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BKF 1313 ENGINEERING MECHANICS STATIC INTRODUCTION TO MECHANICS

Introduction to Mechanics

What is Mechanics?

Study of what happens to a ³thing´ (the technical name is ³body´) when FORCES are applied to it.

Either the body or the forces could be large or small.

What is Mechanics?

Mechanics is the science which describes and predicts the conditions of rest or motion of bodies under the action of forces.

Categories of Mechanics: - Rigid bodies - Statics - Dynamics - Deformable bodies - Fluids Mechanics is an applied science - it is not an abstract or pure science but does not have the empiricism found in other engineering sciences. Mechanics is the foundation of most engineering sciences and is an indispensable prerequisite to their study.

Branches of Mechanics

Mc a ic eh n s Tp titleh re ye e

R idB d s ig o ie (T in sth t d n t c a g s a e h g a o o hne hp)

Dfo a leB d s e rmb o ie (T in sth t d c a g s a e h g a o hne hp)

F id lu s

S tic ta s

Dn m s y a ic

In o p s ib Cmre s le c mre s le o p s ib

What may happen if static s is not applied properly

Fundamental Concepts

Space - associated with the notion of the position of a point P given in terms of three coordinates measured from a reference point or origin.

Time - definition of an event requires specification of the time and position at which it occurred. Mass - used to characterize and compare bodies, e.g., response to earth¶s gravitational attraction and resistance to changes in translational motion. Force - represents the action of one body on another. A force is characterized by its point of application, magnitude, and direction, i.e., a force is a vector quantity. In Newtonian Mechanics, space, time, and mass are absolute concepts, independent of each other. Force, however, is not independent of the other three. The force acting on a body is related to the mass of the body and the variation of its velocity with time.

Fundamental Principles

Newton¶s First Law: If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the particle will remain at rest or continue to move in a straight line. Newton¶s Second Law: A particle will have an acceleration proportional to a nonzero resultant applied force. T T F ! ma Newton¶s Third Law: The forces of action and reaction between two particles have the same magnitude and line of action with opposite sense. Newton¶s Law of Gravitation: Two particles are attracted with equal and opposite forces, Principle of Transmissibility

!G

Parallelogram Law

r2

W ! g,

g!

G R2

SYSTEMS OF UNITS

** Four fundamental physical quantities. Length, mass, time, force.
**

One equation relates them, F = m * a

We use this equation to develop systems of units Units are arbitrary names we give to the physical quantities.

UNIT SYSTEMS

Define 3 of the units and call them the base units. Derive the 4th unit (called the derived unit) using F = m * a. We will work with one unit system in static¶s: SI.

RULES FOR USING SI SYMBOLS

No Plurals (e.g., m = 5 kg not kgs ) Separate Units with a (e.g., meter second = m s )

Most symbols are in lowercase ( some exception are N, Pa, M and G) Exponential powers apply to units , e.g., cm2 = cm cm Other rules are given in your textbook

NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS

Must have dimensional homogeneity. Dimensions have to be the same on both sides of the equal sign, (e.g. distance = speed v time.) Use an appropriate number of significant figures (3 for answer, at least 4 for intermediate calculations). Be consistent when rounding off. - greater than 5, round up (3528 3530) - smaller than 5, round down (0.03521 0.0352) - equal to 5,

**PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY: IPE, A 3 Step Approach
**

1. Interpret: Read carefully and determine what is given and what is to be found/ delivered. Ask, if not clear. If necessary, make assumptions and indicate them. 2. Plan: Think about major steps (or a road map) that you will take to solve a given problem. Think of alternative/creative solutions and choose the best one.

3. Execute: Carry out your steps. Use appropriate diagrams and equations. Estimate your answers. Avoid simple calculation mistakes. Reflect on / revise your work.

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