TRACKING AND POSITIONING OF MOBILES IN TELECOMMUNICATION

BY

AHMED MOHIUDDIN

PREVIEW OF THE TOPICS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. DEFINATIONS REVIEW TO MOBILE TECHNOLOGY NEED FOR TRACKING ARCHITECTURE OF A GEOLOCATION SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR GEOLOCATION GPS BASED CELLPHONE TRACKING GSM BASED CELLPHONE TRACKING HYBRID DIRECTION BASED GEOLOCATION 6. DISTANCE BASED POSITIONING: TIME OF ARRIVAL(TOA) TIME DIFFERENCE OF ARRIVAL (TDOA) LOCATION TRACKING CURVE METHOD 7. APPLICATIONS ENHANCED 911 LOCATION BASED SERVICES AND AREA OF USE CELLULAR FRAUD DETECTION 8. CONCLUSION

cell phone or handphone)is an electronic device used for full duplex two-way radio telecommunications over a cellular network of base stations known as cell sites. emails. BASE STATION: Base stations use radio signals to connect mobile phones to the network. mobile phones will not work.DEFINATIONS: A mobile phone (also called mobile. TV and downloads. web. texts. enabling people to send and receive calls. Base stations are connected to each other by cables or wireless technology such as microwave dishes. Without base stations. pictures. . to create a network. cellular phone.

Typically a BSC has tens or even hundreds of BTSs under its control . classically.The base station controller (BSC) provides. the intelligence behind the BTSs.

. which is the wireless carrier's identifier for a phone in the network. the ESN is automatically transmitted to the base station so the wireless carrier's mobile switching office can check the call's validity. Each time a call is placed.ESN AND MIN: An electronic serial number (ESN) is the unique identification number embedded or inscribed on the microchip in a wireless phone by the manufacturer. Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP): The final destination of an E911 call (where the 911 operator sits) is a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). The ESN cannot easily be altered in the field. MINs and ESNs can be electronically checked to help prevent fraud. The ESN differs from the mobile identification number (MIN).

for emergency as well as for commercial services. and a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) for connecting the BSC to another BTS or a PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). and methods to predict the user movement inside a region. The major challenge to accurate location estimation is in creating techniques that yield acceptable performance when the direct path from the transmitter to the receiver is intermittently blocked. This is the Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) problem. a base station controller (BSC) for controlling the BSs T 1 to T N. Mobile positioning technology has become an important area of research. different billing tariffs depending on where the call is originated.  The mobile telecommunication network includes a several base stations (BSs) T 1 to T N for providing mobile telecommunication service to a mobile subscriber through a mobile telephone M1. Mobile positioning in cellular networks will provide several services such as. and it is known to be a major source of error since it systematically causes mobile to appear farther away from the base station (BS) than it actually is. thereby increasing the positioning error. locating stolen mobiles. emergency calls. .

More than one cells can use same frequency. For both these processes GEOLOCATION of the mobile unit is essential. Cellular Fraud detection. The most immediate motivation for the cellular system to provide MT position is enhanced in accident emergency services. Recent demands from new applications require positioning capabilities of mobile telephones or other devices. Then the mobile unit sends an identification signal to the BS. Location sensitive billing. the BS accepts the request and sends the request to the BSC and MTSO. All the BSs are sending a signal of power 25 to 30w to the mobile unit. 2. Intelligent transport system services. When he fixes a call. it will search for the strongest signal and got connected to that BS. MTSO controls these BSs so that a subscriber can continue his call without interruption while moving between different cells. The geolocation of the mobile user could provide services like Emergency service for subscriber safety. Then the MTSO will searches where the subscriber is and connects the call. When a user moves to another cell the MTSO will change the frequency allotted to it and allots the frequency of the new BS. When a user switches ON his mobile. NEED FOR TRACKING : 1. 3. . Only condition is that no two adjacent cells must have same frequencies. The ability to obtain the geo-location of the Mobile Telephone (MT) in the cellular system allows the network operators to facilitate new services to the mobile users. Efficient and effective network performance and management.Each BS is provided with a frequency of a range between 450 to900 MHz.

