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Database System Modeling and design Framework
Key Terms cont.
± A database, a database management system and appropriate hardware and personnel.
number, Designation Hours worked, Pay rate Insurance, Pension
Database System: Hardware
Set of physical devices on which a database resides. It consists of one or more computers, disk drives, CRT terminals, printers, tape drives, connecting cables and other auxiliary and connecting hardware.
Printer TAPE Client Server Client 4 .Database System: Hardware cont.
such as providing reports or documents. 5 . which can be used by users.Database System: Software A database software includes two types of software ± General-purpose database management software. usually called the database management system (DBMS) ± Application software that uses DBMS facilities to manipulate the database to achieve a specific business function.
6 .Database System: Software cont. Application software is generally written standard programming language such as C. These programs utilise the command language of the DBMS and make use of the information contained in the data dictionary. or it may be written in a language (commonly called a fourth-generation language) supplied with the DBMS.
User Interface ± Language. such as application programs. the DBMS Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools ± Automated tools used to design databases and application programs. 7 .Database System: Software cont. menus and other facilities by which users interact with various system components.
± relationships that exists between various data structures. ± indexes that are used to access data quickly. 8 . ± screen and report format definitions that may be used by various application programs.Data Dictionary/Directory (Repository) A subsystem that keeps track of the ± definitions of all data items in the database.
± group and record-level data structures.Data Dictionary Definitions of data items in the database includes: ± Elementary-level data items (fields). 9 . and ± files or relational tables.
what the data mean. Data without clear meaning can be confusing. data structures and rules or constraints. Some of these properties include data definitions. minimum and maximum allowable values (where appropriate) and a brief description of each data item.Metadata Data that describe the properties or characteristics of data. Item name. misinterpreted. the data type. length. 10 . Metadata allow database designers and users to understand what data exist.
(ID) unique Manager is an employee of the organisation 11 . Emp. Name Mgr. 18 60 Name Character 15 Manager Number 9 Employee No. Data Item Name Type Name ID Dept Age Character Number Character Integer Value Length Min Max Description 30 9 10 2 Employee Name Employee No.Metadata E. Employee Age Dept. No.g. No. Dept.
managers. Users ± who need information from the database to carry out their primary business responsibility e. clerical personnel 12 . Executives.g. staff.Database System: People Two different types of people (users and practitioners) are concerned with the database.
13 . programmers. Practitioners ± people responsible for the database system and its associated application software. information systems managers. analysts. e. database and system designers.g. Database administrators.Database System: People cont.
H/W. The database structures are specified to the DBMS through the data dictionary.Components of a Database System Four components: People. S/W. 14 . Data Practitioners (analysts and database designers) in consultation with users identify data needs and design database structures to accommodate these needs.
Components of a DBS cont. Users enter data into the system by following specified procedures. Application programmes that access the database are written by practitioners and users to be run on computers. The entered data are maintained on hardware media such as disks and tapes. 15 .
Components of a DBS cont. Application Program Analyst Application Program Application Program DBMS DATA DICTIONARY/ DIRECTORY DATAB ASE Terminals User Computer PRINTER 16 .
Access. SQL Server 17 .Key Terms cont. E. Database Management System ± Systems software that facilitates the management of a database. Oracle.g.
Database Management System (DBMS)
± An application software that organises data into records in one or more databases and allows organising, accessing and sorting of the data in a variety of formats.
Relational DBMS ± Most common type of DBMS. Data elements are stored in different tables made up of rows and columns. Relates data in different tables through the use of common data element(s).
Components of a DBMS
DBMS USER User Query and Reporting Facilities Application Program Development Facilities Data Dictionary/ Directory Subsystem Security and Integrity Subsystem Database Access Subsystem DATAB ASE DATA DICTIONARY/ DIRECTORY
Data Security The database is a valuable resource needing protection. The DBMS provides database security by limiting access to the database to authorised personnel. Authorised users will generally be restricted as to the particular data they can access and whether they can update it. 21 .
3 1 2 4 Data items 22 .Data Security Access is often controlled by passwords and by data views. which are definitions of restricted portions of the database.
Data Integrity The integrity and consistency of the database are protected via constraints on values that data items can have and by backup and recovery capabilities provided within the DBMS. 23 . Data constraint definitions are maintained in the data dictionary.
24 .Data Integrity Backup and recovery are supported by software that automatically logs changes to the database and provides for a means of recovering the current state of the database in case of system failure.
25 . retrieval and update of data in the database. The DBMS provides the physical mechanisms allowing multiple users to access a variety of related data quickly and efficiently.Concurrent Data Access One of the chief functions of the DBMS is to support the access.
