Lecture - 1

Personal and career development
27 May 2009 Prepared & Presented by Hasa R Luhana 1

General Intro
‡ To be successful in the current rapidlychanging world, we need to maximize the productivity of all of our resources -physical, financial, information, and human. ‡ How are we doing?


Physical resources:
‡ We've made major investments in updating our physical equipment, so we can compete with state-of-the-art production tools and facilities


The money will follow our ideas. we're really capital intensive.Financial resources: resources: ‡ Sure. But that's the nature of our production businesses. our successes. and our productivity 4 .

to continue attracting capital in competition with other industries. we need to be as good as they are in accessing the new world of information. 5 .Information and knowledge resources: ‡ We have our work cut out for us -. ‡ It's time to join the Internet.

Human resources: ‡ This is the leverage point! Here's where we can make significant differences in our lives. and our organizations ‡ Soft Approach ‡ Hard Approach ‡ Various Approaches 6 . our careers.

the individual. and/or the organization" 7 .Human resource Development: a ‡ A definition of HRD is ‡ "organized learning activities arranged within an organization in order to improve performance and/or personal growth for the purpose of improving the job.

selection and staffing. HR planning.Human resource Development: b HRD includes the areas of: ‡ training and development. This is related to Human Resource Management . and organization/job design 8 .a field which includes HR research & information systems. performance management systems. union/labor relations. employee assistance. ‡ career development. compensation/benefits. and ‡ organization development.

9 . and on the changing nature of work itself. They are permanent. on changing technology. on cultural and demographic changes. ‡ Changes are based on the global economy. on our changing work force. The changes are different this time.The times they require changes: a ‡ Are they ever! And our organizations and jobs will never be the same. and will permanently affect the way our work and our lives are structured.

The times they require changes: b ‡ We need to learn new skills and develop new abilities. or we can be overwhelmed by them 10 . our careers. to respond to these changes in our lives. and our organizations. We can deal with these constructively. using change for our competitive advantage and as opportunities for personal and organizational growth.

Who is affected by change: ‡ You are! ‡ With all the downsizing. So everyone is now a manager. responsibility and accountability are being downloaded to individuals. to perform other people's jobs too!) 11 . Everyone will need to acquire and/or increase their skills. outsourcing and team building. knowledge and abilities to perform their jobs (and now.

our actions and standards. attitudes and work environment 12 . We are going to develop our knowledge and skills.The goal of HRD: ‡ The goal of HRD is to improve the performance of our organizations by maximizing the efficiency and performance of our people. incentives. our motivation.

13 . partly. ‡ We have often thought training was what was needed (or not needed).the solution may lie with organization development. ‡ But there are other answers too .Is training the answer? ‡ Yes. career development. or a combination of these or other strategies. sometimes. but certainly not always.

14 .Personal & career development: a ‡ There is an increasing need for individuals to take charge of the development of their own learning and careers for a variety of reasons: ‡ There is increasing rate of change of our organizations and in the knowledge and skills we need to perform our jobs.

And. involvement in one's own development fosters greater commitment to the process than other-directed activities 15 .Personal & career development: b ‡ Career ladders are rapidly shrinking or disappearing as reorganizations lead to flatter structures. ‡ There is an ever-increasing need for us to keep learning to keep up with the rapid growth in knowledge and the rate of change of our workplace environments.

Learning is now our responsibility: ‡ Career development (CD) is now the primary responsibility of individuals in organizations. ‡ The responsibility for learning and for the development of career paths has been downloaded to the individual employees 16 .

Here is what should be included in a personal learning plan: 17 . or learning project management strategies. individual development plans.Steps to develop & implement an individual development plan: a ‡ The standard forms to help the learners follow a systematic process to prepare their learning contracts.

