WELCOME TO THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF JUPITER
Named after roman father of the gods who was the god of fun, it also represented tin, green, triangle, 8, and Thursday (French=jeudi). English name after thor god of thunder, Greek name Zeus was Greek god of thunder. Chinese called it the year star - as their calendar cycle (which originated in India) was based on a Jupiter year of approximately 12 years , also represented the element wood, the direction of east.
Symbol of Jupiter
The Jupiter symbol is comprised of several elements. The crescent with a horizontal line (looks like an Arabic "2") also known as the Greek letter zeta. This component suggests evolutionary development(maturity, and knowledge gained through a time of growth). The second component is the cross, which is symbolising the a meeting of ideas - a cross roads coming together to unite and combine two paths of philosophy. This plays nicely in Jupiter's symbolism of being a feature of balance.
Meaning f the sy J iter
The Jupiter symbol meanings include attributes such as: Expansion Good luck Protection Wealth Abundance Higher Education Optimism Experience/Authority Generosity Supremacy Justice Balance
Galileo Galilei was the first astronomer to view Jupiter through a telescope. Ptolemy. Galileo's discovery was a major step forward for astronomy. Jupiter's satellites are mostly named for his mythological lovers. which lent credence to the Copernican theory that the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun. many people held to the belief. he observed four satellites orbiting the planet.
. that everything revolved around the Earth.History of jupiter
The Italian scientist. Previously. While viewing Jupiter. developed by 2nd century astronomer.
The density of Jupiter.984 km at its equator.Structure of Jupiter
Jupiter is composed primarily of gaseous and liquid matter. is the second highest of the gas giant planets. It is the largest of four gas giants as well as the largest planet in the solar system with a diameter of 142. 1. the density is lower than any of the four terrestrial planets. However.326 g/cm³.
what we see when we observe the surface of Jupiter is the atmosphere that extends deep into the planet.Composition
Since Jupiter is a gas planet. but Uranus and Neptune have less hydrogen and helium.
. According to scientists. Thus. Saturn. This means that if one stepped onto the planet. there is no solid surface. he would sink into it and eventually get crushed by the massive increase in pressure (the gaseous compounds get denser with depth) or be vaporized by the hot temperatures near the centre. this chemical composition matches closely to the solar nebula that formed our solar system in the early stages of development. Uranus and Neptune also have a similar chemical makeup. water and ammonia. Jupiter is comprised of 90% hydrogen and 10% helium (a 75/25% mass ratio) and contains small amounts of methane.
Another finding was Jupiter's high temperature and higher than expected density in the outermost areas of the atmosphere. ammonium hydrosulphide and combination of water and ice
. In addition to the observation of clouds. the tremendous pressure causes the gasses to compress into liquid. scientists believe that there are three distinct layers of clouds in Jupiter. The initial
data from the probe did not show strong evidence of the three layers. However. Consisting mainly of ammonia ice. even after the Galileo spacecraft flew past the planet.
On the surface of Jupiter. It was surprising to many to find that the planet contains very little water since scientists had expected that Jupiter would be abundant in oxygen that would react to form massive quantities of water. Galileo also recorded data on Jupiter's chemical composition.
. the layer of gas consists mainly of gaseous hydrogen and helium. As we go deeper into the planet. but rather. only very faint signs of clouds. In addition. Galileo's unusual observation viewpoint may account for the unexpected results since it may have observed Jupiter in an area where there are fewest clouds. This was unconfirmed.
068 solar radii from the Sun's centre. this so massive that its barycentre with the Sun lies above the Sun's surface at 1. and still be roughly the same size. and actually make the planet contract. the lightest element in the Universe.9 x 1027 kg. You could get 4 times as much mass. I know. In fact. that s incredibly large number. Even though Jupiter is very massive.52 grams per cubic centimetre.5 times more massive than all the other planets in the Solar System combined. it has a low density because it s primarily made of hydrogen. You could have almost 318 earths to equal the mass of Jupiter. While Earth has a density of 5.Mass
Jupiter has a total mass of 1. so let s give you some context. Jupiter s density is only 1. the additional material would pull inward with more gravity. Jupiter is 2.
. Astronomers think that Jupiter is about as large as it can be with its current mass.33 g/cm3. If got any more massive. as Jupiter currently has.
extending beyond the scope of Jupiter and into other planets. Thus Jupiter has one of the largest magnetospheres in the solar system.