The location control center will gather information required to compute the MS s location. This information could be parameters such as received signal strength. TOA of signals.A geolocation service provider provides location information and location aware services to subscribers. These are sometimes called Geolocation base stations (GBSs). BTS ID. . The service provider will then use this information to visually display the MS s location to the subscriber.

if the handset is also equipped with GPS then significantly more precise location information is then sent from the handset to the carrier. signal strengths of the home and neighboring cells. Increases the price and the size of the mobile telephone.  ‡  € € € € .    € ‡ GPS BASED CELL PHONE TRACKING(HANDSET BASED) GSM BASED CELL PHONE TRACKING(NETWORK BASED) HYBRID DIRECTION BASED GEOLOCATION GPS BASED: This technique determines the location of the handset by computing its location by cell identification. ADVANTAGES: IT ACCURATELY DETERMINES THE POSITION. Power consumption is high. which is continuously sent to the carrier. DISADVANTAGES: The key disadvantage of this technique (from mobile operator's point of view) is the necessity of installing software on the handset . In addition. The load on the mobile telephone is increased.

WITH CELL IDENTIFICATION AS THE LEAST ACCURATE AND TRIANGULATION AS THE MOST ACCURATE. AN ENTIRE REGION COVERED BY A SERVICE PROVIDER CONTAINS SEVERAL SUCH CELLS. WITH URBAN ENVIRONMENTS ACHIEVING THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE ACCURACY. ZENTEK ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION PVT LTD (MUMBAI) :ZENTEK IS A VEHICLE TRACKING SOLUTION PROVIDER & MANUFACTURER OF GPS VEHICLE TRACKING & COMPLETE FLEET TRACKING.  GSM BASED: o GSM CELL PHONES' TECHNOLOGY WORKS BASED ON SMALL. o o . AIRSYS SAFETY SOLUTIONS (P) LTD(HYDERABAD): PROVIDES VEHICLE TRACKING SYSTEMS IN HYDERABAD . EQUAL. EACH AREA IS TERMED A "CELL". NETWORK-BASED TECHNIQUES UTILIZE THE SERVICE PROVIDER'S NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE TO IDENTIFY THE LOCATION OF THE HANDSET THE ACCURACY OF NETWORK-BASED TECHNIQUES VARIES. THE ACCURACY OF NETWORK-BASED TECHNIQUES IS CLOSELY DEPENDENT ON THE CONCENTRATION OF BASE STATION CELLS. AND ADJACENT AREAS.

without affecting the handsets. € REAL TIME APPLICATION: SOME INDIAN COMPANIES WHICH PROVIDE 2G BASED SERVICES USING GSM TECHNOLOGY. .€ The advantage of network-based techniques (from mobile operator's point of view) is that they can be implemented non-intrusively. As the installation of hardware and software is within the operator's infrastructure the price of the handset is reduced.

combined with cell tower signals. but works poorly indoors or between tall buildings Skyhook·s Core Engine is a software-only location system that quickly determines device location with 10 to 20 meter accuracy. which is very exact in open areas. Bluetooth sensors or other local Positioning Systems. This method calculates the angle of arrival of signal receiving at the BS. Hybrid positioning systems are systems for finding the location of a mobile device using several different positioning technologies. It measures the direction of signal falling on the base station and measures the angle of incidence with respect to a normal and determines the position of the system. These systems are specifically designed to overcome the limitations of GPS. wireless internet signals. It is presently implemented in USA .   ‡  . Usually GPS (Global Positioning System) is one major component of such systems. The angle of arrival method two or more base station for the determination. DIRECTION BASED GEOLOCATION: ANGLE OF ARRIVAL METHOD in this there will be transmission and reception of signals between the mobile unit and BSs.

It cannot be used for the indoor environments. It is assumed that the mobile telephone is located at the intersection point of three circles having the radius of the distances between the BSs and the mobile telephone. It is replaced by the distance based mobile positioning technologies.  ‡ DISTANCE BASED POSITIONING: TIME OF ARRIVAL (TOA): The TOA method calculates the distance of a mobile telephone and a BS based on the TOA of a signal transmitted from the mobile telephone at the BS. The direction based mobile positioning is not used commonly now a day. . that is in a straight line.The determination of the system will be in error if the angle of incidence is changed due to any obstacle like atmospheric particles or due to scattering etc. The accurate location cannot be determined if the mobile user is in between the BSs.