Identify the new skills. knowledge.Steps: b ‡ Assessment. First. mission and vision? 18 . Do these goals match your personal and career interests? Are your goals in agreement with your organization's goals. identify your current skills. and interests ‡ Goals. abilities. and experiences you would like to acquire and have. knowledge.

not a rigid promise. ‡ Learning objective(s). Remember that this is only a plan. and what specific skills. knowledge. Identify the gap between the current situation and the desired outcome. knowledge and abilities you wish to develop. your plan can and should be revised as your goals change and as learning occurs 19 . Identify what skills.Steps: c ‡ Learning purpose. and abilities are to be acquired or enhanced. This will produce a statement of purpose that should clarify why you want to learn something.

classroom study. reflecting on your own experiences. mill trials. Identify when you plan to complete the work for this part of your learning plan. strategies could include: reading and study. interviews and discussions with appropriate people. and what process you plan to follow to accomplish your objective. identify the following:1 ‡ Target date. networking and communication. Describe how you plan to do it. For example. 20 . ‡ Learning strategies.For each objective. synthesizing and writing. literature review.

and the Internet 21 . for example: literature. classes. and a variety of learning technologies including computers. co. These resources might include. your supervisors. production workers.workers. other professionals for networking. field experience. Identify what resources you plan to use to help you with this learning process. mentors. identify the following:2 ‡ Learning resources.For each objective. vendors or suppliers. technical conferences. equipment manuals. professional association involvement. laboratory trials. teachers and instructors.

a log or journal of your studies or observations. written and oral reports. List the evidence you will develop to show the accomplishment of your objectives. What deliverables will you have produced by this process? What objects can be used to validate your learning experience? This could include. lists of questions. obtaining specific career objectives. identify the following:3 ‡ Outcomes and products. for example. a literature review and bibliography. and more 22 .For each objective.

identify the following:4 ‡ Evaluation plan. In other words. Describe the method you will use to validate your deliverables and to evaluate the success of your learning project.For each objective. what criteria and means will you use to determine if you were successful in reaching your learning goals? 23 .

For each objective, identify the following:5
‡ Initial feedback and revision. Before starting to carry-out your individual development plan, confer with your supervisor (instructor, mentor, or HRDmanager if available) for feedback, for another view of your learning needs and strategies. This will help insure that your learning will not only be based on your personal needs but will also be relevant to your organization's goals, results, and profitability. The more independent sources you can use, the better -- seek additional feedback from your co-workers, colleagues, family and friends.

For each objective, identify the following:6
‡ Summary of results. After completing the projects in your individual plan, you should evaluate the success of these activities. What insights have you gained? What new understandings do you have? What new skills, abilities and knowledge have you acquired? What experiences did you have, and what did you learn from them? How do you feel about this process?


For each objective, identify the following:7
‡ Next steps. You should review the accomplishments and successes of this project with your supervisor (and others, as appropriate). Then update your learning plan for the next cycle. Remember that learning and growth are processes that may, and should, continue indefinitely


Where are you currently?: Assessment-1 Assessment‡ Self assessment and analysis will enable you to build an effective foundation upon which the ‡ goals and objectives of your CD can be developed. ‡ It will assist you in defining the following: ‡ Your areas of expertise and core skills ‡ Areas for improvement and skill gaps ‡ Future learning opportunities 27 .

‡ Still others find out too late what they would have liked to have been and done. ‡ Others come to things they enjoy without apparently too much planning. 28 .SelfSelf-assessment / appraisal:-2 appraisal:‡ Self-appraisal means finding out where you are up to and what you have going for you before you plan to go any further ‡ Have you ever had an ambition ± something which fires your imagination and gets you motivated ? ‡ Some people discover early on in life what they most want to do.

a Self Audit or a SWOT analysis ‡ will help you to identify strengths and weaknesses. It can help to create a profile of your ‡ abilities as a starting point.SelfSelf-assessment / appraisal:-3 appraisal:‡ Carrying out simple exercises such as a Job Role Checklist. You¶ll find examples of how these frameworks can be used over the ‡ next few pages. 29 . and some blanks at the back of the resource.

SelfSelf-assessment / appraisal:-4 appraisal:The following skill areas could also be taken into consideration for Self Appraisal: ‡ Basic oral communication ‡ Presentation skills ‡ Written communication ‡ Teamwork ability ‡ Negotiation / Assertiveness ‡ Leadership / Initiative skills ‡ Prioritising and Time Management ‡ Problem solving ‡ Decision making ‡ IT knowledge ‡ Numerical skills ‡ Career Management 30 .