. unlike on the surface.Interior
To understand the interior of Jupiter is currently very hard to determine and is very indirect. not gas. However. This core is surrounded by a large quantity of hydrogen. This is due to the fact that atmospheric space probes can only go a depth of 150 km below the surface. This process converts hydrogen into a metallic state and is then able to conduct electricity and produce magnetic fields. Jupiter probably has a rocky core deep in the planet amounting to around 10 to 15 Earth -masses. This is because at great depths in the planet where pressure exceeds 4 million bars. this hydrogen is liquid. resulting in elements consisting only of protons. hydrogen atoms ionize.
in a metal-like fashion (they do not do this under Earth-like condition). the inner mantle is liquid metallic hydrogen.Mantle
Pressurized hydrogen in the mantle may generate electric currents which generate Jupiter's powerful magnetic field. The pressure is so great that the hydrogen molecules inside Jupiter conduct heat and electricity very well. Inside Jupiter. this is what allows the electrical and heat conductivity. The outer mantle is liquid hydrogen. The layers of extraordinarily-compressed hydrogen are in a state so extreme that it has never been produced on Earth. electrons from hydrogen molecules move freely from molecule to molecule (like the electrons of a metal).
It is 20.Core
At the centre of the planet is a molten rock core which is many times bigger and more massive than the entire Earth.000 °C.
. about three times hotter than the Earth's core.
spanning over 5000 km in altitude. and dark regions called belts. that run parallel to the equator. or from spacecraft images. shows not the surface of the planet.
. It is believed that the belts represent descending areas of low pressure. When we look at Jupiter. As Jupiter has no surface. whether it be through a telescope. but the atmosphere. The zones are higher in altitude than the belts. and sink again. or ten times surface pressure on Earth. Jupiter radiates heat energy out to space by way of convection. The atmosphere appears as alternating bands of light regions.Atmosp ere
Jupiter has the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System. and are correspondingly lower in temperature. The zones carry energy to the surface and then cool. the base of its atmosphere is usually considered to be the point at which atmospheric pressure is equal to 10 bars. called zones.
known as tropical regions. Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulphide. but they have remained sufficiently stable for astronomers to give them identifying designations. Wind speeds of 100 m/s (360 km/h) are common in zonal jets.The zones have been observed to vary in width. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. colour and intensity from year to year. These are sub-divided into lighter-huedzones and darker belts. The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes.
The main ring is probably made of material ejected from the satellites Adrastea and Metis.Planetary Rings
Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo.[These rings appear to be made of dust. Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational influence. a relatively bright main ring.
. the moons Thebe and Amaltheaprobably produce the two distinct components of the dusty gossamer ring. and an outer gossamer ring.n a similar way. The orbit of the material veers towards Jupiter and new material is added by additional impacts.There is also evidence of a rocky ring strung along Am althea's orbit which may consist of collisional debris from that moon. rather than ice as with Saturn's rings.
The existence of Jupiter's magnetic field was first inferred from observations of radio emissions at the end of the 1950s and was directly observed by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft in 1973.Magnetosp ere
The magnetosphere of Jupiter is the cavity created in the solar wind by the planet's magnetic field. while its magnetic moment is roughly 18. and by volume the largest known continuous structure in the Solar System after the heliosphere. Wider and flatter than the Earth's magnetosphere. Jupiter's magnetosphere is the largest and most powerful of any planetary magnetosphere in the Solar System. Extending up to seven million kilometers in the Sun's direction and almost to the orbit of Saturn in the opposite direction.
. Jupiter's is stronger by an order of magnitude.000 times larger.
000.000 km between its perihelion and aphelion. Its rotation is five minutes longer than its equatorial atmosphere. It is only 3.86 years to orbit around the Sun. The mean distance from the Sun to Jupiter is 778.
.13 degrees. Because of this the distance between Jupiter and the Sun differs by around 75.000 kilometers. The rotation of Jupiter requires centripetal acceleration. This is the reason for the equatorial bulge that can be seen from the earth through telescope.31 degrees The elliptical orbit of Jupiter is inclined 1. It takes Jupiter 11. Jupiter s elliptical orbit is inclined 1. This is the reason why Jupiter has little seasonal changes when compared to that of Mars and Earth. Jupiter has the fastest rotation in all of the planets of the Solar System. so a basic day on Jupiter is less than 10 Earth days.048. It rotates on its axis at less than ten hours.86 Earth years. This forms a 5:2 orbital resonance with Saturn because it is 2/5 the orbital period of the planet. The perihelion is the nearest point and the aphelion is the farthest point of the planet when on the orbital path. Jupiter s eccentricity is 0.Orbit and Rotation
The only planet whose center of mass in relation to the Sun lies outside the volume of the Sun is Jupiter.31° compared to Earth.000. Jupiter is not a completely solid body and because of this the upper atmosphere does its own differential rotation. Jupiter s axial tilt is small compared to its size. so a typical year on Jupiter is 11.
