FINISHING  Any operation (other than preparation and coloring) that improves the appearance and/or usefulness of fabric

after it leaves the loom or knitting machine. Finishing is the final series of operations that produces finished textile fabric from grey goods.

The word "finish" means all the different treatments applied to a fabric to change such things as its  Appearance  Feel or hand  Wear ability or care requirements

Classification of Finishes
Textile Finishes are classified in several ways: According to function

Aesthetic Finishes

Functional

Finishes

According to type of machinery

Chemical Finishes

Mechanical Finishes

According to the quality

Temporary

Permanent

Semi Permanent

FINISHING PARAMETERS
S. No. 1. PROCESS PARAMETERS TO CHECK (a) conc. of chemicals & auxiliaries. (b) time of boiling. pH in fabric for resin finishing (a) Viscosity (b) (b) temperature (c) Wet pick up (d) Pressure at padding mangle (e) Temp. of drying (f ) Moisture content of dried fabric (g) Speed of machine FREQUENCY Preparation of paste /solution Each batch of solution prepared.

2. 3.

Application of paste or solution to fabric & drying of fabric.

Thrice in a lot from different places. ‡Thrice in a shift/lot ‡Continuous monitoring ‡Once in a month to cover major sorts ‡Continuous monitoring ‡Continuous monitoring Continuous monitoring on moisture indicator ‡Thrice a shift

S. No. 4.

PROCESS

PARAMETERS TO CHECK (a) Temperature (b) Time of cuing and/or speed of the machine

FREQUENCY

Curing

‡Continuous monitoring ‡Thrice in shift

2.

Calendering

(a) Moisture in fabric (b) Temperature of metal bowl (c) Pressure on bowls (d) Surface of wax bar

‡Thrice in a shift ‡Thrice in a shift ‡At the beginning of new lot ‡Thrice in a shift

Cotton
Cotton is a fibrous material of plant Origin and the basis of all natural and man-made cellulosic fibres.

FINISHES ON COTTON FABRIC
Chemical finishes 1. Easy care finish 2. Soft finishes 3. Resin finish  

Mechanical finish 1. Stentering 2. calendering

Easy care finish 
High durable press rating, high dry & wet crease recovery angles. Minimal shrinkage, abrasion loss, tensile/tear strength loss. Little effect on shade & fastness of dyed fabric. Good absorbency. Good pilling resistance. Desirable handle.

S . No. 1.

ITEMS Type of water used

PARAMETERS Tap water

CONTROL Hardness is measured before using . Thrice in the process

2.

pH of bath

4 - 5( used Acetic Acid to adjust the pH ) 80% by weight Ambient ( 27 ± 28 °C )

3. 4.

Pick up Temperature

Taken after equal intervals

SOFTENING FINISHES 
Softening finishes are among the most important of textile chemical after treatments. With chemical softeners , textiles can hand achieve an agreeable , soft hand ( supple , pliant , sleek and fluffy) , some smoothness \, more flexibility and better drape and pliability.

PARAMETERS TO BE CONTROLED 
Emulsion stability :- When the stability of a normal (not micro) emulsion is very high in an exhaust treatment , then the softening effect decreases. An emulsion of moderate stability is gives the best results , probably because small drops of the emulsified softener can exhaust to the fibre surface. Poor emulsion stability causes stains. Emulsion parameters NORMAL EMULSION Size of the drops (nm) Appearance 150-300 Milky cloudy, scattering of light of wavelength of 400 nm and more MICRO EMULSION 10-20 Clear as water , because the droplets are much smaller than the wavelength of visible light.

Emulsifier content

Normal (~ 3 % 0n weight of the softener solids )

Very high (can be equal to softener solid)

Distribution after application Handle

On the fibre surface More inside the fibre bundle Soft to greasy Very soft , not greasy High

Stability to mechanical forces Substantivity Effect on crockfastness

Moderate

Good None

Less good Sometimes negative (because of the high emulsifier content) 

Yellowing :- this problem arises especially with undyed fabrics. it can be caused by the oxidation cationic softener anionic FBA . Dispersing agent can also be helpful to remove yellowing of substrate.  Volatility:- Some softeners are volatile in nature or contain volatile component . During drying , heat setting or curing these volatile component can condense on cooler areas of the ovens and then drop back onto the fabric , causing spots. Heating the top of the ovens can help prevent this problem.

Crease Resistant Finishes 
These finishes are applied to cellulose fibres (cotton, linen and rayon) that wrinkle easily. Permanent Press fabrics have crease resistant finishes that resist wrinkling and also help to maintain creases and pleats throughout wearing and cleaning.

Crease Resistant Finishing Parameters
S. No. ITEMS PARAMETERS TO CHECK METHODS OF CHECKING Universal indicator STANDARDS ACTION NECESSARY

1.

pH of cloth for finishing

-----

Neutral or slightly acidic

-----

2.

Finishing paste preparation

‡Mode of addition of chemicals ‡Final volume

----‡Measure height of solution ‡pH paper or meter ‡Feel or laboratory test

Add thermosetting resin & catalyst last ---------

‡pH 3. Application of resin finishing solution ‡Moisture content of f/c before finishing ‡Wet pick-up ‡Mangle pressure

----‡Pressure gauge

-----

S. No. 4.

ITEMS

PARAMETER METHODS S TO CHECK TO CHECK ‡Temperature ‡Thermometer ‡Thermo paper ‡Stop watch ‡Speed indicator

STANDAR D

ACTION NECESSAR Y

Curing

‡Time

‡As fixed by ‡Adjust the the mill 5% working of heaters ‡As decided ‡Adjust the by the mill speed of the machine

The fabric is padded through the resin finishing solution, dried on the stenter and cured in the polymeriser.

