National Flag
Great Britain flag the southern cross ‡ It was chosen in 1901 ‡ In 1954 the flag became legally recognized as the "Australian National Flag³ ‡ The flag is a defaced Blue Ensign: a blue field with the Union Flag in the canton (upper hoist quarter), and a large white seven-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star in the lower hoist quarter. The fly contains a representation of the Southern Cross constellation (made up of five white stars ± one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars.)

The star with six branch represents the six states of Australia (commonwealth star)

Geography : Major cities 

Canberra (323.056 inhabitants) 

Sydney (4.119.190 inhabitants)

Geography : Major cities 

Darwin (105.991 inhabitants) 

Melbourne (3.744.373 inhabitants)

Geography : Major cities 

Brisbane (1.820.400 inhabitants)

Geography : Major rivers


Goulburn Murray

Geography : Mountains 



- Snowy mountains The Snowy Mountains are the highest Australian mountain range and contain the Australian mainland's highest mountain, Mount Kosciuszko, which reaches 2228 metres AHD. They are located in southern New South Wales and are part of the larger Australian Alps and the Great Dividing Range. - Australian Alps The Australian Alps are the highest mountain ranges of mainland Australia. They are located in south-eastern Australia, straddling far southern New South Wales and eastern Victoria. The Alps contain the Australian mainland's only peaks exceeding 2,000 metres and the only place that snow occurs regularly. The Snowy Mountains in New South Wales are part of the Alps. - Mount Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are the range of mountains to the east of Adelaide in South Australia, stretching from the southernmost point of the Fleurieu Peninsula at Cape Jervis northwards for over 300 kilometres before petering out north of Peterborough. In the vicinity of Adelaide, they separate the Adelaide Plains from the extensive plains that surround the Murray River and stretch eastwards to Victoria. - Gammon Ranges The Gammon Ranges are part of the northern Flinders Ranges, immediately southwest of and adjacent to Arkaroola Sanctuary. They encompass some of the most rugged and spectacular country in South Australia. The central ranges are of a different topographical nature to the rest of the Flinders, being composed of roughly flat-lying strata, creating a high plateau into which spectacular gorges have been cut, instead of the buckled and folded strata further south which lead to the ubiquitous cuestas of Wilpena Pound.

Geography : Mountains

Geography : lakes 




- Lake Eyre (9.500 km²) Lake Eyre is the lowest point in Australia, at approximately 15 m below sea level, and, on the rare occasions that it fills, the largest lake in Australia. It is the focal point of the vast Lake Eyre Basin and is found some 700km north of Adelaide. - Lake Mackay (3.494 km²) Lake Mackay is one of hundreds of dry lakebeds scattered throughout Western Australia and the Northern Territory. The darker areas of the lakebed are indicative of some form of desert vegetation or algae, some moisture within the soils of the dry lake, and the lowest elevations where pooling of water occurs. - Lake Amadeus (1032 km²) Lake Amadeus is a huge salt lake in the area of Uluru (Ayers Rock), located in the SW corner of Australia's Northern Territory. Due to the aridity of the area, it is usually almost totally dry. In times of sufficient rainfall, it is part of an east-flowing drainage system that eventually connects to the Finke River. - Lake Gordon (270 km²) Lake Gordon is the name of a lake created by the Gordon Dam on the upper reaches of the Gordon River in central Tasmania. The lake was created in the early 1970s for hydroelectric power by the Hydro Electricity Commission. It was one of the largest and most controversial hydro-electric power schemes in Tasmania. - Lake Torrens (5.745 km²) Lake Torrens is a 5,700 square kilometer endorheic saline rift lake in South Australia. It forms part of the same rift valley that includes Spencer Gulf to the south and is approximately 240 km long. It is in the Lake Torrens National Park, and a permit is required to visit. Lake Torrens is usually a dry salt flat.

