INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P.

BIBANGCO

Queuing Theory
Prepared by: El Jireh Bibangco

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Learning Objectives
In this chapter you will learn about: 
  

Basic queuing concept and systems; classification of queuing systems; random digit assignment; and single and mutiple queues.

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Queue: Defined! 
Queue represents waiting line; insertions are made at the back (tail) of a queue and deletions are made at the front (head).  Queuing System - a model using the principles of a queue; it includes the server, the unit being served, and units in the queue (waiting line).
SERVER WAITING LINE POPULATION

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Terms 
State number of units in the system and the status of the server  Event set of circumstances that cause an instantaneous chance in the state of the system  Customer anything that arrives at the facility and required service  Server any resource which provides the requested service.

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Basic Queuing Configuration
Arrival Departure after Service

QUEUE

SERVICE FACILITY
Single-Channel, Single-Phase System

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Basic Queuing Configuration
Arrival Departure after Service

QUEUE
TYPE 1 SERVICE FACILITY TYPE 2 SERVICE FACILITY

Single-Channel, Multi-Phase System

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Basic Queuing Configuration
QUEUE
Arrival Departure after Service
TYPE 1 SERVICE FACILITY TYPE 2 SERVICE FACILITY

Multi-Channel, Single-Phase System

TYPE 3 SERVICE FACILITY

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Basic Queuing Configuration
QUEUE
Arrival
TYPE 1 SERVICE FACILITY 1 TYPE 2 SERVICE FACILITY 1

Departure after Service

Multi-Channel, Multi-Phase System

TYPE 1 SERVICE FACILITY 2

TYPE 2 SERVICE FACILITY 2

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Characteristics 
Calling Population the population of potential customers; may be assumed to be finite or infinite.  Nature of Arrivals one at a time in random;  Service Mechanism functionality; operation  System Capacity limited or unlimited  Queuing Discipline FIFO or priority scheduling

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Steps in Queue Simulation 
Determine input characteristics  Construct a simulation table  Perform a repetitive process generating a value for each input, evaluate the function and calculate the value of the response.

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Unit-enteringUnit-entering-system
Arrival Event

No Unit Enters Service Server Busy?

Yes Unit Enters Queue for Service

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Service-justService-just-completed
Departure Event

No Begin Server Idle Time Another Unit Waiting?

Yes Remove the Waiting Unit from Queue

Begin Servicing the Unit

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Potential unit action upon arrival
Queue Status Not Empty Server Status Busy Idle Enter Queue Impossible Empty Enter Queue Enter service

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Service outcomes after service
Queue Status Not Empty Server Busy Outcomes Idle Enter Queue Impossible Empty Impossible Enter service

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Elements of time
INTERARRIVAL & CLOCK TIME SERVICE TIME

C 1 2 3 4 5 6

IT 2 4 1 2 6

AT 0 2 6 7 9 15

C 1 2 3 4 5 6

ST 2 1 3 2 1 4

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation table with clock time
A B C C# Arrival Time TS Begins 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 2 6 7 9 15 0 2 6 9 11 15 D Service Time 2 1 3 2 1 4 E TS Ends 2 3 9 11 12 19

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Number of customers & clocktime

3

2

1

0 1

2

3

4

5

6 7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

An issue of random digit assignment 
A set of uniformly distributed random numbers is needed to generate the arrival.  Random number properties : 
The set of random numbers is uniformly distributed between 0 and 1.  Successive random numbers are independent.