Amazing as it may seem scientists have speculated that life on Jupiter is possible.
. This would occur beneath the cloud cover where room temperature conditions exist. these lifeforms would be airborne although this theory is thought to be highly speculative.
especially due to the probes' large fuel requirements and the effects of the planet's harsh radiation environment.
. All of these missions were undertaken by NASA. Plans for more missions to the Jovian system are under development. has continued with seven further spacecraft missions.Exploration In Jupiter
The exploration of Jupiter has to date been conducted via close observations by automated spacecraft. and. These probes make Jupiter the most visited of the Solar System's outer planets. none of which are scheduled to arrive at the planet before 2016. and all save one have been flybys that take detailed observations without the probe landing or entering orbit. It began with t he arrival of Pioneer 10into the Jovian system in 1973. Sending a craft to Jupiter entails many technical difficulties. as of 2008.
followed by Pioneer 11 thirteen months later. on December 4. Pioneer 10 obtained the first-ever close-up images of Jupiter and its Galilean moons. Pioneer 11 made its closest approach. It obtained dramatic images of the Great Red Spot.Pioneer Program (1973-1974)
Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to visit Jupiter.000 km of Jupiter's cloud tops.
. the spacecraft studied the planet's atmosphere. which flew past the planet in December 1973. detected its magnetic field. The first spacecraft to explore Jupiter was Pioneer 10. The information gathered by these two spacecraft helped astronomers and engineers improve the design of future probes to cope more effectively with the environment around the giant planet. observed its radiation belts and determined that Jupiter is mainly fluid. and determined the mass of Jupiter's moon Callisto. 1974. made the first observation of Jupiter's immense polar regions. within some 34.
000 km from Jupiter's center. even though Voyager 1 continued photographing the planet until April. though the flyby's short duration meant that most observations of Jupiter's moons .
.This close approach allowed for greater image resolution. at a distance of 349.rings. magnetic field.Voyager Program(1979)
Voyager 1 began photographing Jupiter in January 1979 and made its closest approach on March 5. 1979. and radiation environment were made in the 48-hour period bracketing the approach.
.000 km.The giant planet's gravity bent the spacecraft's flightpath downward and away from the ecliptic plane. placing it into a final orbit around the Sun's north and south poles.Ulysses(1992)
On February 8. 1992. increasing its inclination to the ecliptic to 80. This swing-by maneuver was required for Ulysses to attain a very highinclination orbit around the Sun. the Ulysses solar probe flew past Jupiter's north pole at a distance of 451.2 degrees.
000 images of Jupiter were taken during the months-long flyby. the Cassini probe. and made many scientific measurements.Cassini(2000)
In 2000. flew by Jupiter and provided some of the highest-resolution images ever taken of the planet.
. It made its closest approach on December 30. en route to Saturn. It produced the most detailed global color portrait of Jupiter yet. 2000. in which the smallest visible features are approximately 60 km (40 miles) across. About 26.
flew by Jupiter for a gravity assist and was the first probe launched directly towards Jupiter since the Ulysses in 1990. 2007. Its Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) took its first photographs of Jupiter on September 4. and made its closest approach on February 28.The spacecraft began further study of the Jovian system in December 2006.
. 2006. en route to Pluto.New Horizons
The New Horizons probe.
2003. although the amount of information was not as great as intended because the deployment of its high-gain radio transmitting antenna failed.
. making 35 orbits before it was destroyed during a controlled impact with Jupiter on September 21.Galileo Orbital Mission
So far. 1995. which went into orbit around Jupiter on December 7. It orbited the planet for over seven years.During this period it gathered a large amount of information about the Jovian system. the only spacecraft to orbit Jupiter is the Galileo orbiter.
Callisto. they are Ganymede. They are also the largest of Jupiter's moons. and Io. From top-left in a clock-wise direction. Europa.
. They are named so because they were the only four moons that Galileo was able to see.Moons
These are the four Galilean satellites.
Ganymede and Callisto.Europa.
. They are among the most massive objects in the Solar System outside the Sun and the eight planets.Galileo Moons
The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei in January 1610. with a radius larger than any of the dwarf planets. Ganymede. Europa and Io participate in a 1:2:4 orbita resonance. They are the largest of the many moons of Jupiter and derive their names from the lovers of Zeus: Io .
