TOTAL QUALTIY MANAGEMENT(TQM

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A Presentation on
Total Quality Practices targeting Value Analysis & Value Engineering Total Product Maintenance

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Highlights the different approaches or practices followed to ensure the highest level of customer satisfaction in a product or service. It follows the concept of zero defects and stresses on doing the work right the very first time.Concept of TQM Practices ‡ Deal with the methods adopted by project managers to ensure the project reaches its expected quality. ‡ ‡ ‡ . It involves all stakeholders and stresses on the importance of work responsibility from every member.

Zero Defects: Zero Defects means that when a product or service is created it should be of the most superior quality ‡ . or in other words the 'process quality' is what forms the basis for 'product quality'.Some practices of TQM ‡ Continuous improvement process (CIP) -Customer Satisfaction does not become a one-time phase but an ongoing. The way things are done. continuous practice right from start to finish.

² product is undertaken. It is defined in terms of 'the number of defects per million opportunities' PDCA cycle: The PDCA cycle simply put.Continued«. is Plan .Check . there should first be a plan which is then implemented (Do) ² 'checked' for defects ² When defects are found. ‡ ‡ Six Sigma: It is a method of calculating measurable improvements or defects in a product.Do. by planning again and carrying on the process till zero defects are achieved.Act. the team has to act on it. .

because it is. as opposed to a simple technique.Value Analysis ‡ ‡ Value Analysis technique was developed after the Second World War in America at General Electric during the late 1940s Value Analysis (VA) is considered to be a process. ² an organized approach to improving the profitability of product applications ² It utilizes many different techniques in order to achieve organisation objective an effective tool for cost reduction and the results accomplished are far greater ‡ ..

formal and organized process of analysis and evaluation concerns the function of a product to meet the demands or application needed by a customer Understanding the use of a product means specify the level of fit between the product and the value derived by the customer To succeed.Elements of Value Analysis ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ a systematic. the formal management process must meet functional specification and performance criteria consistently in order to give value to the customer .

Sale ability is another issue that cannot be compromised ² as this is an aspect of the product that makes it attractive to the market and gives it appeal value. . create complaints and inevitably lead to the withdrawal of the product or lost sales. Any activity that reduces the maintainability of the product increases the cost of ownership to the customer and can lower the value of product.Rules for application of VA ‡ ‡ ‡ No cost can be removed if it compromises the quality of the product or its reliability ² this would lower customer value.

² An existing product unites all the different managers in a business. . ² Problems are understood like change existing product designs. high levels of purchased costs with suppliers etc.Types Of Value Analysis Exercises ‡ VA for Existing Products ² simply to select an existing product that is sold in relatively large volumes. each with an opinion and list of complaints concerning the ability to convert the design into a ¶saleable· product.

experienced and proficient human resources seconded to the group .‡ VA for New Products ² the team will need to modify the VA approach ² will operate in an environment that is less certain and has poor levels of available information upon which to make decisions ² the analysis and systematic process of review for new products is known as Value Engineering (VE) ² VE approach is similar to that of Value Analysis ² but requires a much greater level of investment by the organization in terms of the skilled.

all affected products can be changed quickly to bring major commercial benefits and to introduce the improvement on a ¶factory-wide basis· ² activity has many advantages both in terms of financial savings and also the relatively short amount of time required to introduce the required changes to the product design.‡ VA for Product Families. .Horizontal Deployment ² team finds commonalties with many products manufactured by the company. then it is possible to extend the benefits to all these other products concurrently ² In this manner.

‡ Competitive VA ² VA is often used as a competitive weapon and applied to the analysis of competitor products in order to calculate the costs of other company·s products termed as ¶strip down· ² This analysis is to understand how competitor products are made. and at what costs of production together with an understanding of what innovations have been incorporated by the competitor company. what weaknesses exist. .

The team found that the traditional designs had always incorporated metal as the main material. the company converted the product from metal to a plastic design at a major cost saving . After several exercises that looked at the way in which the products were used and also the function required of the product.Example of VA ‡ ‡ ‡ An office stationary company conducted a VA exercise on a range of paper stapling devices and hole punching devices.

‡ . market feedback and competitive pressures. e. alternate design.g. a competitor brings in a product a lower cost or at same cost with better features. alternate material. then it becomes almost essential to re-look at your product so as to stay competitive in the market. manufacturing process & testing. VE is initiated as a reaction to field failures.Value Engineering ‡ VE is a process that triggers a complete overhaul of the system. design verification for strength. after you have launched your product. durability & safety.

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Once the benefits become visible. VE is adopted as a tool for cost reduction and quality improvement. Finally organizations reach a proactive VE phase where VE results are fed into continuous improvement and product development. These. many a times. result into product or technology innovation and give companies a leap forward in the market. which can help R&D develop more efficient designs for future product line . Proactive VE can also feed in information from competitive tear down and benchmarking activities to R&D.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ VE begins as a response to market feedback which we call reactive VE.

Process Performance Improvement Weight Reduction Alternate Design Design Optimization Feature Enhancement Alternate Material Variant Reduction Material Optimization .Areas around Value Engineering Alternate Mfg.

a maintenance process developed for improving productivity by making processes more reliable and less wasteful. when preventive maintenance was introduced into Japan from the USA (Deming). was the first company in Japan to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960.part of Toyota.Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) ‡ an evolving process. Nippondenso. ‡ ‡ . starting from a Japanese idea that can be traced back to 1951. TPM will provide practical and transparent ingredients to reach operational excellence.

teams are formed Teams are usually made up of people who directly have an impact on the problem being addressed. effort is to either hire or appoint a TPM coordinator Responsibility of the coordinator to sell the TPM concepts to the work force through an educational program Coordinator is convinced that the work force understand TPM and its implications.Implementation of TPM ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ First step in plant maintenance activity. .

detailing a course of corrective action. Recognizing problem "benchmarking" and is one of the greatest assets of the TPM program. maintenance personnel. . schedulers. shift supervisors. and initiating the corrective process. and upper management might all be included on a team.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Operators. Each person becomes a "stakeholder" in the process and is encouraged to do his or her best to contribute to the success of the team effort Total Productive Maintenance action teams are charged with the responsibility of pinpointing problem areas.

One appliance manufacturer reported the time required for die changes on a forming press went from several hours down to twenty minutes! .Example of TPM ‡ Kodak reported that a $5 million investment resulted in a $16 million increase in profits which could be traced and directly contributed to implementing a TPM program.

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