By : Rumil johri

€ This

chapter focuses on the major methods employed in descriptive research design. descriptive research design is divided basically into two major method : 

€ The

Survey method 

Observational method

€ It is research technique in which information is gathered from people through the use of surveys or questioning respondents. This technique includes variety of questions asked by respondents regarding : Behaviors  Intentions  Attitudes  Awareness  Motivation  Demographic  Lifestyle characteristics € .


CLASSIFICATION OF Survey Method Personal Interviewing Telephone Interviewing Mail Interviewing Electronic Interviewing Traditional In Home Mall Intercept Mail Mail Panel ComputerAssisted Computerassisted E-Mail Internet .

The coding analysis and interpretation of data are relatively simple.  The obtained are reliable because the responses are limited to the alternative stated.  Disadvantage : The respondents may be unable to unwilling to provide the desired information .Advantage : The questionnaire is simple to administer. .  Structured questions and fixed ±responses alternatives may result in loss of validity for certain types of data such as beliefs and feeling.

€ Telephone method involves phoning a sample of respondents and asking them a series of questions .how they first became acquainted with their girlfriends respondents were asked to rate how likely or unlikely they were to share secrets . For that a national telephone survey was conducted asking women aged 18 ² 39 yrs. . For example : Hallmark did a research on women qualitative research revealed the importance of girlfriends in the life of women. surprises with their girlfriends.

respondents are interviewed face to face in their homes. The interviewer needs objectivity. knowledge of the subject and industry. In personal method in home interviews . and some understanding of group and consumer behavior. Personal interviewing consists of inviting several people to talk with a trained interviewer about a company's products or services.  .

.In this type of method the questionnaires are mailed to preselected potential respondents. A typical mail interview package consists of : The outgoing envelop  Cover letter  Questionnaire  Return envelop  Intencentives.

the language of the web .   Internet or web surveys use hyper text markup language [ HTML]. a list of e-mail addresses is obtained . and are posted on a web site.€ This method used in surveys that are conducted by e-mails or administered on the internet or the web. . To conduct an e-mail survey .This survey is written within the body of the e-mail message.

 Observational method may be of : Structured  Unstructured  Direct  indirect .The observation method involves human or mechanical observation of what people actually do or what events take place during a buying or consumption situation.

Structured observations are made when the data that is being collected can be organized into clear categories or groups so that the observer can record the data by simply marking off or checking a category on an observation form .

For example :Observing Children playing with new toys. o In unstructured observation potential for observer bias is high.o In unstructured observation. . the observer monitors all aspects of the phenomenon that seem relevant to the problem at hand.

€ € Can be accomplished by hidden camera . or inconspicuous mechanical devices. the respondents are unaware that they are being observered . since people tend to behave differently when they know that they are being observed. This method of observation enables the respondent behave naturally. Example : shows like Emotional attayachar MTV Bakra . .€ In disguised observation.

For example :They may be aware of the presence of the observer. Some shows like :Big boss Spilltzvilla Etc .€ In this observation method the respondents are aware that they are under observation .

 .  Advantage of natural observation is that the observed phenomenon will more accurately reflect the true phenomenon. for example :One could observe the behavior of respondents eating fast food at Burger king.€ This method involves observing behavior as it takes place in the environment. Disvantage are the cost of waiting for the phenomenon to occur & difficulty measuring the phenomenon in a natural setting.

. such as test kitchen set up in shopping mall.€ Respondents behavior is observed in an artificial environment.

Observation method Personal observation Audit Trace analysis Mechanical observation Content analysis .

the observer does not attempt to control or manipulate the phenomenon being observed. .€ In personal observation a researcher observes actual behavior as it occurs . For example :A researcher might record traffic counts and observe traffic flows in a departmental store.

mechanical devices rather than human observers .€ In mechanical observation .These devices may or may not require the respondents direct participation . record the phenomenon being observed .

 Data are based upon counts . usually of physical objects . .€ In an audit . the researcher collects data by examining physical records or performing inventory analysis € Audit have two distinguishing features : data are collected personally by the researcher.

€ Content analysis is an appropriate method when the phenomena to be observed is communication . is defined as the objective. systematic . € Its .rather than behavior or physical objects .and quantitive description of the manifest content of a communication.

or is collection is based is on physical traces.€ In trace analysis . of past behavior . trace may be left intentionally or unintentionally by the respondents € These .

.€ Its is the study of human behavior in its natural context and involves observation of behavior and setting along with depth interviews .

  . International marketing research plays an important role in the identification and development of a company's strategies for internationalization. take appropriate action. and prepare for global changes. Research also provides a company with foreign market intelligence to help it anticipate events. It enables a business to identify. evaluate and compare potential foreign market opportunities and develop a marketing plan.

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