SONET/SDH SONET/SDH

Yaakov (J) Stein
Chief Scientist
RAD Data Communications
S SONET SIide 2
Course OutIine Course OutIine
Background anaIog teIephony, TDM, PDH
SONET/SDH history and motivation
Architecture path, Iine, section
#ates and frame structure
PayIoads and mappings
Protection and rings
VCAT and LCAS
HandIing packet data
S SONET SIide 3
Background Background
S SONET SIide 4
The PSTN circa 1900 The PSTN circa 1900
pair oI copper wires
'local loop¨
manual routing at local exchange oIIice (CO)
· Analog voltage travels over copper wire end-to-end
· Voice signal arrives at destination severely attenuated and distorted
· Routing perIormed manually at exchanges oIIice(s)
· Routing is expensive and lengthy operation
· Route is maintained Ior duration oI call
S SONET SIide 5
TeIephony MuItipIexing TeIephony MuItipIexing
25% of telephony revenues went to copper mines
standard was gauge, long distance even heavier
two wires per loop to combat cross-talk
needed method to place multiple conversations on a single trunk
"Carrier system¨ (FDM)
5 conversations on single trunk
later extended to 2 (group)
still later supergroups (6), master groups (6)), .
1
channels
8 kHz
12 kHz
4 kHz
16 kHz
20 kHz
S SONET SIide 6
The DigitaIization of the PSTN The DigitaIization of the PSTN
Shannon (Bell Labs) proved that
Digital communications
is always better than
Analog communications
and the PSTN became digital
Better means
More efficient use of resources (e.g. more channels on trunks)
Higher voice quality (less noise, less distortion)
Added features
After the invention of the transistor, in 63 T-carrier system (TDM)
byte per sample ÷ samples per second
T = 24 conversations per trunk
2 groups per cable!
9
timeslots
S SONET SIide 7
and switching became easier too and switching became easier too
Complexity increases rapidly with size
1 2 4 5 6 7 8 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Analog Crossbar switch
Digital Cross-connect (DXC)
processor
9
1 2 3 4 5
9
2 1 5 4 3
S SONET SIide 8
Optimized TeIephony #outing Optimized TeIephony #outing
Circuit switching (route is maintained for duration of call)
Route 'set-up¨ is an expensive operation, iust as it was Ior manual switching
Today, complex least cost routing algorithms are used
Call duration consists oI set-up, voice and tear-down phases
S SONET SIide 9
The PSTN circa 1960 The PSTN circa 1960
local loop
subscriber line
automatic routing through universal telephone network
· Analog voltages used throughout, but extensive Frequency Division Multiplexing
· Voice signal arrives at destination aIter ampliIication and Iiltering to 4 KHz
· Automatic routing
· Universal dial-tone
· Voltage and tone signaling
· Circuit switching (route is maintained Ior duration oI call)
trunks
circuits
S SONET SIide 10
The Present PSTN The Present PSTN
subscriber line
· Analog voltages and copper wire used only in 'last mile¨,
but core designed to mimic original situation
· Voice signal Iiltered to 4 KHz at input to digital network
· Time Division Multiplexing oI digital signals in the network
· Extensive use oI Iiber optic and wireless physical links
· T1/E1, PDH and SONET/SDH 'synchronous¨ protocols
· Signaling can be channel/trunk associated or via separate network (SS7)
· Automatic routing
· Circuit switching (route is maintained Ior duration oI call)
· Complex routing optimization algorithms (LP, Karmarkar, etc)
PSTN Network
class 5 switch class 5 switch
tandem switch
last mile
S SONET SIide 11
TDM timing TDM timing
Time Domain Multiplexing relies on all channels (timeslots)
having precisely the same timing (frequency and phase)
Ìn order to enforce this
the TDM device itself frequently performs the digitization
analog
signals
digital
signals
S SONET SIide 12
if the inputs are aIready digitaI if the inputs are aIready digitaI
Ìf the TDM switch does not digitize the analog signals
then there can be a problem
the clocks used to digitize do not have identical frequencies
we get byte slips! well, actually, we can get bit slips first .)
exaggerated pictorial example
Numerical example
clock derived from Hz. quartz crystal
typical crystal accuracy = I 5 ppm
So 2 crystals can differ by ppm
i.e. . samples / second
So difference is sample after ¼ seconds
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
5
5
5
7
7
7
6
6
6
8
8
8
9
9
9