The mobile telephone M1 is located in the overlap area. C2.‡Three circles C1. . and C3 are overlapped over an area without meeting at one point. are overlapped across an area. AND THE MOBILE TELEPHONE IS LOCATED AT THE INTERSECTION POINT OF AT LEAST THREE HYPERBOLAS. and C3. ‡When at least three circles C1. T2. L2. ‡The above method using the common chord is not very accurate in locating the mobile telephone except in the case where the mobile telephone is at an approximate equal distance from the selected BSs and in a similar propagation environment to each respective BS. C2. whose radii are the distance between the mobile telephone M1 and at least three BSs T1. and L3. the mobile telephone M1 is considered to exist at the intersection point of three common chords L1. and T3.  TIME DIFFERENCE OF ARRIVAL (TDOA) ‡ THE TDOA METHOD ASSUMES THAT THE TDOAS OF A SIGNAL TRANSMITTED FROM THE MOBILE TELEPHONE AT THE THREE BSS DEFINE A SET OF POINTS ON A HYPERBOLA.

‡ TWO CIRCLES C11 AND C21 ARE DRAWN BASED ON THE TOAS OF A SIGNAL TRANSMITTED FROM THE FIRST MOBILE TELEPHONE M1 AT THE FIRST AND THE SECOND BSS T1 AND T2. A FIRST COMMON CHORD L1 IS DEFINED BY THE INTERSECTION BETWEEN THE CIRCLES C11 AND C21. LOCATION TRACKING CURVE METHOD: As the above method dosent find the actual position when phone is in NLOS . BUT IF THE PATH BETWEEN THE FIRST MOBILE TELEPHONE M1 AND THE SECOND BS T2 IS IN AN NLOS CONDITION AND THE PATH BETWEEN THE FIRST MOBILE TELEPHONE M1 AND THE FIRST BS T1 IS IN A LINE-OF-SIGHT (LOS) CONDITION. . THE COMMON CHORD L1 IS POSITIONED FAR LEFT FROM THE ACTUAL LOCATION OF THE MOBILE TELEPHONE M1.This method is used.

THE TWO CIRCLES C1 AND C2 DEFINE A COMMON CHORD L1. WHEN A LOCATION SERVICE IS REQUESTED ABOUT A SPECIFIC MOBILE TELEPHONE BY A USER OR A NETWORK. THE LOCATION DATA PROCESSOR DRAWS TWO CIRCLES C1 AND C2 WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE CENTERS SET AT BSS T1 AND T2 BASED ON THE TOAS OF A SIGNAL TRANSMITTED FROM THE CORRESPONDING MOBILE TELEPHONE M1 OR M2 TO THE TWO BSS T1 AND T2 LOCATED NEAR THE MOBILE TELEPHONE M1 OR M2. .

‡ ‡ LOCATION TRACKING CURVES TR1 AND TR2 CONNECTING THE SAME TWO INTERSECTION POINTS P1 AND P2 OF THE TWO CIRCLES C1 AND C2. INSTEAD OF THE COMMON CHORD L1. IT PREVENTS THE LOCATION ERROR CAUSED BY THE MULTI-PATH FADING OR THE NLOS PATH CHARACTERISTICS. . THE TWO CURVES TR1 AND TR2 HAVE THEIR MIDDLE POINTS INTERSECTING THE LINE ST. THE LOCATION DATA PROCESSOR USES THE CURVE TR1 FOR THE MOBILE TELEPHONE M1 AND THE CURVE TR2 FOR THE MOBILE TELEPHONE M2. INSTEAD OF THE COMMON CHORD L1. WHICH CONNECTS THE POSITIONS OF THE TWO BSS T1 AND T2 AND THE PARTS OF TWO CIRCLES C1 AND C2 DRAWN TO CONNECT THE TWO INTERSECTION POINTS P1 AND P2.

which allows a PSAP to determine the general location from where the call originated. Location based services. Cellular Fraud detection. 2. call 911 when there's an emergency. Intelligent transport system services. but cannot yet pinpoint the location. ENHANCED 911: 1.Emergency service for subscriber safety. many areas also have Enhanced 911 (E-911). 3. also called a 911 call center.  In America. When 911is dialed . the ­call is automatically forwarded to a public-safety answering point (PSAP). 4. . Today.

