We can embed huge volumes of data with modern Steganography. .ADVANTAGES y The main advantage is we can provide security to data with multiple levels of security. y Symmetric encryption is simple and fast.

.DISADVANTAGES y Transmission time for documents encrypted using public key cryptography is significantly slower then symmetric cryptography. y Message is hard to recover if image is subject to attacks such as translation and rotation. this does not differentiate the texture features from edge ones. y Some data hiding methods follow the principle that the edge area can tolerate more changes than smooth areas.

APPLICATIONS y Smart ID S y Military applications y Banking applications y Companies secret data safe circulation y ATM security y Computer password y Digital signatures .

The data is encrypted and embedded with any container file and transmitted through the network. .CONCLUSION The system deals with providing easy and secure files transmissions across the network.decrypted and displayed. the proposed methods achieves higher embedding capacity and physical property. at the receiving end the data is deembedded. The application can now be used in any organization that uses networks.

FUTURE SCOPE y Crypto smart cards y Java rings y DNA cryptography y Quantum cryptography .

com y www.wikipedia.wikipedia y An introduction to Steganography .cryptography.REFERENCES y www.IEEE security and privacy y wikipedia y www.cryptography.



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