7
7

8
8
component
signals
TDM
S SONET SIide 13
The fix The fix
e must ensure that all the clocks have the same frequency
Every telephony network has an accurate clock called
a "stratum ¨ or "Primary #eference Clock¨
All other clocks are directly or indirectly locked to it (master ÷ slave)
A TDM receiving device can lock onto the source clock
based on the incoming data (FLL, PLL)
For this to work, we must ensure that the data has enough transitions
(special line coding, scrambling bits, etc.)
1
0
transitions no transitions
S SONET SIide 14
Comparing cIocks Comparing cIocks
A clock is said to be isochronous (isos=equal, chronos=time)
if its ticks are equally spaced in time
2 clocks are said to be synchronous (syn=same chronos=time)
if they tick in time, i.e. have precisely the same frequency
2 clocks are said to be plesiochronous (plesio=near chronos=time)
if they are nominally if the same frequency
but are not locked
S SONET SIide 15
PDH principIe PDH principIe
Ìf we want yet higher rates, we can mux together TDM signals (tributaries)
e could demux the TDM timeslots and directly remux them
÷ but that is too complex
The TDM inputs are already digital, so we must
÷ insist that the mux provide clock to all tributaries
(not always possible, may already be locked to a network)
O#
÷ somehow transport tributary with its own clock
across a higher speed network with a different clock
(without spoiling remote clock recovery)
S SONET SIide 16
PDH hierarchies PDH hierarchies
64 kbps
2.048 Mbps 1.544 Mbps 1.544 Mbps
6.312 Mbps 6.312 Mbps 8.448 Mbps
34.368 Mbps
139.264 Mbps
44.736 Mbps 32.064 Mbps
97.728 Mbps
274.176 Mbps
CEPT N.A. Japan
4
3
2
1
0
level
* 30
* 24
* 24
* 4
* 4
* 4
* 4
* 7
* 6
* 4
* 5
* 3
E1
E2
E3
E4
T1
T2
T3
T4
J1
J2
J3
J4
S SONET SIide 17
Framing and overhead Framing and overhead
Ìn addition to locking on to bit-rate
we need to recognize the frame structure
e identify frames by adding Frame Alignment Signal
The FAS is part of the frame overhead which also includes "C-bits", OAM, etc.)
Each layer in PDH hierarchy adds its own overhead
For example
E ÷ 2 overhead bytes per 32 bytes ÷ overhead 6.25 %
E2 ÷ 4 Es = .2 Mbps out of .44Mbps
so there is an additional .256 Mbps = 3 %
altogether 4*3*64 kbps = 7.6 Mbps out of .44 Mbps
or 9.09% overhead
hat happens next ?
S SONET SIide 18
PDH overhead PDH overhead
verhead always increases with data rate !
digital
signal
data rate
(Mbps)
voice
channels
overhead
percentage
T .544 24 .52 %
T2 6.32 6 2.66 %
T3 44.736 672 3.6 %
T4 274.76 432 5. %
E 2.4 3 6.25 %
E2 .44 2 . %
E3 34.36 4 .6 %
E4 3.264 2 .76 %
S SONET SIide 19
OAM OAM
analog channels and 64 kbps digital channels
do not have mechanisms to check signal validity and quality
thus
major faults could go undetected for long periods of time
hard to characterize and localize faults when reported
minor defects might be unnoticed indefinitely
Solution is to add mechanisms based on overhead
as PDH networks evolved, more and more overhead was dedicated to
Operations, Administration and Maintenance (AM) functions
including
monitoring for valid signal
defect reporting
alarm indication/inhibition (AÌS)
S SONET SIide 20
PDH ustification PDH ustification
Ìn addition to FAS, PDH overhead includes
justification control (C-bits) and justification opportunity "stuffing¨ (R-bits)
Assume the tributary bitrate is B I T
Positive justification
payload is expected at highest bitrate B+T
if the tributary rate is actually at the maximum bitrate
then all payload and R bits are filled
if the tributary rate is lower than the maximum
then sometimes there are not enough incoming bits
so the R-bits are not filled and C-bits indicate this
Negative justification
payload is expected at lowest bitrate B-T
if the tributary rate is actually the minimum bitrate
then payload space suffices
if the tributary rate is higher than the minimum
then sometimes there are not enough positions to accommodate
so R-bits in the overhead are used and the C-bits indicate this
Positive/Negative justification
payload is expected at nominal bitrate B
positive or negative justification is applied as required
S SONET SIide 21
SONET/SDH SONET/SDH
motivation and history motivation and history
S SONET SIide 22
First step First step
ith the disvestiture of the US Bell system a new need arose
MCÌ and NYNEX couldn't directly interconnect optical trunks
Ìnterexchange Carrier Compatibility Forum requested T to solve problem
Needed multivendor/ multioperator fiber-optic communications standard
Three main tasks
ptical interfaces (wavelengths, power levels, etc)
proposal submitted to TX (Aug 4)
T.6 standard on single mode optical interfaces ()
perations (AM) system
proposal submitted to TM
T. standard
Rates, formats, definition of network elements
Bellcore (Yau-Chau Ching and Rodney Boehm) proposal (Feb 5)
proposed to TX
term SNET was coined
T.5 standard ()
S SONET SIide 23
PDH Iimitations PDH Iimitations
Rate limitations
Copper interfaces defined
Need to mux/demux hierarchy of levels (hard to pull out a single timeslot)
verhead percentage increases with rate
At least three different systems (Europe, NA, Japan)
÷ E 2.4, .44, 34.34, 3.264
÷ T .544, 3.52, 6.32, 44.736, .53, 274.76
÷ .544, 3.52, 6.32, 32.64, 7.72, 37.2
So a completely new mechanism was needed
S SONET SIide 24
Idea behind SONET Idea behind SONET
Synchronous Optical NETwork
Designed for 459., transport (high bitrate)
Direct mapping of lower levels into higher ones
Carry all PDH types in one universal hierarchy
÷ ÌTU version = Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
÷ different terminology but interoperable
verhead doesn't increase with rate
AM designed-in from beginning
S SONET SIide 25
Standardization ! Standardization !
The original Bellcore proposal
hierarchy of signals, all multiple of basic rate (5.6)
basic rate about 5 Mbps to carry DS3 payload
bit-oriented mux
mechanisms to carry DS, DS2, DS3
Many other proposals were merged into 7 draft document (rate 4.2)
Ìn summer of 6 CCÌTT express interest in cooperation
needed a rate of about 5 Mbps to carry E4
wanted byte oriented mux
Ìnitial compromise attempt
byte mux
US wanted 3 rows * columns
CEPT wanted rows * 27 columns
Compromise!
US would use basic rate of 5.4 Mbps, rows * columns
CEPT would use three times that rate - 55.52 Mbps, rows * 27 columns
S SONET SIide 26
SONET/SDH SONET/SDH
architecture architecture
S SONET SIide 27
Layers Layers
SNET was designed with definite layering concepts
Physical layer ÷ optical fiber (linear or ring)
÷ when exceed fiber reach ÷ regenerators
÷ regenerators are not mere amplifiers,
÷ regenerators use their own overhead
÷ fiber between regenerators called section (regenerator section)
Line layer ÷ link between SNET muxes (Add/Drop Multiplexers)
÷ input and output at this level are Virtual Tributaries (VCs)
÷ actually 2 layers
lower order VC (for low bitrate payloads)
higher order VC (for high bitrate payloads)
Path layer ÷ end-to-end path of client data (tributaries)
÷ client data (payload) may be
PDH
ATM
packet data
S SONET SIide 28
SONET architecture SONET architecture
SNET (SDH) has at 3 layers
path ÷ end-to-end data connection, muxes tributary signals path section
÷ there are STS paths + Virtual Tributary (VT) paths
line ÷ protected multiplexed SNET payload multiplex section
section ÷ physical link between adjacent elements regenerator section
Each layer has its own overhead to support needed functionality
SDH terminology
Path
Termination
Path
Termination
Line
Termination
Line
Termination
Section
Termination
path
line line line
ADM ADM regenerator
section section section section
S SONET SIide 29
STS, OC, etc. STS, OC, etc.
A SNET signal is called a Synchronous Transport Signal
The basic STS is STS-, all others are multiples of it - STS-N
The (optical) physical layer signal corresponding to an STS-N is an C-N
SONET OpticaI rate
STS- C- 5.4M
STS-3 C-3 55.52M
STS-2 C-2 622.M
STS-4 C-4 24.32M
STS-2 C-2 53.2M
* 3
* 4
* 4
* 4
S SONET SIide 30
rates rates
and and
frame structure frame structure
S SONET SIide 31
SONET / SDH frames SONET / SDH frames
Synchronous Transfer Signals are bit-signals (OC are optical)
Like all TDM signals, there are framing bits at the beginning of the frame
However, it is convenient to draw SNET/SDH signals as rectangles
framing
S SONET SIide 32
SONET STS SONET STS- -1 frame 1 frame
Each STS- frame is columns * rows = bytes
There are STS- frames per second
so each byte represents 64 kbps (each column is 576 kbps)
Thus the basic STS- rate is 5.4 Mbps
90 columns
9