. the switch that routes 911 calls to the appropriate PSAP based on the ANI-defined geographic location. or Automatic Number Identification (ANI). This is often useful in times of fires. Once the caller's voice and ANI are transferred to the PSAP. and other events where communicating one's location is difficult or impossible. and the address and location of the receiving-antenna site will be sent to the E-911 Tandem.The final phase requires carriers to place GPS receivers in phones in order to deliver more specific latitude and longitude location information. which stores address data and other information. kidnapping. Location information must be accurate within 164 to 984 feet (50-300 meters). The caller's address and information is displayed to the calltaker immediately upon call arrival. break-ins. a cell-phone user's phone number. the PSAP operator will be able to view a graphic display that shows the longitude and latitude of the person as accessed through GPS satellites. This provides emergency responders with the location of the emergency without the person calling for help having to provide it. The operator's computer will link to the ALI database.

such as an ATM or restaurant Turn by turn navigation to any address Locating people on a map displayed on the mobile phone Receiving alerts. accessible with mobile devices through the mobile network and utilizing the ability to make use of the geographical position of the mobile device Some examples of location-based services are: Requesting the nearest business or service. such as notification of a sale on gas or warning of a traffic jam Location-based mobile advertising REAL TIME APPLICATIONS: GOOGLE LATITUDE ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡   . A location-based service (LBS) is an information and entertainment service.

Hutch provides police. chemist. and phone numbers within 10 km radius. electronics. restaurant. entertainment (discos. two operators Bharti and Hutch(presently Vodafone)have introduced locationbased services of different kinds. interior etc.In India. Bharti offers services like shopping (clothes. ATMs.) with discounts. . petrol pump. car servicing centres. The user has to press clothes in the shopping menu while person is around a certain area and he gets an SMS with details of shop names.). travel agents. banks. hospitals and doctors) and hotels (5/3 star. car dealers). utilities(taxis. hospital and taxi service on Hutch4help. gifts. addresses. Hutch s location-based service launched in Delhi and NCR is called 'Hutch4help'. budget). medical (chemists. pubs etc. Hutch service is a dial-in location based service. Bharti group calls its location based services as 'Around-me' which is operational in Mumbai and Delhi. Airtel service is data (SMS) based. Hutch has offered this service to all its subscribers including the prepaid and the post-paid card holders owning any brand of handset and SIM card memory of any level.

€ Cellular industry estimates indicate that carriers lose more than $650 million per year to cellular fraud. duration or destinations of calls. Sometimes the cellular carrier may suspect fraud because of a sudden change in the frequency. This authentication methodology would replace use of the ESN with an encrypted code that could not be obtained by off-the-air monitoring. A cloned cellular telephone can then be used to make calls that will be billed to the subscriber of the legitimate cellular telephone. which is not consistent with the legitimate subscriber's usual calling pattern. some cellular carriers are achieving some success in reducing fraud by requiring subscribers to use their personal identification numbers (PIN) before allowing access to the cellular system. A cloned cellular telephone is one that has been reprogrammed to transmit the electronic serial number (ESN) and telephone number (MIN) belonging to another (legitimate) cellular telephone. The cellular equipment manufacturing industry is currently developing an authentication methodology that is intended to reduce fraud. € € € € . The principal cause of this fraud is cloning of cellular telephones. Unscrupulous persons obtain valid ESN/MIN combinations by illegally monitoring the transmissions from the cellular telephones of legitimate subscribers.

Hence it can be concluded that the tracking and determining the postion of mobile phone accurately is important even in the multi-path fading and the NLOS environment. Accurate positioning of mobile telephones. . which can be used for several applications.

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