26 . Often query languages will contain facilities to format the results of queries as reports.User-Oriented Data Manipulation DBMS provides user-oriented data manipulation tools. Easy-to-use query languages allow users to formulate queries and request onetime reports directly from the database.
Data Manipulation Report generators have more powerful reporting facilities than those in the query language. 27 .
Application Development The DBMS commonly provides significant assistance to the application programmer. menu and report generation ± application generators ± compilers ± data and view definition facilities 28 . ± Tools for screen.
making the programming process itself considerably more efficient.Application Development Modern database systems provide language components that are much more powerful than those of traditional languages. ± Developer 2000/PowerBuilder for Oracle ± Visual Basic for Microsoft SQL server 29 .
Database Applications Databases range from those for a single user with a desktop computer to those on mainframe computers with thousands of users. Personal databases Workgroup databases Departmental databases Enterprise databases 30 .
a sales person keeping track of this customer information with contact details. 31 .Personal Computer Databases Designed to support one user with a standard alone PC. E.g.
E.g.Workgroup Databases A relatively small team of people (less than 25) who collaborate on the same project or application. 32 . a software development team maintaining a list of software objects.
jobs. It is larger than a workgroup. E. 33 . a personnel database that is designed to track data concerning employees.g. skills and job assignments.Department Databases A department is a functional unit of an organisation. Department databases are designed to support the various functions and activities of a department.
a large health care organisation that operates a group of medical centre's including hospitals. clinics and nursing homes.g. E. Such databases are intended to support organisation-wide operations and decision making. 34 .Enterprise Databases An enterprise is one whose scope is the entire organisation or enterprise.
Data warehouse ± An integrated decision support database whose content is derived from the various operational databases.Enterprise Databases cont. 35 . The most important type of enterprise database today is called a data warehouse. An enterprise database does support information needs from many departments.
Database Environment Marketing Sales Advertising Accounts Receivable Accounts Payable Accounting Accounting Corporate Database Marketing Purchasing 36 .
External level . The distancing of the internal level from the external level means that users do not need to know how the data is physically stored in the database. . This level separation also allows the Database Administrator (DBA) to change the database storage structures without affecting the users' views. Made databases more independent of application Became a standard for the organisation of DBMS 37 .Internal level (includes physical data storage) The 3 Level Architecture has the aim of enabling users to access the same data but with a personalized view of it. A standard three level approach to database design has been agreed.3 Level ANSI/SPARC Architecture ANSI SPARC is an acronym for the American National Standard Institute Standard Planning and Requirements Committee.Conceptual level .
3 Levels External ± User¶s and Application¶s view of data Conceptual ± Logical Data Model Physical ± Physical data Model 38 .
External (Sub) Schema ± defines the external view of data as seen by a user or program Conceptual Schema ± defines the logical view of data as seen by all users and programs Physical (Internal) Schema ± defines the physical view of data as seen by a DBMS 39 .
3 Level Architecture user a user i/program j program x sub-schema a sub-schema i sub-schema z conceptual schema physical schema Databa ses 40 .
Rudra Prasad Name (20 characters) |222. Gole Road.Physical View The DBMS must know ± exact physical location ± precise physical structure Employee record A.C. Pune Address (40 characters) 650370690V | Lecturer | database NID (10 char) Designation (15 char) 41 .B.
Physical Database Design is the responsibility of the Database Administrator (DBA).Physical View Physical view provides the disk drives. Physical devices to contain the data Access methods to retrieve and update data maintain and improve database performance 42 . No user is concerned with this view. indexes and pointers. physical addresses.
B. Colombo 43 .Logical View The user/application must know ± existence ± logical reference NID 650370690V database Employee Name A. Galle Road.C. De Silva Designation Senior Lecturer Address 222.
It is the result of the conceptual design which involves analysis of all users information needs and data definition of data items needs to meet them. SQL CREATE TABLE statement is used to define the data elements.Logical View This is a single logical description of all data elements and their relationships. 44 .
C. of Computer Science Age 35 45 database Designation Senior Lecturer .External View The user/application see ± authorised data ± own format Lecturer Name A. De Silva Department Dept.B.
External View This consists of user views of the database. Each of these views gives a useroriented description of the data elements and relationships of which the view is composed. Each definable user group will have its own view of the database. 46 .
E. Benefit application user will view part of the employee data. 47 .g. excluding data such as date of birth and salary.User View A logical description of some portion of the database that is required by a user to perform some task.
SQL CREATE VIEW statement is used to create these views and SQL GRANT statement is used to restrict its use to a user group.External View It can be derived directly from the conceptual schema. 48 . The collection of all user views is the external level.
dob ± provide user view e. age derived from dob or nid 49 . External Views Allows to ± hide unauthorised data e. department data taken from employee and department files ± derive new attributes e.External View cont.g.g. designation.g. view employee name. salary.