r
o
w
s
framing
S SONET SIide 33
SDH STM SDH STM- -1 frame 1 frame
Synchronous Transport Modules are the bit-signals for SDH
Each STM- frame is 27 columns * rows = 243 bytes
There are STM- frames per second
Thus the basic STM- rate is 55.52 Mbps
3 times the STS- rate!
270 columns
9

r
o
w
s

S SONET SIide 34
SONET/SDH rates SONET/SDH rates
STS-N has N columns STM-M corresponds to STS-N with N = 3M
SDH rates increase by factors of 4 each time
STS/STM signals can carry PDH tributaries, for example
STS- can carry T3 or 2 Ts or E3 or 2 Es
STM- can carry 3 E3s or 63 Es or 3 T3s or 4 Ts
SONET SDH coIumns rate
STS- 5.4M
STS-3 STM- 27 55.52M
STS-2 STM-4 622.M
STS-4 STM-6 432 24.32M
STS-2 STM-64 72 53.2M
S SONET SIide 35
SONET/SDH tributaries SONET/SDH tributaries
E3 and T3 are carried as Higher rder Paths (HPs)
E and T are carried as Lower rder Paths (LPs)
(the numbers are for direct mapping)
SONET SDH T1 T3 E1 E3 E4
STS- 2 2
STS-3 STM- 4 3 63 3
STS-2 STM-4 336 2 252 2 4
STS-4 STM-6 344 4 4 6
STS-2 STM-64 5376 2 432 2 64
S SONET SIide 36
Synchronous Payload Envelope
STS STS- -1 frame structure 1 frame structure
9

r
o
w
s
Transport
Overhead
TOH
6

r
o
w
s
3

r
o
w
s
Section overhead is 3 rows * 3 columns = bytes = 576 kbps
framing, performance monitoring, management
Line overhead is 6 rows * 3 columns = bytes = 52 kbps
protection switching, line maintenance, mux/concat, SPE pointer
SPE is rows * 7 columns = 73 bytes = 5.2 Mbps
Similarly, STM- has (different) columns of section+line overhead !
90 columns
9

r
o
w
s
S SONET SIide 37
STM STM- -1 frame structure 1 frame structure
Section
Overhead
SOH
STM- has (different) columns of transport overhead !
RS overhead is 3 rows * columns
Pointer overhead is row * columns
MS overhead is 5 rows * columns
SPE is rows * 26 columns

270 columns
RSOH
MSOH
S SONET SIide 38
Even higher rates Even higher rates
3 STS-s can form an STS-3
4 STM-s (STS-3s) can form an STM-4 (STS-2)
4 STM-4s (STS-2s) can form an STM-6 (STS-4)
etc. for STM-N (STS-3N)
The procedure is byte-interleaving
9 rows
9*N
columns
270*N columns
S SONET SIide 39
Byte Byte- -interIeaving interIeaving

S SONET SIide 40
ScrambIing ScrambIing
SNET/SDH receivers recover clock based on incoming signal
Ìnsufficient number of - transitions causes degradation of clock performance
Ìn order to guarantee sufficient transitions, SNET/SDH employ a scrambler
All data except first row of section overhead is scrambled
Scrambler is 7 bit self-synchronizing X
7
¹ X
6
¹ 1
Scrambler is initialized with ones
A short scrambler is sufficient for voice data
but NT for data which may contain long stretches of zeros
hen sending data an additional payload scrambler is used
modern standards use 43 bit X
43
¹ 1
run continuously on ATM payload bytes (suspended for 5 bytes of cell tax)
run continuously on HDLC payloads

-43
X
n
Y
n
÷X
n
+ Y
n-43
S SONET SIide 41
STS STS- -1 Overhead 1 Overhead
The STS- overhead consists of
3 rows of section overhead
÷ frame sync (A, A2)
÷ section trace (J)
÷ error control (B)
÷ section orderwire (E)
÷ Embedded Operations Channel (Di)
6 rows of line overhead
÷ pointer and pointer action (Hi)
÷ error control (B2)
÷ Automatic Protection Switching signaling (Ki)
÷ Data Channel (Di)
÷ Synchronization Status Message (S)
÷ Far End Block Error (M)
÷ line orderwire (E2)
A A2 J
B E F
D D2 D3
H H2 H3
B2 K K2
D4 D5 D6
D7 D D
D D D2
S M E2
section
overhead
line
overhead
S SONET SIide 42
STM STM- -1 Overhead 1 Overhead
A A A A2 A2 A2 J res res
B m m E m F res res
D m m D2 m D3
B2 B2 B2 K K2
D4 D5 D6
D7 D D
D D D2
S M E2
RSOH
MSOH
SOH
m
media
dependent
(deIined Ior
SONET radio)
res
reserved Ior
national use
AU pointers
S SONET SIide 43
A1, A2, 0 A1, A2, 0 section overhead section overhead
A, A2 - framing bytes
A =
A2 =
SNET/SDH framing always uses equal numbers of A and A2 bytes
J - regenerator section trace (in early SNET - a counter called C)
enables receiver to be sure that the section connection is still K
enables identifying individual STS/STMs after muxing
J goes through a 6 byte sequence
MSBs are J framing (.)
Cs are CRC-7 of previous frame
S are 5 7-bit characters
section access point identifier
S S S S S S S
S S S S S S S
C

C

C

C

C

C

C

S SONET SIide 44
B1, E1, F1, D1 B1, E1, F1, D1- -3 3 section overhead section overhead
B ÷ Byte Interleaved Parity-8 byte
even parity of bits of bytes of previous frame after scrambling
only BÌT- for multiplexed STS/STM
E ÷ section orderwire
64 kbps voice link for technicians
from regenerator to regenerator
F ÷ 64 kbps link for user purposes
D + D2 + D3 ÷ 2 kbps messaging channel
used by section termination as Embedded Operations Channel (SNET)
or Data Communications Channel (SDH)
S SONET SIide 45
Pointers Pointers Iine overhead Iine overhead
Ìn SNET, pointers are considered part of line overhead
For STS-, H+H2 is the pointer, H3 is the pointer action
H+H2 indicates the offset (in bytes) from H3 to the SPE
(i.e. if then J PH byte is immediately after H3 in the row)
4 MSBs are New Data Flag, LSBs are actual offset value ( ÷ 72)
hen offset=522 the STS- SPE is in a single STS- frame
Ìn all other cases the SPE straddles two frames
hen offset is a multiple of 7, the SPE is rectangular
To compensate for clock differences
we have pointer justification
hen negative justification
H3 carries the extra data
hen positive justification
byte after H3 is stuffing byte
S SONET SIide 46
SONET ustification SONET ustification
Ìf tributary rate is above nominal, negative justification is needed
hen less than more bits than expected in buffer
NDF is
offset unchanged
hen extra bits accumulate
NDF is set to
extra byte placed into H3
offset is decremented by (byte)
Ìf tributary rate is below nominal, positive justification is needed
hen less than fewer than expected bits in buffer
NDF is
offset unchanged
hen missing bits
NDF is set to
byte after H3 is stuffing
offset is incremented by (byte)
H H2 extra