‡ Appraisal and job review documentation will also be useful. Bring in ideas from colleagues. Think about your skills and knowledge in terms of specialist or technical.The Job Role Checklist:Checklist:‡ The Job Role Checklist is a convenient way to start thinking about your PD. If there is a job and person specification for your role they will help you. but they are only snapshots. and the skills and knowledge needed to perform each activity successfully. commercial / business and personal. It will help you to think about your competence and skill in the context of your current role. Using the framework will involve identifying the tasks and activities that make up your job. managers and others to help you 31 .

and bring in ideas from others to help you carry out an effective audit: cont« 32 . where you need to improve and where your priorities for action lie.The Self Audit:-1 Audit:‡ This framework builds on the Job Role Checklist and helps you to identify current skill levels. Think specifically rather than generally about your skills.

Think specifically rather than generally about your skills. and bring in ideas from others to help you carry out an effective audit: 33 . where you need to improve and where your priorities for action lie.The Self Audit:-2 Audit:‡ This framework builds on the Job Role Checklist and helps you to identify current skill levels.

The Self Audit:-3 Audit:- 34 .

Skills:inventory Skills:inventory & audit 35 .

36 . jobs.Inventory of your skills Why ? When you are ready to pursue internships. you will be asked to articulate your skills and how you gained them . or graduate school.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Computer skills Detail-oriented Honesty/Integrity Flexibility Team work 37 . through involvement with club activities. or through a job and/or internship.Top ten skills employers seek ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Communication Analytical skills Motivation/Initiative Interpersonal skills Work values: What job do you think will keep you happy and satisfied? Remember ± these skills can be strengthened ! How ? in the classroom.

real-world settings ‡ Resource Management Skills -Developed capacities used to allocate resources efficiently 38 .Types of skills:-1 skills:‡ Basic Skills-Developed capacities that facilitate learning or the more rapid acquisition of knowledge. illdefined problems in complex. ‡ Complex Problem Solving SkillsDeveloped capacities used to solve novel.

and improve socio-technical systems ‡ Technical Skills-Developed capacities used to design. and correct malfunctions involving application of machines or technological systems 39 . set-up. operate. monitor.Types of skills:2 ‡ Social Skills -Developed capacities used to work with people to achieve goals ‡ Systems Skills -Developed capacities used to understand.

‡ Active Listening ² Giving full attention to what other people are saying. conclusions or approaches to problems. ‡ Critical Thinking ² Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions. asking questions as appropriate. 40 .Basic skills:1 ‡ Active Learning ² Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. and not interrupting at inappropriate times. taking time to understand the points being made.

‡ Speaking ² Talking to others to convey information effectively.Basic skills:2 ‡ Learning Strategies ² Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things. ‡ Monitoring ² Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself. or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action. ‡ Writing ² Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. 41 . ‡ Reading Comprehension ² Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. other individuals.

Complex Problem Solving Skills ‡ Complex Problem Solving ² Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions. 42 .

‡ Management of Personnel Resources ² Motivating. 43 . and directing people as they work. developing. facilities. and materials needed to do certain work. identifying the best people for the job. ‡ Management of Material Resources ² Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment.Resource Management Skills ‡ Management of Financial Resources ² Determining how money will be spent to get the work done. and accounting for these expenditures. ‡ Time Management ² Managing one's own time and the time of others.

Social Skills . ‡ Negotiation ² Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences. 44 .Developed capacities used to work with people to achieve goals:1 ‡ Coordination ² Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions. ‡ Instructing ² Teaching others how to do something.

Developed capacities used to work with people to achieve goals:1 ‡ Persuasion ² Persuading others to change their minds or behavior. ‡ Service Orientation ² Actively looking for ways to help people.Social Skills . 45 . ‡ Social Perceptiveness ² Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.

‡ Systems Evaluation ² Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance. ‡ Systems Analysis ² Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions. and the environment will affect outcomes. relative to the goals of the system. operations. 46 .Systems Skills ‡ Judgment and Decision Making ² Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.