This allowed Galilei to discover sometime between December 1609 and January 1610 what came to be known as the Galilean moons. a Chinese historian of astronomy.Discovery
As a result of improvements Galileo Galileimade to the telescope. claimed that the Chinese astronomer Gan De observed one of Jupiter's moons in 362 BC. he was able to see celestial bodies more distinctly than was ever possible before. with a magnifying capability of 20×.Nevertheless.
. Xi Zezong. nearly 2 millennia earlier than Galileo.
By the time the present generation formed. Io is anhydrous and likely has an interior of rock and metal. Europa is thought to contain 8% ice and water by mass with the remainder rock. Each generation of moons to have formed would have spiraled into Jupiter and been destroyed. due to drag from Jupiter's proto-lunar disk. with new moons forming from the remaining debris.Member
Simulations suggest there may have been several generations of Galilean satellites in Jupiter's early history.These moons are. the debris had thinned out to the point that it no longer greatly interfered with the moons' orbits. in increasing order of distance from Jupiter:
Io is primarily composed of silicate rock surrounding a molten iron or iron sulphide core. until mid-20th century. it was simply referred to as Jupiter I. Io is the most geologically active object in the Solar System. Nevertheless. or The first satellite of Jupiter. Unlike most satellites in the outer Solar System (which have a thick coating of ice). some of which are taller than Earth's Mount Everest. the fourth-largest moon in the Solar System. Its surface is dotted with more than 100 mountains.642 kilometres.
. With over 400 active volcanoes. with a diameter of 3.Io
Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and. It was named after Io. a priestess of Hera who became one of the lovers of Zeus.
who was courted by Zeus and became the queen of Crete. thought to be 100 kilometers thick. but did not become widely used until the mid-20th century. Europa was after a mythical Phoenician noblewoman.[ with a layer of water surrounding the mantle of the planet.6 kilometers in diameter. It is one of the smoothest objects in the solar system.
. is the second closest to Jupiter and the smallest at 3121. The name. which is slightly smaller than Earth's Moon. the second of the four Galilean moons.Europa
cupbearer of the Greek gods and Zeus's beloved. which makes it larger than the planet Mercury. likely created through convection within the liquid iron core.Ganymede
Ganymede. Ganymede is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System at 5262.although only at about half of its mass since Ganymede is an icy world.
.4 kilometres in diameter. It is the only satellite in the Solar System known to possess magnetosphere. the third Galilean moon is named after the mythological Ganymede.
6 kilometres in diameter. Callisto was a daughter of the Arkadian King Lykaon and a hunting companion of the goddess Artemis. and is the second largest of the four. and one major feature is a basin around 3000 km wide called Valhalla.Callisto is composed of approximately equal amounts of rock and ices. It is one of the most heavily cratered satellites in the solar system.Callisto
Callisto is the fourth and last Galilean moon.
. it is the third largest moon in the Solar System. which makes it the least dense of the Galilean moons. and at 4820. It does not form part of the orbital resonance that affects three inner Galilean satellites and thus does not experience appreciable tidal heating.
Interacti n ith the S lar System
Along with the Sun. The orbits of most of the system's planets lie closer to Jupiter's orbital plane than the Sun's equatorial plane (Mercury is the only planet that is closer to the Sun's equator in orbital tilt). and the planet may have been responsible for the Late Heavy Bombardment of the inner Solar System's history. the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt are mostly caused by Jupiter. the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System.
This topic remains controversial among astronomers. recent computer simulations suggest that Jupiter does not cause a net decrease in the number of comets that pass through the inner Solar System.It was thought that the planet served to partially shield the inner system from cometary bombardment. because of its immense gravity well and location near the inner Solar System. as some believe it draws comets towards Earth from the Kuiper belt while others believe that Jupiter protects Earth from the alleged Oort cloud
Jupiter has been called the Solar System's vacuum cleaner. as its gravity perturbs their orbits inward in roughly the same numbers that it accretes or ejects them. It receives the most frequent comet impacts of the Solar System's planets. However.
and the comet was closely observed by astronomers worldwide. providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of solar system objects.Comet Shoemaker Levy-9
Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (formally designatedD/1993 F2. The collision provided new information about Jupiter and highlighted its role in reducing space debris in the inner solar system. This generated a large amount of coverage in the popular media. nicknamed String of Pearls for its appearance) was a comet that broke apart and collided with Jupiter in July 1994.
it would actually get smaller. but that s not really appropriate. Jupiter is massive No. Additional mass would actually make the planet more dense.5 times the mass of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter has 2. If you could crash dozens of Jupiters together. Jupiter can t ever become a star Astronomers call Jupiter a failed star. In fact. Stars generate their energy through the fusion of mass together. The mass of Jupiter is 318 times the mass of the Earth. Jupiter would need more than 70 times its current mass to ignite nuclear fusion.