H H2 H3
stuff

S SONET SIide 47
B2, K1, K2, D4 B2, K1, K2, D4- -D12 D12 Iine overhead Iine overhead
B2 ÷ BÌP- of line overhead + previous envelope (w/o scrambling)
N B2s for muxed STM-N
K and K2 are used for Automatic Protection Switching (see later)
D4 ÷ D2 are a 576 Kbps Data Communications Channel
between multiplexers
usually manufacturer specific AM functions
S SONET SIide 48
S1, M0, E2 S1, M0, E2 Iine overhead Iine overhead
S ÷ Synchronization Status Message
indicates stratum level (unknown, stratum , ., do not use)
M ÷ Far End Block Error
indicates number of BÌP violations detected
E2 ÷ line orderwire
64 kbps voice link for technicians
from line mux to line mux
S SONET SIide 49
PayIoads PayIoads
and and
Mappings Mappings
S SONET SIide 50
STS STS- -1 HOP SPE structure 1 HOP SPE structure
e saw that the pointer the line overhead points to the STS path overhead PH
(after re-arranging) PH is one column of rows ( bytes = 576 kbps)
S SONET SIide 51
STS STS- -1 HOP 1 HOP
column of SPE is PH
2 more ("fixed stuffing¨) columns are reserved
e are left with
4 columns = 756 bytes = 4.34 Mbps for payload
This is enough for a E3 (34.36M) or a T3 (44.736M)
1 87 59 30
S SONET SIide 52
STS STS- -1 Path overhead 1 Path overhead
column of overhead for path (576 Kbps)
PH is responsible for
÷ path type identification
÷ path performance monitoring
÷ status (including of mapped payloads)
÷ virtual concatenation
÷ path protection
÷ trace
J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1
POH
S SONET SIide 53
1, B3, C2 1, B3, C2 path overhead path overhead
J ÷ path trace
enables receiver to be sure
that the path connection is still K
B3 ÷ BÌP- even bit parity of bytes
(without scrambling)
of previous payload
C2 ÷ path signal label
identifies the payload type
(examples in table)
C2
(hex)
Payload type
unequipped
nonspecific
2 LP (TUG)
4 E3/T3
2 E4
3 ATM
6 PoS ÷ RFC 662
LAPS X.5
A G Ethernet
B GFP
CF PoS - RFC6
S SONET SIide 54
G1, F2, H4, F3, K3, N1 G1, F2, H4, F3, K3, N1 path overhead path overhead
G ÷ path status
conveys status and performance back to originator
4 MSBs are path FEBE, bit RDÌ, 3 unused
F2 and F3 ÷ user specific communications
H4 ÷ used for LP multiframe sync and VCAT (see later)
K3 (4 MSBs) ÷ path APS
N ÷ Tandem Connection Monitoring
Messaging channel for tandem connections
S SONET SIide 55
LOP LOP
To carry lower rate payloads, divide the 4 available columns
into 7
*
2 interleaved columns, i.e. 7 Virtual Tributary (VT) Groups
VT group is 2 columns of rows, i.e. bytes or 6.2 Mbps
VT group is composed of VT(s)
there are different types of VT in order to carry different types of payload
all VTs in VT group must be of the same type (no mixing)
but different VT groups in same SPE can have different VT types
A VT can have 3, 4, 6 or 2 columns
1 87 59 30
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7 VTGs
S SONET SIide 56
SONET/SDH : VT/VC types SONET/SDH : VT/VC types
VT/STS VC coIumn
rate
payIoad
VT .5 VC- 3 .72 DS (.544)
VT 2 VC-2 4 2.34 E (2.4)
VT 3 6 3.456 DSC (3.52)
VT 6 VC-2 2 6.2 DS2 (6.32)
STS- VC-3 4.34 E3 (34.36)
STS- VC-3 4.34 DS3 (44.736)
STS-3c VC-4 4.76 E4 (3.264)
LOP
HOP
standard PDH rates map efficientIy into SONET/SDH !
4 per group
3 per group
2 per group
1 per group
S APS SIide 57
LO Path overhead LO Path overhead
LP H is responsible for timing, PM, REÌ, .
L Path APS signaling is 4 MSBs of byte K4
V5
J2
N2
K4
V1 pointer
V2 pointer
V3 pointer
V4 pointer
VC ÷ 25B
VC2 ÷ 34B
25 3sec
5 3sec
H4=XXXXXX
H4=XXXXXX
H4=XXXXXX
H4=XXXXXX
VC ÷ 27B
VC2 ÷ 36B
S SONET SIide 58
PayIoad capacity PayIoad capacity
VT.5/VC- has 3 columns = 27 bytes = .72 Mbps
but 2 bytes are used for overhead (V/V2/V3/V4 and V5/J2/N2/K4)
so actually only 25 bytes = .6 Mbps are available
Similarly
VT2/VC-2 has 4 columns = 36 bytes = 2.34 Mbps
but 2 bytes are used for overhead
So actually only 34 bytes = 2.76 Mbps are available
S SONET SIide 59
LOP overhead LOP overhead
V5 consists of
BÌP (2b)
REÌ (b)
RFÌ (b)
Signal label (3b) (uneq, async, bit-sync, byte-sync, test, AÌS)
RDÌ (b)
J2 is path trace
N2 is the network operator byte
÷ may be used for LP tandem connection monitoring (L-TCM)
K4 is for L VCAT and L APS
S SONET SIide 60
SDH Containers SDH Containers
Tributary payloads are not placed directly into SDH
Payloads are placed (adapted) into containers
The containers are made into virtual containers (by adding PH)
Next, the pointer is used ÷ the pointer + VC is a TU or AU
Tributary Unit adapts a lower order VC to high order VC
Administrative Unit adapts higher order VC to SDH
TUs and AUs are grouped together until they are big enough
e finally get an Administrative Unit Group
To the AUG we add SH to make the STM frame
S SONET SIide 61
FormaIIy . FormaIIy .
C-n n = , 2, 2, 3, 4
VC-n = PH + C-n
TU-n = pointer + VC-n (n=, 2, 2, 3)
AU-n = pointer + VC-n (n=3,4)
TUG = N * TU-n
AUG = N * AU-n
STM-N = SH + AUG
S SONET SIide 62
MuItipIexing MuItipIexing
An AUG may contain a VC-4 with an E4
or it may contain 3 AU-3s each with a VC-3s with an E3
Ìn the latter case, the AU pointer points to the AUG
and inside the AUG are 3 pointers to the AU-3s
J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1
H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3
S SONET SIide 63
More muItipIexing More muItipIexing
Similarly, we can hierarchically build complex structures
Lower rate STMs can be combined into higher rate STMs
AUGs can be combined into STMs
AUs can be combined into AUGs
TUGs can be combined into high order VCs
Lower rate TUs can be combined into TUGs
etc.
But only certain combinations are allowed by standards
S SONET SIide 64
AII SDH mappings AII SDH mappings
STM-N
AU-3 VC-3 C3
VC-3 TU-3 TUG-3
C-4 VC-4 AU-4 AUG
.
AUG
AUG
C2
C12
C11
TUG-2 VC-2 TU-2
VC-12 TU-12
VC-11 TU-11
STM-0
ATM 2.144 M
E4 139.264 M
ATM 1.6 M
ATM 149.760M
ATM 48.384 M
ATM 6.874M
E3 34.368 M
T3 44.736 M
T2 6.312 M
E1 2.048 M
T1 1.544 M
*
3
*
7
*
3
*
7
*
4
*
3
S SONET SIide 65
AII SONET mappings AII SONET mappings
STS-N
STS-3 SPE
STS-3c
STS-1
VT6 SPE
VT2 SPE
VT1.5 SPE
VT6
VT-2
VT1.5
ATM 2.144 M
E4 139.264 M
ATM 1.6 M
ATM 149.760M
ATM 48.384 M
ATM 6.874M
E3 34.368 M
T3 44.736 M
T2 6.312 M
E1 2.048 M
T1 1.544 M
*N
STS-1 SPE
VTG
*
7
pointer processing
*
3
*
4
S SONET SIide 66
Tributary mapping types Tributary mapping types
hen mapping tributaries into VCs, PDH-like bit-stuffing is used
For E and T there are several options
Asynchronous mapping (framing-agnostic)
Bit synchronous mapping
Byte synchronous mapping (time-slot aligned)
E4 into VC-4, E3/T3 into VC-3 are always asynchronous
T into VC- may be any of the 3
(in byte synchronous the framing bit is placed in the VC overhead)
E into VC-2 may be asynchronous or byte synchronous
