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What is an engineering discipline? 2. Why is it created?
The need to create a product /service
5. Environmental engineers Industrial engineers Materials engineers Mechanical engineers « . 13. 6.Engineering Disciplines 1. 8. 7. 12. 9. 2. 10. 3. 4. 11. Aerospace engineers Biomedical engineers Chemical engineers Civil engineers Computer hardware engineers Computer software engineers Electrical engineers Electronics engineers. except computer.
celestial mechanics. defense systems. and space exploration. navigation and control. helicopters. and those working specifically with spacecraft are astronautical engineers. Those who work with aircraft are called aeronautical engineers. thermodynamics. Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation. and supervise the manufacture of aircraft. test. and may become experts in aerodynamics. spacecraft.Aerospace engineers design. or missiles and rockets. guidance. instrumentation and communication. acoustics. or guidance and control systems. and production methods. such as commercial aircraft. . They also may specialize in a particular type of aerospace product. spacecraft. military fighter jets. propulsion. often specializing in areas such as structural design. and missiles.
Biomedical engineers need a sound background in another engineering specialty. Biomedical engineers also may design devices used in various medical procedures.Biomedical engineers develop devices and procedures that solve medical and health-related problems by combining their knowledge of biology and medicine with engineering principles and practices. medical information systems. imaging systems such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many do research. in addition to specialized biomedical training. and health management and care delivery systems. to develop and evaluate systems and products such as artificial organs. such as mechanical or electronics engineering. instrumentation. prostheses (artificial devices that replace missing body parts). along with medical scientists. .
Chemical engineers may specialize in a particular chemical process. Chemical engineers also work in a variety of manufacturing industries other than chemical manufacturing. electronics. or in the development of specific products. such as nanomaterials.Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry to solve problems involving the production or use of chemicals and other products. biotechnology. Others specialize in a particular field. they work in healthcare. food. . and business services. clothing. plan and test methods of manufacturing products and treating byproducts. and supervise production. such as those producing energy. and paper. In addition. such as oxidation or polymerization. They design equipment and processes for large-scale chemical manufacturing.
from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. encompasses many specialties. tunnels. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions. The major ones are structural. construction. airports. Civil engineering. bridges. dams. and teaching. They must consider many factors in the design process from the construction costs and expected lifetime of a project to government regulations and potential environmental hazards such as earthquakes and hurricanes.Civil engineers design and supervise the construction of roads. and water supply and sewage systems. . construction. transportation. buildings. research. considered one of the oldest engineering disciplines. and geotechnical engineering. Others may work in design. water resources.
circuit boards. and oversee the manufacture and installation of computer hardware. including computer chips. develop. design. development. and printers. routers. and related equipment such as keyboards. however. The rapid advances in computer technology are largely a result of the research. and design efforts of these engineers.Computer hardware engineers research. test. . The work of computer hardware engineers is similar to that of electronics engineers in that they may design and test circuits and other electronic components. computer systems. computer hardware engineers do that work only as it relates to computers and computer-related equipment.
diagrams. and the nature and limitations of hardware to ensure that the underlying systems will work properly. test. test. Computer software engineers begin by analyzing users' needs. and may also create the detailed sets of instructions. . as well as the changing practices of employers. Software engineers design and develop many types of software. the structure of software. network control systems. and then design. and other documentation. and develop software to meet those needs. reflecting changes in technology and new areas of specialization.Computer software engineers design and develop software. business applications. that actually tell the computer what to do. and middleware. They must be experts in the theory of computing systems. including computer games. operating systems. They apply the theories and principles of computer science and mathematical analysis to create. called algorithms. and evaluate the software applications and systems that make computers work. The tasks performed by these workers evolve quickly. During this process they create flowcharts.
radar and navigation systems. machinery controls. and transmission devices used by electric utilities. electrical engineers traditionally have focused on the generation and supply of power. . control. and supervise the manufacture of electrical equipment. develop. and wiring in buildings.Electrical engineers design. lighting. Electrical engineers also design the electrical systems of automobiles and aircraft. whereas electronics engineers have worked on applications of electricity to control systems or signal processing. Electrical engineers specialize in areas such as power systems engineering or electrical equipment manufacturing. test. and power generation. Although the terms electrical and electronics engineering often are used interchangeably in academia and industry. Some of this equipment includes electric motors. communications systems.
engineers whose work is related exclusively to computer hardware are considered computer hardware engineers. from portable music players to global positioning systems (GPS). develop. Electronics engineers design. . Electronics engineers. Electronics engineers specialize in areas such as communications. for example. and supervise the manufacture of electronic equipment such as broadcast and communications systems.are responsible for a wide range of technologies. which can continuously provide the location of. Many electronics engineers also work in areas closely related to computers. and control systems or have a specialty within one of these areas control systems or aviation electronics. a vehicle. signal processing. However. test. for example.
