ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire Agade (Akkad) Empire Babylonian Empire Kassite Empire Assyrian Empire Neo - Assyrian

Neo ± Babylonian Persian (Medes) Greece Rome 2600 - 2400 BCE 2400 - 2200 BCE 1950 - 1600 BCE 1550 - 1100 BCE 1400 - 1200 BCE Until 612 BCE 626 - 539 BCE 539 - 330 BCE 332 - 30 BCE 30 - ff. AD

ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire 2600 - 2400 BCE

During Sumerian Rule Temple was center King was high priest City State allegiances with city Gods but a national God for the union of States Language, culture, and religion were Sumerian

Sumerian Culture The king as divine steward

Sumerian Culture The king as divine steward Steward to build temples

Sumerian Culture The king as divine steward Steward to build temples Steward to Restore Temples

Sumerian Culture The king as divine steward Steward to build temples Steward to Restore Temples The king as steward of Justice

Sumerian Culture The king as divine steward Steward to build temples Steward to Restore Temples The king as steward of Justice The king as shepherd of the people

Genesis 11:1-9
Readings from the Ancient Near East

ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire 2600 - 2400 BCE Agade (Akkad) Empire 2400 - 2200 BCE

Readings from the Ancient Near East

ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire 2600 - 2400 BCE Agade (Akkad) Empire 2400 - 2200 BCE Babylonian Empire 1950 - 1600 BCE

Creation Epic

Flood tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic

READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

Flood tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic

I rooted out the enemy above and below; I made an end of war I promoted the welfare of our land I made the people rest in friendly habitations; I did not let them have anyone to terrorize them. The great gods called me, So I became the beneficent shepherd whose scepter is righteous; In my bosom I carried the people of the land of Sumer and Akkad; They prospered under my protection; I have governed them in peace; I have sheltered them in my strength.

³To cause Justice to prevail in the country To destroy the wicked and evil That the strong may not oppress the weak´

³Any person feeling wronged in a legal matter should go in front of the statue of me as ³king of Justice´ and also have my inscribed stele read out loud to him so he can hear my precious words and my stele can explain the case to him. By understanding his legal situation, he can be comforted.´ ³If (such a leader) has intelligence and wishes to guide his land aright, he should heed the words which I wrote on my stele, and it shall surely show him the road and the way´

ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire Agade (Akkad) Empire Babylonian Empire Kassite Empire 2600 - 2400 BCE 2400 - 2200 BCE 1950 - 1600 BCE 1550 - 1100 BCE

ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire Agade (Akkad) Empire Babylonian Empire Kassite Empire Assyrian Empire Neo - Assyrian 2600 - 2400 BCE 2400 - 2200 BCE 1950 - 1600 BCE 1550 - 1100 BCE 1400 - 1200 BCE Until 612 BCE

ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire Agade (Akkad) Empire Babylonian Empire Kassite Empire Assyrian Empire Neo - Assyrian 2600 - 2400 BCE 2400 - 2200 BCE 1950 - 1600 BCE 1550 - 1100 BCE 1400 - 1200 BCE Until 612 BCE

Chronology of Assyrian Rulers Ashurnasirpal II (883-859) Shalmaneser III (858±824 B.C.E.). Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699) Ashurbanipal (668-627)

Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries:
Ashurnasirpal II (883-859) Shalmaneser III (858±824 B.C.E.). Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699) Ashurbanipal (668-627)

Balawat gates cedarwood reconstruction, 9th century BC

Ashurnasirpal II from Nimrud

Lion hunt, 9th c Nimrud closeup

Ashurnasirpal symbolic scene, from Nimrud

Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries:
Ashernasirpal II (883-859) Shalmaneser III (858±824 B.C.E.). Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699) Asburbanipal (668-627)

THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, SON OF OMRI

IMPOSED TRIBUTE ON WEALTHY MEN OF ISRAEL 2 KINGS 15:20

READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, SON OF OMRI
CONQUERS THE TERRITORY OF NORTHERN ISRAEL (2 KI. 17:1-6)