S SONET SIide 67
WAN WAN- -PH PH 10 10 GbE in STM GbE in STM- -64 64
There is a special case where the bit-rates work out relatively well
GbE GBASE-R (64B/66B coding) can be directly mapped
into a STM-64 (with contiguous concatenation - see later) without need for GFP
MAC creates "stretched ÌnterPacket Gap" to compensate for rate being < G
This is the fastest connection commonly used for Ìnternet traffic
Complication SDH clock accuracy is I4.6 ppm, GbE accuracy is I2 ppm
64*(270-9) ÷ 16704 columns
J1
63 columns oI Iixed stuII
10GBASE-W 802.3-2005 Clause 50
S SONET SIide 68
Protection Protection
and and
#ings #ings
S SONET SIide 69
What is protection ? What is protection ?
SNET/SDH need to be highly reliable (five nines)
Down-time should be minimal (less than 5 msec)
So systems must repair themselves (no time for manual intervention)
Upon detection of a failure (dLS, dLF, high BER)
the network must reroute traffic (protection switching)
from working channeI to protection channeI
The Network Element that detects the failure (tail-end NE)
initiates the protection switching
The head-end NE must change forwarding or to send duplicate traffic
Protection switching is unidirectional
Protection switching may be revertive (automatically revert to working channel)
head-end NE tail-end NE
working channel
protection channel
S SONET SIide 70
How does it work? How does it work?
Head-end and tail-end NEs have bridges (muxes)
Head-end and tail-end NEs maintain bidirectional signaling channel
Signaling is contained in K and K2 bytes of protection channel
K ÷ tail-end status and requests
K2 ÷ head-end status
head-end bridge tail-end bridge
working channel
protection channel signaling channel
S SONET SIide 71
Linear Linear 1 1++1 1 protection protection
Simplest form of protection
Can be at C-n level (different physical fibers)
or at STM/VC level (called SubNetwork Connection Protection)
or end-to-end path (called trail protection)
Head-end bridge always sends data on both channels
Tail-end chooses channel to use based on BER, dLS, etc.
No need for signaling
Ìf non-revertive
there is no distinction between working and protection channels
B utilization is 5%
channel A
channel B
S SONET SIide 72
Linear Linear 1 1: :1 1 protection protection
Head-end bridge usually sends data on working channel
hen tail-end detects failure it signals (using K) to head-end
Head-end then starts sending data over protection channel
hen not in use
protection channel can be used for (discounted) extra traffic
(pre-emptible unprotected traffic)
May be at any layer (only C-n level protects against fiber cuts)
working channel
protection channel
extra traIIic
S SONET SIide 73
Linear Linear 1 1:N protection :N protection
Ìn order to save B
we allocate protection channel for every N working channels
N limited to 4
4 bits in K byte from tail-end to head-end
÷ protection channel
÷ -4 working channels
÷ 5 extra traffic channel
working channels
protection channel
S SONET SIide 74
Two fiber vs. Four Two fiber vs. Four- -fiber rings fiber rings
Ring based protection is popular in North America (K+ rings)
Full protection against physical fiber cuts
Simpler and less expensive than mesh topologies
Protection at line (multiplexed section) or path layer
Four-fiber rings
fully redundant at C level
can support bidirectional routing at line layer
Two-fiber rings
support unidirectional routing at line layer
2 Iibers in opposite directions
S SONET SIide 75
UnidirectionaI vs. bidirectionaI UnidirectionaI vs. bidirectionaI
Unidirectional routing
working channel B-A same direction (e.g. clockwise) as A-B
management simplicity A-B and B-A can occupy same timeslots
Ìnefficient waste in ring B and excessive delay in one direction
Bidirectional routing
A-B and B- are opposite in direction
both using shortest route
spatial reuse timeslots can be reused in other sections
A
B
A-B
B-A
A
B
B-A
A-B
C
B-C
C-B
S SONET SIide 76
UPS# vs. BLS# UPS# vs. BLS# MS MS- -SP#ing SP#ing
f all the possible combinations, only a few are in use
Unidirectional Path Switched #ings
protects tributaries
extension of + to ring topology
Bidirectional Line Switched #ings (two-fiber and four-fiber versions)
called Multiplex Section Shared Protection #ing in SDH
simultaneously protects all tributaries in STM
extension of to ring topology
Path switching
Line switching
Two-Iiber
Four-Iiber
Unidirectional
Bidirectional
UPSR
BLSR
S SONET SIide 77
UPS# UPS#
orking channel is in one direction
protection channel in the opposite direction
All traffic is added in both directions
decision as to which to use at drop point (no signaling)
Normally non-revertive, so effective two diversity paths
Good match for access networks
access resilient ring
less expensive than fiber pair per customer
Ìnefficient for core networks
no spatial reuse
every signal in every span
in both directions
node needs to continuously monitor
every tributary to be dropped
S SONET SIide 78
BLS# BLS#
Switch at line level ÷ less monitoring
hen failure detected tail-end NE signals head-end NE
orks for unidirectional/bidirectional fiber cuts, and NE failures
Two-fiber version
half of C-N capacity devoted to protection
only half capacity available for traffic
Four-fiber version
full redundant C-N devoted to protection
twice as many NEs as compared to two-fiber
Example
recovery from unidirectional fiber cut
S SONET SIide 79
VCAT VCAT
and and
LCAS LCAS
S SONET SIide 80
Concatenation Concatenation
Payloads that don't fit into standard VT/VC sizes can be accommodated
by concatenating of several VTs / VCs
For example, Mbps doesn't fit into any VT or VC
so w/o concatenation we need to put it into an STS- (4.34 Mbps)
the remaining 3.34 Mbps can not be used
e would like to be able to divide the Mbps among
7 VT.5/VC- s = 7
*
.6 = .2 Mbps or
5 VT2/VC-2 s = 5
*
2.76 = . Mbps
S SONET SIide 81
Concatenation Concatenation cont. cont.
There are 2 ways to concatenate X VTs or VCs
Contiguous Concatenation (.707 11.1)
÷ HP ÷ STS-Nc (SNET) or VC-4-Nc (SDH)
or LP ÷ -7 VC-2-Nc into a VC-3
÷ since has to fit into SNET/SDH payload
only STS-Nc N=3
*
4
n
or VC-4-Nc N=4
n
÷ components transported together and in-phase
÷ requires support at intermediate network elements
Virtual Concatenation (VCAT .707 11.2)
÷ HP ÷ STS--Xv or STS-Nc-Xv (SNET) or VC-3/4-Xv (SDH)
or LP ÷ VT-.5/2/3/6-Xv (SNET) or VC-/2/2-Xv (SDH)
÷ HP X > 256 LP X > 64 (limitation due to bits in header)
÷ payload split over multiple STSs / STMs
÷ fragments may follow different routes
÷ requires support only at path terminations
÷ requires buffering and differential delay alignment
S SONET SIide 82
Contiguous Concatenation: STS Contiguous Concatenation: STS- -3 3c c
270 columns
9