. Their enormous gravity creates heat and pressure inside the star so that atoms of hydrogen are fused together to create helium releasing heat in the process. it s really massive. and still remain about the same size. you might have a chance to make a new star.Facts about Jupiter
1. But here s the funny thing If Jupiter got any more massive. and start pulling it in on itself. It s like saying your house is a failed skyscraper. Astronomers estimate that Jupiter could end up with 4 times its current mass. 2.
In fact. In fact. the planet has flattened out a little and is bulging at its equator. all the way down. and then change color in sunlight. the planet only takes about 10 hours to complete a full rotation on its axis.
3. 5. and contribute to the dangerous radiation surrounding it. who mentioned it back in 1665.000 km across. It was first identified by Giovanni Cassini. They re made of ammonia crystals broken up into two different cloud decks. And it looks like the spot has been around for almost 350 years. But astronomers have no idea if and when it ll ever disappear entirely. Jupiter sure moves quickly. points on Jupiter s equator are more than 4. the Great Red Spot measured 40. 4. And because it s spinning so rapidly. A century ago. all those beautiful whirling clouds and storms you see on Jupiter are only about 50 km thick. The Clouds on Jupiter are only 50 km thick That s right. Jupiter is the fastest spinning planet in the Solar System For all its size and mass. it.600 km further from the center than the poles. This rapid rotation also helps generate Jupiter s powerful magnetic fields.
. it s just hydrogen and helium. The darker material is thought to be compounds brought up from deeper inside Jupiter. But below those clouds. but it s shrinking it s currently half that size. The Great Red Spot has been around for a long time The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is one of its most familiar features.
These particles create a dangerous belt of radiation around Jupiter that can cause damage to spacecraft. Then Cassini made a flyby in 2000. Then Voyager 1 and 2 in 1979.
. Almost all of them are less than 10 kilometers in diameter. That s because it has the strongest magnetic field in the Solar System. This was followed by a long break until Ulysses arrived in February 1992. Jupiter has 63 moons At the time that I m writing this. Jupiter has rings The rings around Jupiter were the third set of rings discovered in the Solar System. Jupiter s magnetic field is 14 times as strong as Earth Compasses would really work on Jupiter. Jupiter s rings are fainter than Saturn s. Jupiter was first visited by NASAs Pioneer 10 spacecraft in December 1973. This magnetic field traps ionized particles from the solar wind and accelerates them to nearly the speed of light.
6. Astronomers think the magnetic field is generated by the movements of metallic hydrogen deep inside Jupiter. on its way to Saturn. impacts. Jupiter has been visited 7 times by spacecraft from Earth Start counting. after Saturn (of course) and Uranus. Ganymede. Jupiter has a total of 63 named satellites. 9. when the first spacecraft arrived at Jupiter. I m sure these won t be the last. and were only discovered after 1975. 7. 8. And finally. and then Pioneer 11 in December 1974. but they probably come from material ejected by its moons when they re struck by meteorite impacts. One of its moons. NASAs New Horizons spacecraft made its flyby in 2007. measuring 5262 km across. across. is the largest satellite in the Solar System.
Read Universe Today. and if you know someone with a telescope. But if you see a really bright star. you saw Jupiter in the sky.
. Get your hands on a pair of binoculars. and we ll announce when the best times for seeing Jupiter are. after Venus and the Moon. chances are you re seeing Jupiter. and had no idea that s what you were seeing. Chances are.
10. You can see Jupiter with your own eyes Jupiter is the third brightest object in the Solar System. that s even better. high in the sky.
Art.cyclonic zone in the Jupiter? anti4. What is the naming of Jupiter? 3. Who first discover the planet Jupiter? 2. What is the cavity created in the solar wind by the
planet's magnetic field? II. Draw the symbol of Jupiter(5 Points) What is the comet that collided with Jupiter?
. What is the anti.What is the gas that has the highest percentage in the Atmosphere of Jupiter? 5. 1.
Enumeration. What are the space crafts orbited and visited Jupiter? Name the Galileo or the four largest Moons of Jupiter?