REPOPULATED THE NORTHERN TERRITORY µSAMARITANS¶ (2 KI. 17:24)
READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

Black Obelisk

Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727)

Tiglath pileser III, 728 BC

CAPTURES PORTIONS OF NOTHERN ISRAEL AND IMPOSED TRIBUTE ON WEALTHY MEN ( 2 KI. 15:19,29 ) EXILED TRANSJORDAN TRIBES (2 KI. 15:29) FINDS UZZIAH (aka Azariah) STOPS PAYING TRIBUTE (FORGOTTEN THE OATH HE SWORE TO ME) ANET.
Tiglath pileser III, 728 BC

DAMASSCUS AND ISRAEL WAGE WAR LATER ON KING AHAZ TO JOIN AN ANITASSYRIAN COALITION AND TIGLATHPILESER III COMES TO HIS AID (II KI. 16:7-9; ISA. 7) ‡Ahaz does this against Isaiah¶s counsel ‡Pays Tiglath-Pileser with Money from Temple. PLACED HOSHEA ON THRONE (2 KI. 15:30) ERRECTED A PAGAN ALTER IN THE TEMPLE COMPOUND (II KI. 16:10-14)
Tiglath pileser III, 728 BC

Annals of Tiglath pileser III from Nimrud

Hadad on back of bull, stele from Tiglath-Pileser III's palace in Arslan Tash

Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722)

Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705)

Two key uprisings and regions where this took place: Palestine, revolts inspired by the Egyptians Babylon, revolts inspired by the Elamites

Relief of Sargon II

Entrance facade, Sargon II's palace in Khorsabad

Winged bull gateway, Sargon's palace at Khorsabad

Isaiah 20:1-6

In the year that the supreme commander, sent by Sargon king of Assyria, came to Ashdod and attacked and captured it³He threw him in shackles, fetters and iron bands, and they brought him Assyria, a long journey´ (ANET pg 285)
Relief of Sargon II

DEPORTED THE ISRAELITES IN SAMARIA

2 Kings 17:6-7
IMPORTED FOREINGERS TO SAMARIA MENTIONED IN RETROSPECT

Ezra 4:1-10,17

Relief of Sargon II

Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681)

Lachish letters

READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

Lachish letters

BABYLON OFFERED TO HELP FIGHT ASSYRIA WITH THEM. HEZEKIAH TURNED DOWN THE ADVICE VIA ISAIAH (11 KI. 20:12-19) ASSYRIA ATTACKED JUDAH WHILE COLLECTING TRIBUTE FROM THEM 2 KI. 18:13-16

LAID SIEGE TO JERUSALEM BUT LEFT AFTER A PLAGUE FOR GOD? 2 KI. 18-19 ASSASINATED BY HIS SONS ADRAMMELECH AND SHARZER 2 KI. 19:37

ASSYRIANS

ASSYRIANS

ASSYRIANS

ASSYRIANS
2 KINGS 14:25

³JONAH PROPHESIES EXPANSION PRIOR TO TIGLATH PILESER III´

Sennacherib prism

2 Kings 18:13-19:36 2 Chronicles 32:1 ± 32:22 Isaiah 36:1 ± 37:37

Sennacherib prism

2 Kings 18:13-19:36 2 Chronicles 32:1 ± 32:22 Isaiah 36:1 ± 37:37

The envoy sent to read this letter is a common practice in Assyrian Governing. The local governor court official would go. In extreme cases a qurbutu i.e. an official from the very court of the King of Assyria, was sent. Possibly what took place here reading this letter to the people.
Sennacherib prism

READINGS FROM THE FIRST CENTURY WORLD
Josephus, Ant. X.i.4-5 Herodotus II, 141

Sennacherib prism

READINGS FROM THE FIRST CENTURY WORLD

Sennacherib prism

³As for Hezekiah, the Jew, who did not submit to my yoke, 46 of his strong, walled cities, as well as the small cities in their neighborhood, which were without number,²by leveling with battering-rams (?) and by bringing up siegeengines (?), by attacking and storming on foot, by mines, tunnels and breaches (?), I besieged and took (those cities). 200,150 people, great and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and Sennacherib prism

sheep, without number, I brought away from them and counted as spoil. Himself, like a caged bird I shut up in Jerusalem his royal city. Earthworks I threw up against him,²the one coming out of the city-gate, I turned back to his misery.´
The Biblical World in Pictures; BAS Biblical World in Pictures. 2003; 2003. Biblical Archaeology Society