r
o
w
s

9 columns oI
section and
line overhead
3 columns oI
path overhead
258 columns oI SPE
STS-3
270 columns
9

r
o
w
s

9 columns oI
section and
line overhead
column oI
path overhead
260 columns oI SPE
STS-3c
258 columns
*
0.576 ÷ 148.608 Mbps
260 columns
*
0.576 ÷ 149.760 Mbps
S SONET SIide 83
STS STS- -N vs. STS N vs. STS- -Nc Nc
Although both have raw rates of 55.52 Mbps
STS-3c has 2 more columns (.52Mbps) available
More generally, For STS-Nc gains (N-) columns
e.g. STS-2c gains columns = 6.336Mbps vis a vis STS-2
STS-4c gains 47 columns = 27.72 Mbps
STS-2c gains columns = .6 Mbps !
However, an STS-Nc signal is not as easily separable
when we want to add/drop component signals
S SONET SIide 84
VirtuaI Concatenation VirtuaI Concatenation
VCAT is an inverse multiplexing mechanism (round-robin)
VCAT members may travel along different routes in SNET/SDH network
Ìntermediate network elements don't need to know about VCAT
(unlike contiguous concatenation that is handled by all intermediate nodes)

H4
S SONET SIide 85
SDH virtuaIIy concatenated VCs SDH virtuaIIy concatenated VCs
So we have many permissible rates
.6, 2.76, 3.2, 4.352, 4., 6.4, 6.52, 6.74, ., .
VC Capacity Mbps if aII members in one VC
VC--Xv .6, 3.2, . .6X in VC-3 X > 2 C > 44.
in VC-4 X > 64 C > 2.4
VC-2-Xv 2.76, 4.352, . 2.76X in VC-3 X > 2 C > 45.66
in VC-4 X > 63 C > 37.
VC-2-Xv 6.74, 3.56, ., 6.74X in VC-3 X > 7 C > 47.44
in VC-4 X > 2 C > 42.464
S SONET SIide 86
SONET virtuaIIy concatenated VTs SONET virtuaIIy concatenated VTs
VT Capacity Mbps If aII members in one STS
VT.5-Xv .6, 3.2, . .6X in STS- X > 2 C > 44.
in STS-3c X > 64 C > 2.4
VT2-Xv 2.76, 4.352, . 2.76X in STS- X > 2 C > 45.66
in STS-3c X > 63 C > 37.
VT3-Xv 3.32, 6.656, . 3.32X in STS- X > 4 C > 46.52
in STS-3c X > 42 C > 3.776
VT6-Xv 6.74, 3.56, . 6.74X in STS- X > 7 C > 47.44
in STS-3c X > 2 C > 42.464
So we have many permissible rates
.6, 2.76, 3.2, 3.32, 4.352, 4., 6.4, 6.52, 6.656, 6.74, .
S SONET SIide 87
Efficiency comparison Efficiency comparison
Using VCAT increases efficiency to close to % !
rate w/o VCAT efficiency with VCAT efficiency
STS- 2% VT2-5v
VC-2-5v
2%
STS-3c
VC-4
67% STS--2v
VC-3-2v
%
STS-4c
VC-4-6c
42% STS-3c-7v
VC-4-7v
5%
S SONET SIide 88
PDH VCAT PDH VCAT
Recently ÌTU-T G.743 expanded VCAT to E,T,E3,T3
Enables bonding of up to 6 PDH signals to support higher rates
nly bonding of like PDH signals allowed (e.g. can't mix Es and Ts)
Multiframe is always per G.74/G.32 (e.g. T ÷ ESF 24 frames, E 6 frames)
byte per multiframe is VCAT overhead (SQ, MFÌ, MST, CRC)
Supports LCAS (to be discussed next)
TS0
1
st
Irame
oI
4 E1s
VCAT
overhead
octet
time
each E1
S SONET SIide 89
PDH VCAT overhead octet PDH VCAT overhead octet
There is one VCAT overhead octet per multiframe, so net rate is
T (24*24-=) 575 data bytes per 3 ms. multiframe = .666 kB/s
E (6*3-=) 45 data bytes per 2 ms multiframe = 247.5 kB/s
T3 and E3 can also be used
e will show the overhead octet format later
(when using LCAS, the overhead octet is called VLÌ)
TS0
Irames
oI an
E1
VCAT
overhead
octet