FINISHING OF COTTON FABRIC ON STENTER. 
These are final processes applied to set the warp and weft of woven & knitted fabrics at right angles to each other, and to stretch and set the fabric to its final dimensions. As the fabric passes through the heated chamber, creases and wrinkles are removed, the weave is straightened, and the fabric is dried to its final size. When the process is applied to wet wools it is called crabbing.

Stentering machines

FINISHING PARAMETERS OF STENTERING OF COTTON FABRIC
S. No. ITEMS PARAMETERS TO CHECK METHODS OF CHECKING Moisture meter or lab. Test. STANDARDS ACTION NECESSA RY Note temp. in different chambers. Note the steam pressure. Adjust either steam or speed flow

1.

Moisture content of dried fabric.

Around 6%

2.

expanders

Before the stentering

visual

No crease formation

Adjustment of expanders or fabric. Repairs of expanders.

S. No.

ITEMS

PARAMETERS TO CHECK

METHODS OF CHECKING

STANDARDS

ACTION NECESSA RY Adjust the width of fabric on stentering device.

3.

Fabric width

Delivery end of the machine

Measurement by As fixed by the tape or ruler mill

4.

overfeeding

5% overfeeding is necessary

Calendering
Calendering may be defined as the modification of the surface of a fabric by the action of heat and pressure. The finish is obtained by passing the fabric between heated rotating rollers when both speed of rotation and pressure applied are variable. The surface of rollers can be either smooth or engraved to provide the appropriate finish to fabric. The rollers may be made of various material from hardened steel to elastic thermoplastic.

Types of Calendering
Swissing or normal gloss or simple calendering Chintz or glazing or friction Calendering Cire Calendering Embossed Calendering Moiré Calendering Schrenier Calendering

Objectives of Calendering 
To improve the fabric handle and to impart a smooth silky touch to the fabric To compress the fabric and reduce its To reduce the air permeability by closing the To increase the luster To reduce the yarn slippage To increase the opacity of the fabric Surface patterning by embossing

Types of calendering

PARAMETERS TO BE CONTROL DURING CALENDERING. 1. Pressure, & distribution of pressure, across the nip. 2. Temp. of the bowls. 3. Speed, & relative speed, of the bowls.

Wool Fibre

Introduction 
Wool is the fiber derived

from the

hair of animals of

the Caprinae family, principally Sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits may also be called wool.

STRUCTURE OF WOOL 

The Microscopic structure of wool has following parts: Cuticle Macro Fibril Micro Fibril Proto Fibril Wool Polymer

1. Epicuticle- thin outer membrane covering the cuticle. 2. Cuticle- protective layer of overlapping flattened cells called scales. 3. Cortex- major component of wool fiber, inner layer. 4. Medulla- the central core found primarily in medium and coarse wool.

FINISHES ON WOOL FABRIC 
WET FINISHING
1. 2. 3. 

DRY FINISHING
1. 2. 3.

SCOURING MILLING CARBONISING

SHEARING PRESSING STEAMING & DECATISING

MILLING OF WOOL 
Milling is one of the most important process for finishing wool containing fabrics. AIM OF MILLING  Aim of milling is to increase the  To increase the mass per unit surface of the fabric i.e by reducing its length & width i.e. increase in thickness of fabric.  To give the fabric special hand and surface effect.  many worsted fabrics are harsh , crisp & too firm. Such fabrics become soften by lightly milled process.

PARAMETERS TO BE CONTROL
S. No. 1. PARAMETERS pH FREQUENCY Alkaline (pH ~ 10) Acidic (pH ~ 4)

2.

% of milling liquor Woolen (80 -100%) Worsted (100 -120%) Time Worsted (15 min) Very heavy Woolen (3 -4 hours)

3.

CARBONISING OF WOOL
The elimination of vegetable matter residues , which are present in scoured wool , can be achieved by  Mechanical  Carding  Combing  Chemical  Carbonising From a chemical point of view Carbonising means attacking cellulose with strong acid at a high temperature.

PARAMETERS TO BE CONTROL
S. No. 1. PARAMETERS Residual Acid content ( H2SO4) CONTROL Should not be greater than 1%

2. 3.

High temp. Neutralization with sodium acetate

130 ± 140°C pH ~6

STEAMING & DECATISING OF WOOL 
Steaming:- where the fabric is unrestrained & can therefore change its dimensions. Types of Steaming: Wet steam  Dry saturated steam  Super heated steam

PARAMETER 
Temperature : Super heated steam ~ 147 °C Dry saturated steam ~ 99 °C 

Decatising 

Anti microbial finish on wool ‡The most trouble causing organisms are fungi & bacteria. ‡Fungi cause multiple problems to textile including discoloration,coloured stains & fibre damage. ‡Bacteria are not as damaging to fibre¶s, but can produce unpleasant odour,& a slick,slimy feel. ‡Wool is more likely to suffer bacterial attack than cotton & cotton is more likely than wool to be attacked by fungi.

Parameters
s.no 1. 2. parameter pH Temp. control Near about 5-9 36-40 c

Properties of antimicrobial 1.Antimicrobial must kill or stop the growth of microbes. 2.Antimicrobial must be safe for the manufacturer to apply the consumer to wear. 3.Antimicrobial finish must be easily applied at the textile mill &compatible with other finishing agents.

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