# INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P.

BIBANGCO

Systems and Models
Chapter 2 – El Jireh P. Bibangco

Learning Objectives

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

In this chapter you will learn about: §
§ § § § System: Characteristics and Composition Models and Category Simulation Life Cycle

System

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

§ Definition: a group of objects that are joined together in some regular intersection or interdependence towards the accomplishment of some purpose. § A system has three characteristics:
§ A system has more than one element § All elements of a system are logically related § All elements of a system are controlled in a manner to achieve the system goal(s)

System (cont.)

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

§ System environment – everything outside the system and has influence on it behavior § Boundary – line that separates a system from its environment § Entity – object of interest in a system
§ Attribute – a characteristic of an entity § Behavior – an action that an entity is capable of performing § Activity – represents a time period of specified length

Entity – On Focus
Example Entity: § Bank Customer

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

 

Attribute: balance in their accounts, name, address Behavior: deposit, withdraw, sit Activity: making deposits, withdrawing

System (cont.)

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

§ State (state variable) – collection of variables necessary to describe a system
§ Endogenous – value determined by other variables § Exogenous – unaffected values

§ Event – instantaneous occurrence that may change that state of the system
§ Endogenous –occuring within a system § Exogenous –in the environment that affect the system

Studying a System
SYSTEM
Actual System System Model

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Physical Model

Mathematical Model

Analytical Solution

Simulation

Experience – On Focus
Experience Pros
•Great teacher •Many situations •Deal with the unexpected •Thorough understanding of processes •Broader knowledge •

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Cons
•Expensive •Not always practical •Time consuming •Impossible for all situations •Can be complex •

Why Model?
Experience Pros
•Great teacher •Many situations •Deal with the unexpected •Thorough understanding of processes •Broader knowledge •

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation Provides “Virtual Experience” Cons
•Expensive •Not always practical •Time consuming •Impossible for all situations •Can be complex •

or M

ros eP

•Expensive •Not always practical •Time consuming •Impossible for all situations •Can be complex •

•Cheap •Flexible •Fast •Adaptable •Simplifying •

An Approach to Decision Making
Situation Decision Implementation

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Payoff

Owner has been a programmer for 25 years Shouldsimulation software sell well! The the software company develop The company spends software will new and thinks gamesoftwareP500,000 onto sell: simulation software can be developed But fewer the simulationin addition software and Good!” game software? “Well & advertising. Net profit falls
Relying solely on intuition is risky No feedback until the final outcome

Decision Making – Using a Model
Model Analysis Results

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Abstraction

Symbolic World Real World

Judgment

Intuition Situation Decisions

Interpretation

Decision Making – Using a Model
Interpretation of model results

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Decision

Implementation

Payoff

Intuition of situation

Models and Types
§ §

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Model – representation of a system Types of Models:
§ Static or Dynamic – in static models, time plays no role while dynamic models evolve over time § Deterministic or Stochastic – deterministic model does not contain any probabilistic components, while stochastic models incorporate random inputs § Discrete or Continuous – in discrete model, state variables change instantaneously, while in continuous model, state variables change

Simulation Life Cycle

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

I te l i e n ce PM a se g e ri lP h a se n lg h ana a

ality Assurance Phase Developmental Phase Implementation Phase

Operations , Maintenance , and Arc

Intelligence Phase

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

§ Definition: involves understanding the environment and determining problem to be solved.
§ Problem Definition – definition of objectives, and understanding of the underlying problem. § General Feasibility – conduct preliminary feasibility study (TELOS – technical, econimical, legal, operational, and schedule feasibility)

Managerial Phase

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

§ Definition: overall project plan; team, budget, and time management
§ Development of proposals – used to organized effort and ensure all participants are working toward a common goal § Securing a budget § Acquiring managerial support § Forming a project team

Developmental Phase

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

§ Definition: includes creation of simulation models and broke it into submodels.
§ Model Scaling (prototype) § Model Scope – determining the portion of the system to be represented (partitioning) § Modeling Views – event orientation, process orientation, or activity orientation § Data Collection and Analysis

Quality Assurance Phase
§ Definition: an ongoing activity to ensure a high quality simulation emerges during development

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

§ System Validation – accuracy of the simulation model as representation of the real-world system § Input Data Validation – qualitative and quantitative input format § Simulation Output Validation – comparison with data from similar system; expert opinion; and calculated expectations. § §

Implementation Phase

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

§ Definition: model use begins and decision support activities take place
§ Documentation and Reporting – progress and program documentation § System Model Deployment §

Operations, Maintenance, & Archival
§ Definition: involves storing of the model with consideration of its potential future use

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

END
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