) Research Techniques
Saurab, Srikanteaswaran, Mehak Niche IIM Ahmedabad

Defining the MR Problem and developing an Approach 4. Qualitative Research 6. Syndicated Research In India 3.Multi-dimensional Scaling .Discriminant and Cluster Analysis 11. Sampling 8. Developing a Research Plan 5. Role of Marketing Research 2. Factor Analysis 9. Data Analysis 7.Contents 1. Conjoint Analysis 10.

Dash (Marketing Research . monitor marketing performance and improve understanding of marketing as a process To gather and transform customer dialogues into potential actions that lead to either an increase in sales or in customer satisfaction Source: Malhotra.Role of Marketing Research To connect customer. generate. consumer. and public to the marketer through information in order to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems.An applied orientation) . refine and evaluate marketing actions.

there should be ‡ Discussion with decision makers ‡ Interviews with industry experts ‡ Analysis of secondary data ‡ Some qualitative research (like focus groups) Source: Malhotra.Defining the MR Problem DEFINING THE PROBLEM .THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Purpose of the study Relevant background information Information needed How will the information be used in decision making? Ideally before defining the problem.An applied orientation) . Dash (Marketing Research .

Developing an Approach Developing an approach requires ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Formulating an objective or theoretical framework Identifying analytical models Developing Research Questions and Hypotheses Determining the information needed The process should ideally also involve ‡ Discussion with decision makers and industry experts ‡ Analysis of secondary data ‡ Qualitative research ‡ Pragmatic considerations Source: Malhotra.An applied orientation) . Dash (Marketing Research .

Dash (Marketing Research . observation and experimentation) Measurement and scaling procedures Questionnaire Design Sampling Process and Sample Size Plan of Data Analysis Source: Malhotra.Developing a Research Plan An ideal research plan involves the following steps ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Definition of Information Needed Secondary Data Analysis Qualitative Research Methods of collecting quantitative data (survey.An applied orientation) .

An applied orientation) .Qualitative Research Qualitative Research is unstructured and exploratory by nature and should be used at the very beginning (to get a better understanding of the problem) and at the very end (to check viability of solution). Dash (Marketing Research . The following are some of the popular qualitative research techniques ‡ Focus Group Discussions ‡ In-depth Interviews ‡ Word Association ‡ Pilot Surveys ‡ Case Studies Source: Malhotra.

Dash (Marketing Research .An applied orientation) .Data Preparation Garbage in. Variable Respecfication. This involves ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Questionnaire Checking Editing Coding Transcribing Data Cleaning Statistical Adjusting (Weighting. Scale Transformation) Source: Malhotra. data has to be prepared for the analysis. Garbage Out Before analysis of data can begin.

Factor Analysis .

Conjoint Analysis .

Conjoint Analysis .

Comparative and Non-comparative.An applied orientation) . Comparative Scaling Techniques ‡ Paired Comparison ‡ Rank Order ‡ Constant Sum ‡ Q-Sort ‡ Magnitude Estimation Non-Comparative Scaling Techniques ‡ Continuous Rating ‡ Itemized Rating Source: Malhotra. Dash (Marketing Research .Measurement: Scaling Techniques There are two types of scaling techniques .

the more important the independent variable to the discriminant function.html the smaller the Wilks's lambda. The cluster analysis is used to classify objects or individuals into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive groups with high homogeneity within clusters and low homogeneity between clusters. In other words cluster analysis helps to identify objects that are similar to one another. but all work on the same general principle: the values of the coefficients are selected so that differences between the groups defined by the dependent variable are maximized with regard to some objective function. In other words the independent variables measured on an interval or ratio scale discriminate the groups of interest to study. Cluster analysis will cluster individuals by their preferences for each of the different brands. based on some specified criterion. The linear combination of independent variables indicates the discriminating function showing the large difference that exists in the two group means. [Wilks' Lambda: In the ANOVA table.] There are several different ways that can be used to estimate discriminant function coefficients. Source: www.Discriminant and Cluster Analysis Discriminant analysis helps to identify the independent variables that discriminate a nominally scaled dependent variable of interest. .wikipedia. the purpose of multidimensional scaling (MDS) is to provide a visual representation of the pattern of proximities (i. Toothpaste Data Set: SPSS Source: en.Multi-dimensional Scaling In marketing. MDS is a statistical technique for taking the preferences and perceptions of respondents and representing them on a visual grid. From a non-technical point of view. called perceptual maps. similarities or distances) among a set of objects.

Questions ? .