S SONET SIide 90
DeIay compensation DeIay compensation
2.ad Ethernet link aggregation cheats
÷ each identifiable flow is restricted to one link
÷ doesn't work if single high-B flow
VCAT is completely general
÷ works even with a single flow
VCG members may travel over completely separate paths
so the VCAT mechanism must compensate for differential delay
Requirement for over ½ second compensation
Must compensate to the bit level
but since frames have Frame Alignment Signal
the VCAT mechanism only needs to identify individual frames
S SONET SIide 91
VCAT buffering VCAT buffering
Since VCAT components may take different paths
At egress the members
are no longer in the proper temporal relationship
VCAT path termination function buffers members
and outputs in proper order (relying on PH sequencing)
(up to 52 ms of differential delay can be tolerated)
VCAT defines a multiframe to enable delay compensation
÷ length of multiframe determines delay that can be accommodated
H4 byte in member's PH contains
sequence indicator (identifies component) (number of bits limits X)
MFÌ multiframe indicator (multiframe sequencing to find differential delay)
S SONET SIide 92
MuItiframes and superframes MuItiframes and superframes
Here is how we compensate for 52 ms of differential delay
52 ms corresponds to a superframe is 46 TDM frames (46*.25m=52m)
For HP SDH VCAT and PDH VCAT (H4 byte or PDH VCAT overhead)
The basic multiframe is 6 frames
So we need 256 multiframes in a superframe (256*6=46)
The MultiFrame Ìndicator is divided into two parts
MFÌ (4 bits) appears once per frame
÷ and counts from to 5 to sequence the multiframe
MFÌ2 (bits) appears once per multiframe
÷ and counts from to 255
For LP SDH (bit 2 of K4 byte)
÷ a 32 bit frame is built and a 5-bit MFÌ is dedicated
÷ 32 multiframes of 6 ms give the needed 52 ms
S SONET SIide 93
LLink ink C Capacity apacity A Adjustment djustment SScheme cheme
LCAS is defined in G.742 (also numbered Y.35)
LCAS extends VCAT by allowing dynamic B changes
LCAS is a protocol for dynamic adding/removing of VCAT members
÷ hitless B modification
÷ similar to Link Aggregation Control Protocol for Ethernet links
LCAS is not a "control plane¨ or "management¨ protocol
÷ it doesn't allocate the members
÷ still need control protocols to perform actual allocation
LCAS is a "handshake¨ protocol
÷ it enables the path ends to negotiate the additional / deletion
÷ it guarantees that there will be no loss of data during change
÷ it can determine that a proposed member is ill suited
÷ it allows automatic removal of faulty member
S SONET SIide 94
LCAS LCAS - - how does it work? how does it work?
LCAS is unidirectional (for symmetric B need to perform twice)
LCAS functions can be initiated by source or sink
LCAS assumes that all VCG members are error-free
÷ LCAS messages are CRC protected
LCAS messages are sent in advance
÷ sink processes messages after differential compensation
÷ message describes link state at time of next message
÷ receiver can switch to new configuration in time
LCAS messages are in the upper nibble of
÷ H4 byte for HS SNET/SDH
÷ K4 byte for LS SNET/SDH
÷ VCAT overhead octet for PDH ÷ VCAT and LCAS Ìnformation
LCAS messages employ redundancy
÷ messages from source to sink are member specific
÷ messages from sink to source are replicated
J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1
POH
S SONET SIide 95
LCAS controI messages LCAS controI messages
LCAS adds fields to the basic VCAT ones
Fields in messages from source to sink
÷ MFÌ MultiFrame Ìndicator
÷ SQ SeQuence indicator (member ÌD inside VCAT group)
÷ CTRL ConTRoL (ÌDLE, being ADDed, NRMal, End of Sequence, Do Not Use)
÷ GÌD Group Ìdentification (identifies VCAT group)
Fields in messages from sink to source (identical in all members)
÷ MST Member Status ( bit for each VCG member)
÷ RS-Ack ReSequence Acknowledgement
Fields in both directions
÷ CRC Cyclic Redundancy Code
The precise format depends on the VCAT type (H4, K4, PDH)
Note for H4 format SQ is bits, so up to 256 VCG members
for PDH SQ is only 4 bits, so up to 6 VCG members
S SONET SIide 96
H H4 4 format format
MFÌ2 bits -4
MFÌ2 bits 5-
CTRL
GÌD


CRC- bits -4
CRC- bits 5-
MST bits
more MST bits
RS-ACK



SQ bits -4
SQ bits 5-
1
6

I
r
a
m
e


m
u
l
t
i
I
r
a
m
e
MFI1
r
e
s
e
r
v
e
d

I
i
e
l
d
s
r
e
s
e
r
v
e
d

I
i
e
l
d
s
S SONET SIide 97
H H4 4 format format - - some comments some comments
CRC- (when using K4 it is CRC-3)
÷ covers the previous 4 frames (not sync'ed on multiframe)
÷ polynomial x

+ x

+ x +
MST
÷ each VCG member carries the status of all members
÷ so we need 256 bits of member status
÷ this is done by muxing MST bits
÷ there are MST bits per multiframe
÷ and 32 multiframes in an MST multiframe
÷ no special sequencing, just MFÌ2 multiframe mod 32
GÌD
÷ single bit indentifier
÷ all members of VCG share the same bit
÷ cycles through 2