Geography : coastlines 


The coastline of Australia measures some 25,760 km. It is generally regular, with few bays or capes. The largest inlets are the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north and the Great Australian Bight in the south. The several fine harbours include those of Sydney, Hobart, Port Lincoln, and Albany. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest known coral formation in the world. It extends some 2,010 km along the eastern coast of Queensland from Cape York in the north to Bundaberg in the south. The chain of reefs forms a natural breakwater along the coast for vessels of modest size but is sometimes hazardous for larger ships. Australia is an island, so it¶s surrounded by the Indian and the Pacific Ocean. The nearest countries are New Zealand, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. 

Neighbouring countries: 

Aesthetic Aspects : architecture and buildings
The Sydney Opera House (Sydney, New South Wales)

Designed by Jørn Utzon, a Danish architect, the Sydney Opera House is one of the most distinctive and famous 20th century buildings, and one of the most famous performing arts venues in the world.

Aesthetic Aspects : architecture and buildings

The great stade built for the Olympic games, in Sydney.

Aesthetic Aspects : architecture and buildings
Royal Exhibition Building (Melbourne) The Royal Exhibition Building was constructed in 1880 to house Australia's first international exhibition of cultural, technological, and industrial achievements. The design reflected Melbourne's position as a prosperous city basking in the wealth from the richest gold rush in the world.

Aesthetic Aspects : architecture and buildings
Queenslander (or Old Queenslander) architecture is an architectural style common throughout Queensland, Australia. It is also found in the northern parts of the adjacent state of New South Wales.

Aesthetic Aspects : architecture and buildings
In the city center, there are a lot of height buildings.



Tourism grew rapidly in the late 20th century, and it now represents one of the most dynamic sectors in the Australian economy, accounting for more than 500,000 jobs in the late 1990s. International tourism received a major boost from the highly successful Summer Olympic Games hosted in Sydney in 2000. Australia had 5 million visitors in 2005. The strong growth in domestic tourism has tapped the expanding range of attractions in each state and territory amusement and theme parks, zoos, art galleries and museums, certain mines and factories, national parks, historic sites, and wineries.

Tourist destinations 


Bondi Beach 

Natural reserv of Featherdale

Tourist destinations: Blue Montains

Tourist destinations : The Willandra Lakes  

The Willandra Lakes Region is a World Heritage Site that covers 2,400 square kilometres in southwestern New South Wales. The Region has important natural and cultural values including exceptional examples of past human civilization including the Worlds oldest cremation site. A small section of the Region is protected by the Mungo National Park.

Tourist Destinations : the Great Barrier Reef

Satellite image of part of the Great Barrier Reef adjacent to the Queensland coastal areas of Proserpine and Mackay.

Starfish on coral - typically, tourists photograph the natural beauty of the reef.

James Cook National Maritime Museum, United Kingdom Nathaniel Dance Captain James Cook (27 October 1728 ± 14 February 1779) was an English explorer, navigator and cartographer. Ultimately rising to the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy, Cook was the first to map Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean during which he achieved the first European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands as well as the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

National Maritime Museum, United Kingdom Nathaniel Dance.


William Dampier (baptised 5 September 1651 ± died March 1715) was an English buccaneer, sea captain, author and scientific observer. He was the first Englishman to explore or map parts of New Holland (Australia) and New Guinea. He was the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.

History : the gold rush
The gold discovery in 1980 years changed fundamentaly the social and economic structures.

Gold rush : The Super Pit in Kalgoorlie, Australia's largest open cut gold mine

An example of an historic district : the Rocks (Sydney)
The Rocks is an innercity suburb, tourist precinct and historic area of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour, immediately north-west of the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of the City of Sydney.

Cultural Aspects 

Pastime The Australian mainland has been inhabited for more than 42,000 years by Indigenous Australians. After sporadic visits by fishermen from the north and by European explorers and merchants starting in the 17th century. But in 1606, the Spanish called Luis de Torres discovered Australia but he never lived there. It¶s just 82 years later that the British conquered West Australia. It¶s really in 1788 that the English started to live there and started commerce. As the population grew and new areas were explored, another five largely self-governing Crown Colonies were established during the 19th century. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies became a federation, and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed.