waste disposal. and ozone depletion. advise on its treatment and containment. prevent environmental damage. and clean up hazardous sites. Environmental engineers are concerned with local and worldwide environmental issues. They are involved in water and air pollution control. They design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems. . Many environmental engineers work as consultants. recycling. automobile emissions. Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies in which they evaluate the significance of the hazard. Some may study and attempt to minimize the effects of acid rain. helping their clients to comply with regulations. analyze scientific data. global warming. They also may be involved in the protection of wildlife.Environmental engineers use the principles of biology and chemistry to develop solutions to environmental problems. and public health issues. and develop regulations to prevent mishaps. and perform quality-control checks. conduct research on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects.
Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways to use the basic factors of production²people. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related to the work of managers. They also design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services and determine the most efficient plant locations. They are concerned primarily with increasing productivity through the management of people. materials. Industrial engineers develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. and technology. information. . methods of business organization. They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis. machines. and they design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and ensure product quality. and energy²to make a product or provide a service.
metallurgical engineers specialize in metals such as steel. . For example. processing. and testing of the materials used to create a range of products. and chemical requirements. electrical. They also are involved in selecting materials for new applications. They work with metals. and ceramic engineers develop ceramic materials and the processes for making them into useful products such as glassware or fiber-optic communication lines.Materials engineers are involved in the development. and composites to create new materials that meet certain mechanical. from computer chips and aircraft wings to golf clubs and snow skis. ceramics. semiconductors. plastics. Most materials engineers specialize in a particular material.
design. engines. In addition.Mechanical engineers research. many become administrators or managers. mechanical engineers work in manufacturing or agriculture production. and test tools. internal combustion engines. or technical sales. machine tools. They also work on power-using machines such as refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment. and steam and gas turbines. elevators and escalators. maintenance. Mechanical engineering is one of the broadest engineering disciplines. Some mechanical engineers design tools that other engineers need for their work. develop. and other mechanical devices. machines. industrial production equipment. manufacture. Engineers in this discipline work on powerproducing machines such as electric generators. and robots used in manufacturing. material-handling systems. .
Many engineers work a standard 40-50 hour week. or industrial plants. Some engineers travel extensively to plants or worksites here and abroad. requiring engineers to work longer hours. At times.Work Environment Most engineers work in office buildings. laboratories. deadlines or design standards may bring extra pressure to a job. . where they monitor or direct operations or solve onsite problems. Others may spend time outdoors at construction sites and oil and gas exploration and production sites.
All 50 States and the District of Columbia require licensure for engineers who offer their services directly to the public. Most States recognize licensure from other States. 4 years of relevant work experience. The initial Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) examination can be taken upon graduation. Engineers who pass this examination commonly are called engineers in training (EITs) or engineer interns (EIs). Recent graduates can start the licensing process by taking the examination in two stages. Engineers who are licensed are called professional engineers (PEs). EITs can take the second examination. This licensure generally requires a degree from an ABET-accredited engineering program. and completion of a State examination. called the Principles and Practice of Engineering exam. After acquiring suitable work experience. . Several States have imposed mandatory continuing education requirements for relicensure. provided that the manner in which the initial license was obtained meets or exceeds their own licensure requirements.Licensure Licensure.
700 16.htm 1.700 157.800 24. 2008 Engineers Aerospace engineers Biomedical engineers Chemical engineers Civil engineers Computer HDR engineers Electrical engineers Environmental engineers Industrial engineers Materials engineers Mechanical engineers Nuclear engineers Petroleum engineers * http://www.000 31.900 .400 74.2008 Employment by Engineering Specialty* Occupational Title Employment.900 71.bls.600 16.300 214.900 21.400 238.800 54.571.700 278.gov/oco/ocos027.
920 97.bls.160 74.htm $92.020 73.680 74.820 81.Earnings Distribution by Engineering Specialty.400 82.080 108.020 .400 84.gov/oco/ocos027.600 97. 05/08* Specialty Median Aerospace engineers Biomedical engineers Chemical engineers Civil engineers Computer hardware engineers Electrical engineers Environmental engineers Industrial engineers Materials engineers Mechanical engineers Nuclear engineers Petroleum engineers * http://www.520 77.820 74.
766 58.902 64.2009 Average starting salary for BS degree programs in engineering* As a group.358 57.121 64.404 61.125 58.738 61. engineers earn some of the highest average starting salaries among those holding bachelor's degrees* Petroleum Chemical Mining and Mineral Computer Nuclear Electrical Mechanical Industrial/manufacturing Materials Aerospace/aeronautical Agricultural Bioengineering/biomedical Civil *National Association of Colleges and Employers $83.610 60.158 52.349 56.311 54.048 .352 54.