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MISSILE GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

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AIM To discuss about different types of missile guidance system ‡3 .

SEQUENCE ‡ Missile ‡ Guided Missile ‡ Missile components ‡ Working of guidance system ‡ Types of guidance system ‡Q&A ‡4 .

MISSILE ‡ Lati w r µ ittere¶ ea s ³ se ´ ‡ self r elle r jectile se as a wea ‡ icall r elle b r c et r jet e i es ‡5 .

support & strategic y Based on flight characteristics aerodynamic & ballistic ‡6 . air to ground & air to air y Based on area of operation tactical. surface to air. air to surface.GUIDED MISSILES y Self-propelled aerial projectiles containing explosives y Guided either by remote control or internal mechanisms y 5 categories surface to surface.

control.MISSILE COMPONENTS y Guidance. armament & propulsion sections y Guidance brain of the missile. directs its maneuvers y Control executes the maneuvers y Armament carries the explosive charge and the fusing & firing sections y Propulsion propels the missile y Guidance orders are initiated by electronic sensing systems ‡7 .

WORKING OF A GUIDANCE SYSTEM y Consists of 2 separate systems altitude control & flight path control y Altitude control maintains the missile in the desired altitude by controlling it in pitch. roll & yaw y Flight path control guides the missile to its designated target. done by determining flight path errors & generating orders for error correction y Orders then sent to missile control sub-system which exercises control to maintain flight path ‡8 .

semi-active.TYPES OF GUIDANCE SYSTEMS y y y y y y Inertial guidance Command guidance Beam-rider guidance Homing guidance active. passive Optronic guidance TERCOM guidance system ‡9 .

INERTIAL GUIDANCE y Missiles controlled by self-contained accelerometers y Accelerometers measure vertical. lateral & longitudinal accelerations y During flight outside forces cause changes in speed commands which are transmitted to missile by-radio uplink transmitter or by varying characteristics of missile guidance beam y This data is taken by onboard computers & converted to precise position of missile y Lately inertial systems have been combined with GPS used in ICBMs y Suffer from drift chances of missing target are higher ‡10 .

COMMAND GUIDANCE y Tracking and guidance are ground based y Uses two radars. one to track the target and the other to track the missile y The bearing and elevation of the radar trackers is monitored by a computer which directs the control system to alter the missile trajectory until it reaches the target y This system uses a human operator to observe the trajectory of the missile. but is less susceptible to electronic counter measures. and direct its control system by remote control radio link y This system is broadly similar to radio command. The command signals are passed along a wire (or wires) dispensed from the missile after launch ‡11 .

measure accelerations along three mutually perpendicular axes.COMMAND GUIDANCE y Three accelerometers. these accelerations are then integrated twice. the first integration giving velocity and the second giving position. mounted on a platform spacestabilized by gyros. The system then directs the control system to preserve the pre-programmed trajectory ‡12 .

COMMAND GUIDANCE Missile Command Transmitter Target Missile Tracker #2 Computer Target Tracker #1 ‡13 .

accuracy of beam-rider decreases y Effective only against short & medium range targets ‡14 .BEAM-RIDER GUIDANCE y Missile seeks out centre of controlled directional energy beam radar beam y Beam provides information regarding position of missile to guidance system y System interprets this information & generates its own correction signals to keep missile at centre of beam y Fire control radar points beam at target and the missile "rides" the beam to the target y As beam spreads out more difficult for missile to remain at centre of beam y As range increases.

Beam Rider Guidance Narro Guidance Beam Tracking Beam ‡15 .

heat waves or magnetic field y System tracks energy reflected off target y Missile derives guidance error signals based on its position relative to target y Most accurate type of guidance y 3 types active . sound. radio. semi-active & passive ‡16 .HOMING GUIDANCE y Controls path of missile by means of a device in missile that detects and reacts to some signal from target y Signal may be light.

reflected off the target & received back by receiver y This gives information target s distance & speed y Missile sends electronic commands to control section y Control section Controls angle of attack ‡17 .ACTIVE HOMING y Target illuminated by component within missile radar transmitter y Radar signals transmitted by missile.

computes information & sends electronic commands to control section y Hawk anti-aircraft systems ‡18 .SEMI-ACTIVE HOMING y Target illuminated by external source transmitter carried in launching aircraft y Receiver in missile receives reflected signals .

PASSIVE HOMING y Directing intelligence is received from target itself y This may be a source of infrared rays (such as the hot exhaust of jet aircraft) or radar signals (such as those transmitted by ground radar installations) y Missile receiver receives signals generated by the target and then the missile control section functions in the same manner ‡19 .

no signal emission compact size and low weight of the onboard equipment y Includes highly-sensitive small-size sensors and ground-based information systems for receiving and processing images.OPTRONIC MISSILE GUIDANCE y Advantages such as high resolution . generating target designation and reference data and to promptly transmit the data to the missile launch sites y More efficient in overcoming anti-missile defense zones and do not deviate from their target by more than a few meters y Used in Tomahawk cruise missiles ‡20 .

OPTRONIC GUIDANCE SYSTEM ‡21 .

TERCOM GUIDANCE SYSTEM y TERCOM (Terrain Contour Matching) is used to solve the problem of drift y Radar used to scan the ground/terrain that the missile is passing over. The terrain data is compared to the digital maps stored in the computer on the missile y If a drift is noticed. they become virtually undetectable by enemy radar y GPS can be used to complement data computed by inertial system ‡22 .This is repeated a number of times y Advantages are that missiles fly very low . low infrared signature. the inertial navigation system is corrected and a course correction is made to put the missile back on path .coupled with their small size and radar cross-section.

TERCOM GUIDANCE SYSTEM ‡23 .

CONCLUSION y Guidance System is a complex system which involves several systems working in tandem y Development of missile involve huge expenditures essential that guidance system is properly designed for accurate interception of targets ‡24 .

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