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Case #1 : Single Queue 
A store has only one checkout counter. Customers arrive at this checkout counter at random from 1 to 8 minutes apart. Each possible value of interarrival time has the same probability of occurrence.  Compute for the cumulative probability and range of random-digit assignment. random-

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Case #1 (continued) 
Complete the time between arrivals table, the cumulative probability and random digit assignment. TA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Prob
0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125

7Prob
0.125 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000

RDA
001 - 125 126 - 250 251 - 375 376 - 500 501 - 625 626 - 750 751 - 875 876 - 000

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Case #1 (continued) 
Complete the service time table by computing the cumulative probability and random digit assignment. ST 1 2 3 4 5 6 Prob 7Prob 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.25 0.10 0.05
0.10 0.30 0.60 0.85 0.95 1.00

RDA
01 10 11 - 30 31 - 60 61 - 85 86 - 95 96 - 00

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Sample RDA
INTERARRIVAL & CLOCK TIME SERVICE TIME

C 1 2 3 4 n

RDA 913 727 015 999

IT 8 6 1 t

C 1 2 3 4 n

RDA 84 10 74 53 99

ST 4 1 4 3 t

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 10 Customers
Customer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 RDA (IT) 913 727 015 948 309 922 753 235 302 IT 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 RDA (ST) 84 10 74 53 17 79 91 67 89 38 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 10 Customers
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 IT 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB WT TSE TSS IT

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 10 Customers
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB WT TSE TSS IT

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 10 Customers
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT TSE TSS IT

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 10 Customers
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT TSE 4 9 18 21 25 30 39 45 50 53 TSS IT

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 10 Customers
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 4 TSE 4 9 18 21 25 30 39 45 50 53 TSS IT

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 10 Customers
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 4 TSE 4 9 18 21 25 30 39 45 50 53 TSS 4 1 4 6 2 4 5 4 7 7 IT

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 10 Customers
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 4 TSE 4 9 18 21 25 30 39 45 50 53 TSS 4 1 4 6 2 4 5 4 7 7 IT 0 4 5 0 2 1 4 2 0 0

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Average Waiting Time
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 4 TSE 4 9 18 21 25 30 39 45 50 53 TSS 4 1 4 6 2 4 5 4 7 7 IT 0 4 5 0 2 1 4 2 0 0 AWT = WT/ C = 9/10 = 0.9 minutes Given: WT = 9 C = 10 AWT = WT/ C

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Probability (Wait)
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 4 TSE 4 9 18 21 25 30 39 45 50 53 TSS 4 1 4 6 2 4 5 4 7 7 IT 0 4 5 0 2 1 4 2 0 0 P(W) = C(W)/ C = 3/10 = 0.3 or 30% Given: C(W) = 3 C = 10 P(W) = C(W)/ C

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Probability (Idle Server)
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 4 TSE 4 9 18 21 25 30 39 45 50 53 TSS 4 1 4 6 2 4 5 4 7 7 IT 0 4 5 0 2 1 4 2 0 0 P(IS) = IT/ RT = 18/53 = 0.34 or 34% Given: IT = 18 RT= 53 P(IS) = IT/ RT

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Average Service Time
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 4 TSE 4 9 18 21 25 30 39 45 50 53 TSS 4 1 4 6 2 4 5 4 7 7 IT 0 4 5 0 2 1 4 2 0 0 AST = ST/ C = 35/10 = 3.5 minutes Given: ST = 35 C= 10 AST = ST/ C

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Average Waiting Time (Wait)
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 4 TSE 4 9 18 21 25 30 39 45 50 53 TSS 4 1 4 6 2 4 5 4 7 7 IT 0 4 5 0 2 1 4 2 0 0 AWT(W)= WT/ C(W) = 9/3 = 3 minutes Given: WT = 9 C(W)= 3 AWT(W) = WT/ C(W)

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Average Time Spent on System
C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TBA 8 6 1 8 3 8 7 2 3 AT 0 8 14 15 23 26 34 41 43 46 ST 4 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 3 TSB 0 8 14 18 23 26 34 41 45 50 WT 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 4 TSE 4 9 18 21 25 30 39 45 50 53 TSS 4 1 4 6 2 4 5 4 7 7 IT 0 4 5 0 2 1 4 2 0 0 ATSS= TSS/ C = 44/10 = 4.4 minutes Given: TSS = 44 C= 10 ATSS= TSS/ C

