Environmental Management Systems; ISO 14000 & REACH

What is Environment???? 
surroundings of an object  sum of all living and non-living things that surround an organism, or group of organisms

Types of Environment 
  Natural environment ± is not man-made, such as Earth and all of its natural component including ground water, flora and fauna. It is full of beauty and hazards. Induced environment ± are those been affected by human action e.g. highly polluted air that results from exhaust emissions of automobiles in heavily populated cities. Controlled environment ± is a natural or induced environment that has been changed in some way to reduce or eliminate potential environmental hazards e.g. a home or workplace that is cooled to reduce potential hazards associated with heat. Artificial environment ± one that fully created to prevent definite hazardous conditions from affecting people or material e.g. environment within the space shuttle. Closed environment ± one that is completely or almost completely shut off from natural environment. Both controlled and artificial environment must be closed. Free environment ± one that does not interfere with the free movement of air. 


Introduction by man, waste matter or surplus energy into the environment, which directly or indirectly causes damage to man and his environment

Water Pollution

Air Pollution

Environmental Management Systems (EMS) 
What is an EMS? 
Part of overall management structure 

Purpose of EMS 
Address immediate & long-term environmental impacts 

Why have an EMS? 
Provide order and consistency in methods

Why EMS? Path Toward Excellence
(Cascio, Figure 3.1, The ISO 14000 Handbook, Milwaukee, WI: ASQ Quality Press, 1996)

Systems Approach

End-of-Pipe Approach Limited to Compliance


EPA View of EMS Purpose
(United States Environmental Protection Agency, www.epa.gov/ems/info/index.htm 6/25/2002.) 

System wide approach to environmental management 
Incorporates environmental considerations into daily organization decisions Provides a framework to continually improve environmental performance

Components of Management System
Step 1: Establishing a policy statement Step 2: Planning Step 3: Implementing and operating Step 4: Checking Step 5: Reviewing

Designing, Developing and Implementing a Management System: Step 1 - Establishing a policy statement
A policy statement will outline the strategic values that are most important to the company and provide the foundation upon which you build your management system.  Documented, communicated and available ± both internally and externally  It should address what is important to your business and/or your clients and your company¶s strategic values  Consider avoiding vague statements

Step 2 - Planning
Planning is critical and should be as holistic as practical. 1. Identify the elements of the organization¶s activities, products and services that intersect with the company¶s policy. ± Which can the organization control and/or influence? ± Which are the most important to control? 2. Establish a process to identify legal and other requirements, and to maintain compliance. 3. Set goals to help you achieve and continue to improve upon your management system.


Step 3 - Implementing and operating
Identify the requirements necessary to execute against your policy and plans:  Defined roles and responsibilities  Identify proper skills, education and/or experience necessary for persons executing the requirements of the management system  Process to communicate relevant information about the management system and performance to employees and other interested parties  Document and control the core elements of the management system that are essential to maintain operational control  Plan for emergency situations

No one Ever Gets Credit for Preventing Problems
(Repenning and Sterman, California Management Review, 43 (4), Summer 2001, 64-88)

Investment in Capability


Capability Erosion

Delay +
Time Spent on Improvement

R1 Reinvestment

+ +

Shortcuts Time Spent Working



Actual Performance

Performance Gap

B2 Work Smarter

Work Harder

Pressure to Do Work

Desired Performance


Pressure to Improve Capability

Step 4 - Checking
Establish a process to monitor performance, legal compliance and the execution of management system requirements.  The self-assessments and/or internal audits should closely examine whether:  Employees are aware of the policy statement and understand how what they do in their job might impact it  The company is in compliance with legal and other requirements  Procedures, processes and related documents exist where necessary for the management system to be maintained in a sustainable manner  Identify records that must be maintained to demonstrate legal compliance and operational control


Step 5 - Reviewing
Periodic review with top management. Some elements of this review should include:  Status of goals and targets  Status of compliance with legal and other applicable requirements  Identification of any changes to business operations  Discussion regarding opportunities for improvement  Any resulting action that management identifies as a need for changes to the management system, goals, other opportunities for improvement or is there a need to change the policy statement?

The ISO 14000 Series of Standards
The term ISO 14000 Series refers to a family of environmental management standard that cover the five disciplines:  environmental management system  environmental auditor criteria (these criteria may be used by internal/external auditors and external third-party auditors)  environmental performance evaluation criteria  environmental labeling criteria  Life-cycle assessment methods. 

The ISO is a specialized international organization whose members are the national standards bodies of 111 countries.  All standards developed by ISO are voluntary  ISO 14000 is a series of international standards on environmental management.  "ISO 14000" is the first international attempt to standardize environmental management practices around the world.  ISO 14000 will help integrate the environmental management systems of companies that trade with each other in all corners of the world.