Cultural Aspects : Customs, traditions, rituals
Since 1788, the primary basis of Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic, although distinctive Australian features had been evolving from the environment and indigenous culture. At this time, we can say that Australian culture is strongly influenced by the American culture (particularly cinema and television). The indigenous cultures are transmitted orally and are closely tied to ceremony.

-Australian Aboriginal music, dance and art have a palpable influence on contemporary Australian visual and performing arts -Australian literature has also been influenced by the landscape -Australian English is a major variety of the language; its grammar and spelling are largely based on those of British English, overlaid with a rich vernacular of unique lexical items and phrases, some of which have found their way into Standard English.

Sport plays an important part in Australian culture, assisted by a climate that favors outdoor activities; 23.5% Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organized sporting activities. Religion: they are essentially Christians (Catholics and orthodoxies) Languages: the mother language is English but they also speak a little bit Anglo Australian and Chinese. Advance Australia fair: it was created in April 1984. Australia day: it¶s the English arrival in Sydney the 26th January in 1788.

Vegemite on toast. It is a dark brown, savoury food paste made from yeast extract, used mainly as a spread on sandwiches, toast and cracker biscuits, as well as a filling of pastries like Cheesymite scroll The Chiko Roll or CHIKO Roll is an Australian savoury snack developed by Francis McEncroe, a boilermaker from Bendigo, and first appeared at the Wagga Wagga Show in 1951. It was inspired by the Chinese Egg roll and spring rolls and was designed to be able to be eaten with one hand whilst drinking a beer with the other.


The basic formula for a sausage roll is generally a sheet of puff pastry sliced into two and wrapped into tubes around a filling based on sausage meat, blended with softer ingredients such as soaked bread, onion and egg, before being cooked. They can be served either hot or cold. An Australian meat pie is a hand-sized pie containing largely minced meat and gravy and often consumed as a takeaway food snack.

A pie floater is a meal served at pie carts in Adelaide and elsewhere in South Australia. It was once more widely available in other parts of Australia but its popularity waned. It consists of the traditional Australian meat pie covered with tomato sauce (similar to ketchup), sitting, usually inverted, in a plate of thick green pea soup. Meat and three veg is a staple of rural cuisine throughout the world. Often, the menu is set, and in some places, affixed to the wall. The menu is usually Prix Fixe; the price is the same no matter what selections are made. While similar to the blue plate special, blue plate specials can deviate from this format to be anything the management desires to feature. The fundamental philosophy of an affordable yet filling meal is the same.




The United Kingdom and Ireland were traditionally the principal countries of origin for the majority of immigrants to Australia. Since World War II however, Australia¶s population has become more ethnically diverse as people have immigrated from a wider range of countries. In 2000 only 39 percent of new arrivals came from those major English-speaking countries. From 1995 to 2000, people from New Zealand constituted 18 percent of total immigration; those from the United Kingdom, 11 percent; China, 8 percent; the former Yugoslavia (overwhelmingly refugees and asylum seekers), 7 percent; South Africa, 5 percent; and India, 4 percent. These six principal countries of birth represented about 53 percent of total immigration during those years. People of European descent constitute about 91 percent of Australia¶s population.

Economic Forecast
Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Rising output in the domestic economy has been offsetting the global slump, and business and consumer confidence remains robust.

GDP¶s structure in Australia in 2003.

Economic Forecast

White : telephones

Blue : Cell-phones

Red : Internet

Economic Forecast


Australia is rich in mineral resources, notably bauxite, coal, diamonds, gold, iron ore, mineral sands, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, and uranium. Readily cultivable farmland is at a premium because much of the land is desert.

Iron ore

Relations Australia\foreign countries  

Since a long time Australiaµs foreign relations have been driven by close associations with the UNITED ±STATES through the ANZUS pact. Australia has a strong desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific by an association called ASEAN and the PACIFIC ISLANDS FORUM. Australia is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Australia has pursued the cause of international trade liberation. Australia is a founding member of the United Nations and maintains an international aid programme under which 60 countries receive assistance.