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Case #2 : Double Queue 
Consider a drive-in restaurant where carhops take driveorders and bring food to the car. Cars arrive in the manner shown on the succeeding table. There are two carhops Able and Baker. Able is better able to do the job and works a faster than Baker. The distribution of their service times are also shown on the succeeding table. (to simplify the rule, Able gets the customer if both carhops are idle.)  Compute for the cumulative probability and range of random-digit assignment. random-

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Case #2 (continued) 
Complete the time between arrival table by computing the cumulative probability and random digit assignment. TA 1 2 3 4 Prob 7Prob 0.25 0.40 0.20 0.15
0.25 0.65 0.85 1.00

RDA
01 25 26 - 65 66 - 85 86 - 00

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Case #2 (continued) 
Service Distribution of Able ST 2 3 4 5 Prob 7Prob 0.30 0.28 0.25 0.17
0.30 0.58 0.83 1.00

RDA
01 30 31 - 58 59 - 83 84 - 00

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Case #2 (continued) 
Service Distribution of Baker ST 3 4 5 6 Prob 7Prob 0.35 0.25 0.20 0.20
0.35 0.60 0.80 1.00

RDA
01 35 36 - 60 61 - 80 81 - 00

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 5 Customers
ABLE C 1 2 3 4 5 RDA (TBA) 26 98 90 26 TBA AT RDA (ST) 95 21 51 92 89 TSB ST TSE TSB BAKER ST TSE WT

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 5 Customers
ABLE C 1 2 3 4 5 RDA (TBA) 26 98 90 26 TBA 2 4 4 2 AT RDA (ST) 95 21 51 92 89 TSB ST TSE TSB BAKER ST TSE WT

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 5 Customers
ABLE C 1 2 3 4 5 RDA (TBA) 26 98 90 26 TBA 2 4 4 2 AT 0 2 6 10 12 RDA (ST) 95 21 51 92 89 TSB ST TSE TSB BAKER ST TSE WT

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 5 Customers
ABLE C 1 2 3 4 5 RDA (TBA) 26 98 90 26 TBA 2 4 4 2 AT 0 2 6 10 12 RDA (ST) 95 21 51 92 89 TSB 0 ST 5 TSE 5 TSB BAKER ST TSE WT 0

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 5 Customers
ABLE C 1 2 3 4 5 RDA (TBA) 26 98 90 26 TBA 2 4 4 2 AT 0 2 6 10 12 RDA (ST) 95 21 51 92 89 TSB 0 ST 5 TSE 5 2 3 5 TSB BAKER ST TSE WT 0 0

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 5 Customers
ABLE C 1 2 3 4 5 RDA (TBA) 26 98 90 26 TBA 2 4 4 2 AT 0 2 6 10 12 RDA (ST) 95 21 51 92 89 6 3 9 TSB 0 ST 5 TSE 5 2 3 5 TSB BAKER ST TSE WT 0 0 0

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 5 Customers
ABLE C 1 2 3 4 5 RDA (TBA) 26 98 90 26 TBA 2 4 4 2 AT 0 2 6 10 12 RDA (ST) 95 21 51 92 89 6 10 3 5 9 15 TSB 0 ST 5 TSE 5 2 3 5 TSB BAKER ST TSE WT 0 0 0 0

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

Simulation with 5 Customers
ABLE C 1 2 3 4 5 RDA (TBA) 26 98 90 26 TBA 2 4 4 2 AT 0 2 6 10 12 RDA (ST) 95 21 51 92 89 6 10 3 5 9 15 12 6 18 TSB 0 ST 5 TSE 5 2 3 5 TSB BAKER ST TSE WT 0 0 0 0 0

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

D TOUR >>
ABLE C 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 RDA (TBA) 42 74 80 68 22 48 34 45 24 34 TBA 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 AT 14 17 20 23 24 26 28 30 31 33 RDA (ST) 38 13 61 50 49 39 53 88 01 81 35 4 39 30 5 35 32 3 35 24 27 3 3 27 30 28 4 32 TSB 15 18 20 ST 3 2 4 TSE 18 20 24 23 4 27 TSB BAKER ST TSE WT 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2

INSTRUCTOR: EL JIREH P. BIBANGCO

END
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