- LFSR sequence
÷ different VCGs use different phase offsets of sequence
S SONET SIide 98
LCAS LCAS - - adding a member 1 adding a member 1
hen more/less B is needed, we need to add/remove VCAT members
Adding/removing VCAT members first requires provisioning (management)
LCAS handles member sequence numbers assignment
LCAS ensures service is not disrupted
Example to add a 4
th
member to group "¨
Ìnitial state
Step NMS provisions new member
source sends CTRL=ÌDLE for new member
sink sends MST=FAÌL for new member
GID=g SQ=1 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=2 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=3 CTRL=EJS
GID=g SQ=1 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=2 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=3 CTRL=EJS
GID=g SQ=FF CTRL=IDLE
S SONET SIide 99
LCAS LCAS - - adding a member adding a member 2 2
Step 2 source sends CTRL=ADD and SQ
sink sends MST=K for new member
if it has been provisioned
if receiving new member K
if it is able to compensate for delay
otherwise it will send MST=FAÌL
and source reports this to NMS
Step 3 source sends CTRL=ES for new member
new member starts to carry traffic
sink sends RS-ACK
Note several new members may be added at once
Note 2 removing a member is similar
Source puts CTRL=ÌDLE for member to be removed and stops using it
All member sequence numbers must be adjusted
GID=g SQ=1 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=2 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=3 CTRL=EJS
GID=g SQ=4 CTRL=ADD
GID=g SQ=1 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=2 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=3 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=4 CTRL=EJS
S SONET SIide
100
LCAS LCAS - - service preservation service preservation
To preserve service integrity if sink detects a failure of a VCAT member
LCAS can temporarily remove member (if service can tolerate B reduction)
Example Ìnitial state
Step sink sends MST=FAÌL for member 2
source sends CTRL=DNU (special treatment if EoS)
and ceases to use member 2
Note if EoS fails, renumber to ensure EoS is active
Step 2 sink sends MST=K indicating defect is cleared
source returns CTRL to NRM
and starts using the member again
Note if NMS decides to permanently remove the member, proceed as in previous slide
GID=g SQ=1 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=2 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=3 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=4 CTRL=EJS
GID=g SQ=1 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=2 CTRL=DNU
GID=g SQ=3 CTRL=NJRM
GID=g SQ=4 CTRL=EJS
S SONET SIide
101
HandIing HandIing
Packet Packet
Data Data
S SONET SIide
102
Packet over SONET Packet over SONET
Currently defined in RFC265 (PPP over SNET) obsoletes RFC6
SNET/SDH can provide a point-to-point byte-oriented
full-duplex synchronous link
PPP is ideal for data transport over such a link
PoS uses PPP in HDLC framing to provide a byte-oriented interface
to the SNET/SDH infrastructure
PH signal label (C2)
indicates PoS as C2=6 (C2=CF if no scrambler)
S SONET SIide
103
PoS architecture PoS architecture
PoS is based on PPP in HDLC framing
Since SNET/SDH is byte oriented, byte stuffing is employed
A special scrambler is used to protect SNET/SDH timing
PoS operates on ÌP packets
Ìf ÌP is delivered over Ethernet
÷ the Ethernet is terminated (frame removed)
÷ Ethernet must be reconstituted at the far end
÷ require routers at edges of SNET/SDH network
IP
PPP
HDLC
SONET/SDH
S SONET SIide
104
PoS DetaiIs PoS DetaiIs
ÌP packet is encapsulated in PPP
÷ default MTU is 5 bytes
÷ up to 64, bytes allowed if negotiated by PPP
FCS is generated and appended
PPP in HDLC framing with byte stuffing
43 bit scrambler is run over the SPE
byte stream is placed octet-aligned in SPE
÷ (e.g. 4.76 Mbps of STM-)
÷ HDLC frames may cross SPE boundaries
S SONET SIide
105
POS probIems POS probIems
PoS is B efficient
but PS has its disadvantages
B must be predetermined
HDLC B expansion and nondeterminacy
B allocation is tightly constrained by SNET/SDH capacities
÷ e.g. GBE requires a full C-4 pipe
PS requires removing the Ethernet headers
÷ so lose RPR, VLAN, 2.p, multicasting, etc
PS requires ÌP routers
S SONET SIide
106
LAPS LAPS
Ìn 2 ÌTU-T introduced protocols for transporting packets over SDH
X.5 ÌP over SDH using LAPS
X.6 Ethernet over LAPS
Built on series of ÌTU "LAPx¨ HDLC-based protocols
Use ÌS HDLC format
Ìmplement connectionless byte-oriented protocols over SDH
X.5 is very close to (but not quite) ÌETF PoS
S SONET SIide
107
GFP architecture GFP architecture
A new approach, not based on HDLC
Defined in ÌTU-T G.74 (also numbered Y.33)
originally developed in TX to fix ATM limitations
(like ATM) uses HEC protected frames instead of HDLC
Client may be PDU-oriented (Ethernet MAC, ÌP)
or block-oriented (GBE, fiber channel)
GFP frames
÷ are octet aligned
÷ contain at most 65,535 bytes
÷ consist of a header + payload area
Any idle time between GFP frames is filled with GFP idle frames
Ethernet IP other
GFP client speciIic part
GFP common part
SDH OTN other
HDLC
S SONET SIide
108
GFP frame structure GFP frame structure
Every GFP frame has a 4-byte core header
÷ 2 byte Payload Length Ìndicator
PLÌ = ,2,3 are for control frames
÷ 2 byte core Header Error Control
X
16
¹ X
12
¹ X
5
¹ 1
entire core header is XOR`ed with B6AB31E0
Ìdle GFP frames
÷ have PLÌ=
÷ have no payload area
Non-idle GFP frames
÷ have < 4 bytes in payload area
÷ the payload has its own header
÷ 2 payload modes GFP-F and GFP-T
÷ optionally protect payload with CRC-32
PLI (2B)
cHEC (2B)
payload header
(4-64B)
payload
optional payload
FCS (4B)
core
header
payload
area
S SONET SIide
109
GFP payIoad header GFP payIoad header
GFP payload header has
÷ type (2B)
÷ type HEC (CRC-6)
÷ extension header (-6B)
either null or linear extension (payload type muxing)
÷ extension HEC (CRC-6)
type consists of
÷ Payload Type Ìdentifier (3b)
PTÌ= for client data
PTÌ= for client management (AM dLS, dLF)
÷ Payload FCS Ìndicator (b)
PFÌ= means there is a payload FCS
÷ Extension Header ÌD (3b)
÷ User Payload Ìdentifier (b)
values for Ethernet, ÌP, PPP, FC, RPR, MPLS, etc.
type (2B)
tHEC (2B)
extension header
(0-60B)
eHEC (2B)
UPI (8b)
PTI (3b) EXI (3b) PFI
S SONET SIide
110
GFP modes GFP modes
GFP-F - frame mapped GFP
Good for PDU-based protocols (Ethernet, ÌP, MPLS)
or HDLC-based ones (PPP)
Client PDU is placed in GFP payload field
GFP-T ÷ transparent GFP
Good for protocols that exploit physical layer capabilities
Ìn particular
B/B line code
used in fiber channel, GbE, FÌCN, ESCN, DVB, etc
ere we to use GFP-F would lose control info, GFP-T is transparent to these codes
Also, GFP-T needn't wait for entire PDU to be received (adding delay!)

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