External Views Allows to ± change unit of measurement e.g. show age in years or months ± define security levels e. update access to employee file read-only to department file 50 .g.External View cont.
Mapping between Levels DBMS map or translate from one level to another. 51 . External Conceptual Conceptual Physical Database exists in reality only at the internal level.
DML/SQL user a user i/program j program x sub-schema a sub-schema i sub-schema z SDDL conceptual schema DDL physical schema Databa ses Practitioners: DBA 52 Users .
Practitioners:DBA Data Definition Language (DDL) .is the language component of a DBMS that defines data elements as it should appear to the end users and programmers. 53 . Sub-Schema Data Definition Language (SDDL) .is the language component of a DBMS that defines each data element as it appears in the database.
Structured Query Language (SQL) . is the standard data manipulation for relational DBMSs.is a language associated with a DBMS that is employed by end users and programmers to manipulate data in the database.pronounced as sequel. 54 .User Data Manipulation Language (DML) .
Characteristics of Early DBMS Centralised Storage Management Transaction Management Recovery Facilities System Maintained Access Paths 55 .
Characteristics of Modern DBMS Query processing and optimisation Transaction management Concurrency control Database recovery Database security and authorisation Distributed databases Data warehousing and data mining 56 .
Main Functions are: ± Shared data ± Control redundancy ± Data integrity ± Data security 57 .Function of a DBMS Functions of a DBMS are concerned with providing efficient flexible data processing capabilities without compromising data validity.
but basic operations are: Data definition Data entry Data manipulation Data display 58 .Capabilities of a DBMS Capabilities vary considerable.
Database Approach Advantages Program-data independence Minimal data redundancy Improved data consistency Improved data sharing Increased productivity of application development Enforcement of standards Improved data quality Improved data accessibility and responsiveness Reduced program maintenance 59 .
Program-Data/Data Independence The separation of data descriptions (metadata) from the application programs that use the data. In the database approach data descriptions are stored in a central location called the data dictionary. 60 . This property allows an organisation¶s data to change and evolve (within limits) without changing the application program that process the data.
employee no.Minimal Data Redundancy Data files are integrated into a single.g.g. Each primary fact is recorded (ideally) in only one place in the database. Note: Data redundancy is not eliminated entirely. Some data items will appear in more than one place (e. logical structure. 61 . E. Employee data not with the payroll and benefit files.) to represent the relationship with others.
E. Also. employee address is stored only once and hence we cannot have disagreement on the stored values.g.Improved Data Consistency By eliminating (or controlling) data redundancy. updating data values is greatly simplified and have avoid the wasted storage space. we greatly reduce the opportunities for inconsistency. 62 .
63 . E. and each user (or group of users) is provided one or more user views to facilitate this use. employee data common to payroll.g.Improved Data Sharing A database is designed as a shared corporate resource. benefit applications will be shared among different users. Authorised users are granted permission to use the database.
64 . ± Programmer could concentrate on the specific functions required for the new application. without having to worry about design or low-level implementation details. as related data have already been designed and implemented.Increased Productivity of Application Development A major advantage of the database approach is that it greatly reduces the cost and time for developing new business applications.
± DBMS provides a number of high-level productivity tools such as forms and report generations and high-level languages that automate some of the activities of database design and implementation.Increased Productivity of Application Development cont. 65 .
66 . updating and protecting data. the database administration function should be granted single-point authority and responsibility for establishing and enforcing data standards.Enforcement of Standards ± When the database approach is implemented with full management support. ± Standards include naming conventions. data quality standards and uniform procedures for accessing. ± Powerful set of tools for developing and enforcing these standards are available for some DBMS.
± Database designers can specify integrity constraints that are enforced by the DBMS. 67 . Constraint A rule that cannot be violated by database users. ± One of the objectives of a data warehouse environment is to clean up operational data before they are placed in the data warehouse.Improved Data Quality A number of tools and processes are available to improve data quality.
end users without programming experience can often retrieve and display data. 68 . even when it crosses traditional departmental boundaries. ± English-like query language SQL and query tools such as Query-By-Example provide such facilities.Improved Data Accessibility and Responsiveness With relational database.
Data independence allows to reduce the program maintenance time.Reduced Program Maintenance Stored data are changed frequently for variety of reasons such as new data items types are added. date format from two-digit to four digit). and data formats change (e.g. 69 .
Hardware. 70 .Database Approach Disadvantages DBMS are more vulnerable than file-based system because of the centralised nature of a large integrated database. software and personnel cost are higher for DBMS. If a failure occurs the recovery process is more complex and some times may results in lost transactions.
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