No mention of the 185,000-man loss is recorded in his annals. Sennacherib prism

Herodotus II, 141

Sennacherib prism

³During the night they were over run by a horde of field mice that gnawed quivers and bows and the handles of shields, with the result that many were killed fleeing unarmed the next day. And to this day a stone statue of the Egyptian King stands in Hephaestus temple, with a mouse in his hand, and an inscription to this effect: µLook at me, and believe.¶´
Note in this account Herodutus attributes the death to mice. The black plague was attributed to mice in the middle ages when in fact it was the flees on mice and rats that killed over 1/3 of the known world.
Sennacherib prism

JOSEPHUS 10.1.4-5

Sennacherib prism

JOSEPHUS also the king of Assyria wrote an epistle to Hezekiah and he threatened, that when he took him, he would utterly destroy him, unless he now opened the gates

Sennacherib prism

JOSEPHUS Herodotus does indeed give us this history "Now when Sennacherib was returning from his Egyptian war to Jerusalem, he found his army under Rabshakeh his general in danger [by a plague], « he fled with the rest of his forces to his own kingdom, and to his city Nineveh« and died by the hands of his elder sons«
Sennacherib prism

Broad Wall of Hezekiah from east

READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

2 KINGS 20:20

City of David from south

Siloam Pool

View up Central Valley by Pool of Siloam

JOHN 7:37-38

Siloam Pool

Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699)

A decree was given that Babylon was to lie in ruins 70 years (like the captivity of Israel in Babylon that would occur years later) Esarhadden comes in to rebuild Babylon and gain the favor of the people It was said Marduk saw the writing decreed for 70 years but turned the inscription upside down making it only 11 when rebuilding began with Esarhadden (in cuneiform 70 when turned upside down is 11).

Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699) Asburbanipal (668-627)

Son of Esarhaddon ‡Attributed as the King who imported the Samaritans into Samaria (Ezra 4) ‡Imprisoned king Manasseh in Nineveh 2 Chron. 33:11 ‡Continued population transfer policy Ezek. 4:2 ‡Demanded vassals swear allegiance to Ashur, chief Assyrian deity 2 Ki. 21:2-9

Chronology of Key Assyrian Rules 8th & 7th Centuries: Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (721-705) Sennacherib (704-681) Esarhaddon (680-699) Ashurbanipal (668-627)

Ashurbanipal's court scholars list

Babylonian Chronicle, 615-609 BC with Nineveh's destruction

Nahum 1:15 Nahum 3:15 Nahum 3:19
Babylonian Chronicle, 615-609 BC with Nineveh's destruction

ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire Agade (Akkad) Empire Babylonian Empire Kassite Empire Assyrian Empire Neo - Assyrian Neo ± Babylonian 2600 - 2400 BCE 2400 - 2200 BCE 1950 - 1600 BCE 1550 - 1100 BCE 1400 - 1200 BCE Until 612 BCE 626 - 539 BCE

Babylonian Chronicle, 615-609 BC with Nineveh's destruction

Babylonian Chronicle, 605-595 with capture of Jerusalem

Burnt House table and water jar

Nabonidus cylinder with prayer for himself and son Belshazzar

ANCIENT EMPIRES Sumerian Empire Agade (Akkad) Empire Babylonian Empire Kassite Empire Assyrian Empire Neo - Assyrian Neo ± Babylonian Persian (Medes) 2600 - 2400 BCE 2400 - 2200 BCE 1950 - 1600 BCE 1550 - 1100 BCE 1400 - 1200 BCE Until 612 BCE 626 - 539 BCE 539 - 330 BCE

Cyrus Cylinder

READINGS FROM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST cf. Ezra 1:1-3

Cyrus Cylinder

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