Trade links : imports / exports

Trade links : agricultural

Political Issues 

Since the 1 January 1901, the six old colonies are a federation, and the Commonwealth of Australia is formed. Australia has now a stable liberal democratic political system and remains a Commonwealth Realm. There are three branches in the government: 

the legislature: The executive: The judiciary:


There are three major political parties: 

The Australian Labor Party The Liberal Party The National Party.

The capital city is Canberra, located in the Australian Capital Territory. Each territories have is own governor which is designed by the queen and its government formed from 12 to 17 ministers.

The Trains
A historical lack of cooperation between the states, combined with sheer distances and a relatively small population to service, have left Australia with a national rail network that is relatively slow and used mainly for freight. As a result, travel between major cities will not only be faster by air, but often cheaper as well depending on the route you wish to travel. Train travel between cities is, however, more scenic, and tourists are likely to see more of Australia travelling by train than they would otherwise see.
Transportation: Railways: total: 54,652 km (3,859 km electrified) (2004).

Infrastructures : Railway¶s map

Infrastructures : airports 

Airports: 450 (2005).

Due to the extremely large distances involved, flying is a wellpatronised form of travel in Australia. Fares are generally low, due to the amount of competition, and flights depart regularly. Services along the main business travel corridor ( MelbourneSydney-Brisbane ) are run almost like a bus service, with flights leaving every 15 minutes during the day. Sydney¶s Airport

Infrastructures : boats
While Sydney has a fleet of extremely fun ferries that serve the population living around the harbour and boat sports are popular in many regional locations, there are very few inter-city boat services other than cruise ships. Some exceptions are the ferries between Palm Beach on Sydney's Northern Beaches and the New South Wales Central Coast; and the more famous car ferry services to Devonport in Tasmania departing from Melbourne.

Infrastructures : ports
Australia has got a great number of ports. Some examples :
Port of Brisbane is the shipping port of Brisbane. It currently is the third busiest port in Australia and the nation's fastest growing container port. It includes the main shipping channel across the Moreton Bay which extends 90 km north to Caloundra and is dredged to maintain a depth fourteen metres at the lowest tide.

The Port of Gladstone is the fifth largest multi cargo port in Australia and the largest port in Queensland by volume of goods handled.

Ports in Australia

Industrial heritage
Manufacturing became increasingly exportoriented in the 1980s and 1990s, and by the end of the century the proportion of sales made to overseas markets approached 30 percent of the total. Principal branches of the manufacturing sector by value of production are metals and metal products, food products, transportation equipment, machinery, chemicals and chemical products, textiles and clothing, wood and paper products, and printing, publishing, and recording media. Despite Australia¶s wealth of mineral resources, Australian car manufacturing mineral processing is limited. Manufacturing facilities are concentrated in New South Wales (especially in Sydney and Newcastle), Victoria (primarily in the Melbourne metropolitan area), and secondarily in the state capitals and main provincial centres. New South Wales is noted for the production of iron and steel, jet aircraft, construction equipment, synthetic fibres, electronic equipment, power cables, and petroleum and petrochemical products. In Melbourne, industrial activity includes the manufacture and assembly of machinery and motor vehicles and the production of food and clothing. Geelong, located near Melbourne, is an important industrial center: manufactures include wool, motor vehicles, smelted aluminium, phosphate fertilizers, and petrochemicals. Tasmanian industry, assisted by inexpensive hydroelectric power, includes electrolytic zinc mills, paper mills, and a large confectionery factory. 

Employment structure

Current affairs and future plans  


-At this moment, all the Australian are preparing the federal elections which will be the 24th of November 2007.It¶s a real preoccupation of the country. According to the last poll the Australian labor party would be at the head with 57 % -One important event is the high carbon emissions One article from ABC (an Australian television channel) ³The latest figures submitted to the United Nations show Australia is one of the worst greenhouse gas emitters in the developed world, and rapidly getting worse.´