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V Research projects which use a questionnaire to

collect standardized data from a large number


of people.

V Can be either g   or  


surveys.
Sample surveys are the most common

V Ãhe collection of M  


data requires
that the same questions be given to all
respondents in the same order.
V a 
M Ú se to collect descriptive
information. Example, Population census, Ãhe
Survey of Living Conditions and Ãhe Labour Force
Survey.
V d
 
M Ú Carried out by opinion poll
organizations, market researchers, etc.
V    
M  sed to test hypotheses
or to test and develop theories.

Common to all types, is the use of the Questionnaire as


the instrument of data collection
V d questionnaire is a collection of questions and
/or statements that is designed to collect
information on a particular topic.
V It is an instrument used by researchers to
convert into data, information directly given by
respondents.
V In essence, it provides access to what is inside
the person's head
Ã

M 

M


M

  
M 

V  M ’ knowledge, information
V 
M M
M ’ values, preference
V  M ’ attitudes, beliefs
V



M ’ past & present

It is a useful alternative when direct observation is


not possible.
à M     
 

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V   

M in the completion of questionnaire
V 
M M, instead of what he thinks ought to be,
or what he imagines the researcher would like to
hear.
V  M how he feels or thinks in order to report.

It is possible therefore for the questionnaire to measure


not
necessarily what a person likes, believes or thinks but
what
he/she indicates in these regards.
Ãhe researcher must, therefore, pay
attention
to the following factors:

V the respondent will have a tendency to show self


in good light.

V he/she may be unduly helpful by providing


answers he thinks the researcher wants instead of
telling it like it is.

V he/she may not be able to provide answers to the


questions posed ’ out of ignorance etc.
V î

MM 
 JSpecific vs. Non ÚSpecific)
a. Do you like your job? ’ direct Jspecific)
b. How do you feel about your job? ’ indirect Jnon’specific)
a. How you feel about teacher d? ’ direct Jspecific)
b.How do feel about class taught by teacher d? ’ indirect
Jnon’specific)
Direct or specific questions may cause respondent to
become guarded or cautious and give less than honest
answers. Non’specific ones lead to desired information
with less alarm.
V a
MM  
a. What kind of car do you drive?
b. Do you prefer Japanese or dmerican?
Factual questions do not always solicit factual
answers
because:
i. faulty memory
ii. conscious desire to create a certain impression

Nor do opinion ones always solicit honest opinions.


Respondents are normally inclined to provide socially
desirable answers.
V ©
M M
MM

M Can be a direct
question as those types above Jrequiring a direct
answer) or a statement requiring an optional
response.
V g




MM
M M



©
M M dnswer all vs. answer those that are
relevant.
. Do you drink alcoholic beverages?
1. Never 2. Occasionally 3. Frequently 4. dlways
J  
   





  


6. Why don·t you drink alcoholic beverages?


1. Religious reasons 2. Health reasons 3. Others J)
______

7. When you drink, which of the following are you


most likely to have?
1.Rum 2. Beer 3. Stout 4. Wine . Others
J
V Provide respondent with possible answers and ask
him/her to choose the most appropriate option.
V When the closed’ended format is used, the researcher
should be guided by the following:
’ Response categories provided should be exhaustive
’ Response options should be mutually exclusive
’ Ãhere should be clear instruction to select the best
answer

Ãhis format is ¶respondent friendly· and facilitates greater ease in the


processing of data, since it can be transferred directly to computer. It
however, limits the possible answers to those thought of by the
researcher.
V Researchers ask questions and allow
respondents to provide answers
V Exert control only in regard to the questions
asked and the time and space provided.
V Respondents give own answer, rather than
just agreeing with those given.
V Format offers the respondent more flexibly
V 
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M M



 
MM Ãhe
coding process can be time consuming and can be
quiet technical. It requires the researcher to
accurately interpret the meaning of respondents give
to responses. Ãhere is always the possibly of
misunderstanding and researcher·s bias.
V 
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V Ãhis is transitional mode between structured
and unstructured mode.
V Respondents generate, rather than choose
answers
V Responses are, however, limited in range and
length ’ often a single word or short phrase
Example: ½ M  
M  
V Ãhe very wording of the question restricts the
number of possible responses and the number
of words.
V Ã 
M M
M ’ Fill response into a table. d very
convenient way of organizing complex responses.

V 

M M
’ d structured response form.
Respondents are asked to express endorsement or
rejection of a given statement.
Example: Ãhe Likert Scale

V 
M M
Ú Respondents are given some
statements, etc. and asked to rank according to some
criteria.

V ÷
M
M M
 Respondents choose all possible
answers from a number of options given to him
À M 
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a  ½ 
V g
M  Questions should be clear and unambiguous

V ÷ M  Items should be as short as possible

V 


 Question should all be relevant and
necessary
V î 


©
M M Ú Each question should
should attempt to measure only one variable at a time
V M
À
MÃ
M Ú Should not use leading questions

V a

À
M Ú Questions should be in positive form

V d
 M !  M Ú Ãhese should always be
avoided
a  " 
V #

 Items should be well’spaced/ spread’
out
V ^
 Items should flow in a logical order. Ãhe
ordering of questions affects the quality of responses
V "
  Should not be too many items Ú Instrument
shouldn·t be too long
V g
M À   Request only when required

V ÀM  M dlways provide adequate instructions


Ú both general and specific.
V Ã

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V Postal services are utilized in the distribution
and return of instrument
V Classical approach is to send questionnaire
accompanied by a letter of explanation and self’
addressed stamped envelope.
V Respondents asked to complete and return
within a specified time.
V ÷ M Ú the cheapest
V Ã
Ú the slowest
V î


   M  Ú the least obtrusive


V 
 Ú the least definite/certain
V "
 Ú absolutely necessary
V 
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Ú the lowest
Ãhis problem of a low response rate can have implications for
generalization. Hence the need to incorporate measures in the
design to ensure the highest possible response rate. d common
approach is the use of follow’up mailing. Can take two forms:
V 

   
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V "

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Even with all practical measures, a 100 % response rate will


never be achieved. Researchers must decide, in advance, what
rate is considered acceptable Ú that is, the minimum rate that
will not introduce response bias.
rost popular form in the Caribbean. Interviewers ask
questions and record answers as given. rost obtrusive
form,
so special attention must be paid to interviewers·
competence,
behaviour and appearance.

Interviewers should,therefore, always


V display a pleasant and professional demeanor
V be familiar with questionnaire and research area.
V follow wording and format of questionnaire exactly
V record responses exactly as given
V use probing questions cautiously.
V be properly trained.
V ÷ M Ú the most expensive
V Ã
Ú the most time consuming
V î


   M  Ú the most obtrusive


V 
 Ú the most specific
V "
 Ú not necessary
V 
M M
 
Ú the highest
rost convenient approach, but with obvious
Biases. Will have access only to those
V with telephones

V who are listed in the directory

V are available at the time of the interview


V ÷ M Ú
V Ã
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V î


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V 
 Ú
V "
 Ú
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Ú
1. Identification and specification of variables.
2. Choosing question format.
3. Choosing response modes.
4. Preparing questions/items
. Construction of the instrument.
6. Pilot testing Ú Ãest for reliability and validity.
7. rake required adjustments.
8. Repeat 6.