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Construction of frequency distributions and their analysis in the form of measures of central tendency and variations; types of measures, their relative merits, limitations and characteristics; skew ness; meaning and co-efficient of skew ness.

A. S. Raheja asraheja@gmail.com 9717871155

Classification of Data

Rules of classification

± Exhaustive ± each data should belong to one of the class ± Mutually Exclusive ± fit to one class only ± Suitability ± confirm to object of inquiry ± Stability ± Basic principle should be retained ± Homogeneity ± data should be homogeneous

**Types of Data Classification
**

Geographical ± area wise Chronological ± basis of time Qualitative ± according to attribute Quantitative ± in terms of magnitude

± Discrete ± Continuous

political affiliation. Ex ± Marks of students in a class . Ungrouped frequency distribution : can be used for data that can be enumerated and when the range of values in the data set is not large. blood type etc. Ex . such as nominal.Frequency Distribution Categorical frequency distribution : can be used for data that can be placed in specific categories.or ordinal-level data. The data must be grouped into classes that are more than one unit in width. Ex . religious affiliation.number of girls in a 4-child family etc Grouped frequency distribution: can be used when the range of values in the data set is very large.

Categorical frequency distribution Blood Type Frequency Distribution C lass A B O AB Frequency 5 7 9 4 Percent 20 28 36 16 .

Exercise 1 : Construct a ungrouped Frequency Distribution Chart .

Ungrouped Frequency Distribution (Discrete Series) .

Grouped Frequency Distribution (Continuous Series) Rules for Choosing Classes ± ± ± ± ± ± Clearly defined All values should be included Class should be Mutually Exclusive Equal Width Between 5 ± 20 Classes Class intervals are considered after taking in to account : Minimum and Maximum values Number of Classes to be formed .

Important Terms Class Limits ± Lowest and Highest values that can be included in a class ex.S) / K L = Largest Value S = Smallest value K = Number of Classes . ± H = (L. Class Intervals ± Difference in the upper and lower limit of a class.(20-40) means lowest value is 20 and highest value is 40.

it is known as exclusive method of classification Inclusive Method: Both Lower and Upper limits of the class are included in the class itself. Overlapping is avoided .Types of Class intervals Exclusive Method: When upper limit of one class is lower limit of the next class.

More of Important Terms Frequency Density ± Class Frequency/Width of the Class Relative Frequency ± Class Frequency/Overall total Frequency Percentage Frequency ± Relative Frequency X 100 .

Exercise 2 : Same example as group frequency .

Example 2 Arrange the data in 10 class intervals Obtain the percentage frequency in each class Find the class boundaries and cumulative frequencies .

Solution .

Solution .

Measure of Central Tendency Averages ± Mathematical Average Arithmetic mean Geometric mean Harmonic mean ± Positional Average Median Mode Quartiles Deciles Percentiles .

Arithmetic Mean Simple Arithmetic Mean For Ungrouped data Direct Method Shortcut Method .

Mean for Grouped Data Direct Method Shortcut Method .

Exercise And repeat the same exercise with Shortcut method .

.

Arithmetic Mean Ctd. Step Deviation Method for Grouped Frequency Distribution: .

Exercise .

Solution .

Merits/Limitation of Mean Merits ± ± ± ± ± ± Easy to understand Easy to Calculate Takes all values in to account Used in further Mathematical treatment Sum of deviation from mean is always zero Sum of square of deviation from the mean is minimum Limitations ± Affected very much by extreme values ± In open end class distribution. need to make assumptions ± It may lead to false conclusion if details of data is not given .

Median Divides the distribution in to two equal part 50% observations are above median and 50% are below median ± Median = Md = ½(N+1) .

Median ± Ungrouped Frequency Distribution .

Median ± Grouped Frequency Distribution .

Exercise .

Merits/Limitation Merits ± ± ± ± Easy to calculate and understand Not affected by extremes Computable for open end classes Useful with qualitative data Demerits ± Need to rearrange data ± Even number: need to estimate as A. Mean of two middle values ± Not Capable for algebraic treatment ± Insensitive : Not dependent on all the data in the series .

8.6.9 ± No Mode ± Ungrouped/Grouped Frequency Distribution Data Grouping Method is used .4.7.27 ± Mode = 10 10.10.17.13.10.21.12.Mode Value in the series that occurs with greatest frequency ± Ungroup Data 2.2.6.10.18.8.15.4.

Grouping Table .

Mode for Discrete Series .

empirical method Not capable for algebraic manipulation Not based on all the observation of the series .Merits/Limitation of Mode Merits ± Most typical or representative value of distribution ± Not affected by extreme values ± Value can be determined by open end distributions without ascertaining class limit Limitation ± ± ± ± Indeterminate value in case of group data In case of bi modal .

Mode for Grouped Data (Continuous Series) .

«fn are frequency of value X1.mn fn) Where m = middle values of the ranges .Xn refer to items in series GM = n¥X1.X2.Xn fn) N = f In case of Continuous Series GM = N¥(m1 f1.Xn In case of Discrete Series f1.«.X2 «.«.m2 f2.Geometric Mean It is the Nth root of the product of N items If X1.X2 f2.X2 «. f2.Xn GM = N¥(X1 f1.X3«.

Harmonic Mean Reciprocal of Arithmetic Mean of the reciprocal of individual observation If X1.«fn are frequency of value X1.X2 «.«.1/Xn) In case of Discrete Series f1.values) .Xn HM = N / (fi / Xi) In case of Grouped Data HM = N / (f / m. f2.Xn refer to items in series HM = N/(1/X1 + 1/X2+.X2 «.

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