‡ Installation ² Installing equipment. machines. 47 . ‡ Equipment Selection ² Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job. wiring. ‡ Operation and Control ² Controlling operations of equipment or systems. or programs to meet specifications.Technical Skills:1 ‡ Equipment Maintenance ² Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.

48 . ‡ Troubleshooting ² Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.Technical Skills: ‡ Operation Monitoring ² Watching gauges. ‡ Operations Analysis ² Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design. ‡ Programming ² Writing computer programs for various purposes. dials. or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.

from both a task and process management perspective. 49 .Skills audit ‡ A skills audit assesses performance. ‡ A range of psychometric tests are employed which provide a 360° profile of an individual¶s skills base.

‡ It is an effective way of identifying your strengths and weaknesses. 50 .SWOT Analysis:1 ‡ A SWOT Analysis is a well known business tool. and of examining the opportunities and threats you face. but it is also useful in thinking about your Professional Development.

51 . so that you can decide if you want to take action to strengthen yourself in these areas.SWOT Analysis:2 ‡ Carrying out an analysis using the SWOT framework can help you to focus your activities into areas where you are strong and where the greatest opportunities lie. or face a threat. It can also help you to identify areas where you are weaker.

SWOT Analysis:3 ‡ Strength .Where do I need to improve? ‡ Opportunities .What possible challenges are there for me? 52 .What possible new opportunities are there for me? ‡ Threats .What are the things that you do well? ‡ Weaknesses .

What are the things that you do well? ‡ E. Administration.g. time management ‡ Weaknesses .Where do I need to improve? ‡ E.Example ‡ Strength .SWOT Analysis:4 . I¶m not a great networker 53 .g.

54 .SWOT Analysis:5 . I could use my adminstrative skills to help them develop some effective systems.Example ‡ Opportunities .What possible new opportunities are there for me? ‡ E.g. The company is looking to expand its customer base.

What possible challenges are there for me? ‡ E. There are number of companies in the area offering similar services to ourselves. 55 . Getting new customers is vital at the moment.SWOT Analysis:6 .Example ‡ Threats .g.

Try these tests to audit your skills ! 56 .

.‡ Does your test score show some deficiency in core skills? ‡ Will you like to improve your skills ?.How ? 57 .....

‡ By devising a personal development plan (PDP) ! ‡ Why ? ‡ to achieve targets and short and long term objectives with regard to your career and personal development. 58 .

Planning ‡ Action Plans 59 .

It will structure the development process linking with your career plans and deliver through your CPD.Planning:1 ‡ Where you need to go? ‡ Once your learning and development needs have been identified the next stage is to prepare a plan to meet the requirements. A Personal Development Plan (PDP) will help you to organise your development. 60 .

Planning:2 ‡ Where you need to go? ‡ Your PDP will record the process of identifying training and development needs and plan how to meet them. 61 . The use of SMART objectives can be of great benefit in order to set realistic targets for achieving your training and development goals.

Set deadlines to meet your goals. ‡ Realistic . 62 .SMART Objectives: ‡ Specific .Ensure that learning objectives can be tested. ‡ Agreed . ‡ Measurable .Define precisely what you need to learn.Agreed terms of time. cost and support.Set relevant and ambitious yet achievable targets. ‡ Timed .

‡ Where would be best for me to learn? ‡ At work? On a course? At home? 63 .Other specific questions:1 ‡ In addition to your SMART objectives it can be useful to ask yourself specific questions in order to pinpoint key requirements for your learning environment.

Books? ‡ Audio/Video? CDs? Packs? ‡ How much know-how will I require? ‡ Basic? Competent? Expert? 64 .Other specific questions:2 ‡ How do I take in learning best? ‡ Alone? In groups? Observing? Direct? ‡ What materials will I need? .

Evaluation: ‡ How have you progressed? ± Evaluate PDP 65 .

Reflection: ‡ Reflecting on your progress is an important step in the PD. It also provides an effective way of identifying further development needs. As it enables you to evaluate and consider whether you have met your objectives. 66 .

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