An ISO 14001:2004-based EMS
An EMS meeting the requirements of ISO 14001:2004 is a management tool enabling an organization of any size or type to: 
identify and control the environmental impact of its activities, products or services, and to  improve its environmental performance continually, and to  implement a systematic approach to setting environmental objectives and targets, to achieving these and to demonstrating that they have been achieved.

ISO 14001 EMS Model

ANSI/ISO 14001-1996, vi i

Continual Improvement

Management review

Environmental policy Planning

Checking and corrective action

Implementation and operation 

The European Union continues to advance legislation to protect her population from exposure to hazardous substances used in products as well as during product disposal. 

In 2007, the European Union adopted the REACH regulations which bring unprecedented scope, complexity and mandatory tracking of substances in most every ³article´ (product) that Europeans use.  The REACH regulation: Regulation, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals; requires the registration of hazardous substances that are sold, imported, manufactured or used in quantities exceeding 1 ton/year and covers substances on their own, in preparations, or used in a manufacturer¶s articles. 

REACH is one of the most comprehensive and farreaching pieces of environmental legislation to come out of the European Union.  Compliance with REACH is mandatory for continued sales of chemicals and products in the European Union.  REACH goes beyond the hazardous material content requirements starting with registering substances intentionally released during manufacturing. 

These substances must be registered for the purpose and have a chemical safety report when used in quantity above a threshold level.  Over 30,000 chemicals are expected to fall under the scope of the REACH directive, and require that manufacturers, importers and distributors of substances, preparations and articles fulfill REACH obligations.  Additionally, approximately 1,000 other materials are considered Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) and prohibited by REACH.

REACH aims at«
- improving the protection of human health and the
environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals; - enhancing the competitiveness of the EEA chemicals industry, a key sector for the economy of the EEA; - promoting alternative methods for the assessment of hazards of substances; - ensuring the free circulation of substances on the internal market of the European Union.

Testing of chemicals and substances including: 

Physico-chemical testing Toxicological testing Eco-toxicological testing Environmental fate Residues testing and analysis

Some Banned Auxiliaries 
Alkylphenolethoxylates (APEOs)  linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS),  bis(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium chloride (DTDMAC),  distearyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DSDMAC),  di(hardened tallow) dimethyl ammonium chloride (DHTDMAC),  ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA), and  Diethylene triamine penta acetate (DTPA)

23 Amines Banned BY EU
4-aminodiphenyl (92-67-1) Benzidine (92-87-5) 4-chloro-o-toluidine (95-69-2) 2-naphthylamine (91-59-8) o-amino-azotoluene (97-56-3) 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (99-55-8) p-chloroaniline (106-47-8 2,4-diaminoanisol (615-05-4) 4,4¶-diaminodiphenylmethane (101-77-9) 3,3¶-dichlorobenzidine (91-94-1) 3,3¶-dimethoxybenzidine (119-90-4) 3,3¶-dimethylbenzidine (119-93-7) 3,3¶-dimethyl-4,4¶- diaminodiphenylmethane (838-88-0) p-cresidine (120-71-8) 4,4¶-methylene-bis-(2-chloraniline) (101-14-4) 4,4¶-oxydianiline (101-80-4) 4,4¶-thiodianiline (139-65-1) o-toluidine (95-53-4) 2,4-diaminotoluene (95-80-7) 2,4,5-trimethylaniline (137-17-7) 4-aminoazobenzene (60-09-3) o-anisidine (90-04-0)

Dyes that are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction & banned
‡ C.I. Basic Red 9 ‡ C.I. Disperse Blue 1 ‡ C.I. Acid Red 26 ‡ C.I. Basic Violet 14 ‡ C.I. Disperse Orange 11 ‡ C. I. Direct Black 38 ‡ C. I. Direct Blue 6 ‡ C. I. Direct Red 28 ‡ C. I. Disperse Yellow 3

Impurities in dyes 
The levels of ionic impurities in the dyes used shall not exceed the following:  Ag 100ppm;  As 50 ppm;  Ba 100 ppm;  Cd 20 ppm;  Co 500 ppm;  Cr 100 ppm;  Cu 250 ppm;  Fe 2500 ppm;  Hg 4 ppm;  Mn 1000 ppm;  Ni 200 ppm;  Pb 100 ppm;  Se 20 ppm;  Sb 50ppm;  Sn 250 ppm;  Zn 1500 ppm.  Any metal that is included as an integral part of the dye molecule (e.g. metal complex dyes, certain reactive dyes, etc.) shall not be considered when assessing compliance with these values, which only relate to impurities.

72% have a REACH team. Half work for companies where the REACH team includes representatives from safety, health & the environment

REACH Timeline

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