# WEEK 1_01

BKF 1313 ENGINEERING MECHANICS STATIC INTRODUCTION TO MECHANICS

Introduction to Mechanics

What is Mechanics?
 Study of what happens to a ³thing´ (the technical name is ³body´) when FORCES are applied to it.
 Either the body or the forces could be large or small.

What is Mechanics?
 Mechanics is the science which describes and predicts the conditions of rest or motion of bodies under the action of forces.

 Categories of Mechanics: - Rigid bodies - Statics - Dynamics - Deformable bodies - Fluids  Mechanics is an applied science - it is not an abstract or pure science but does not have the empiricism found in other engineering sciences.  Mechanics is the foundation of most engineering sciences and is an indispensable prerequisite to their study.

Branches of Mechanics
Mc a ic eh n s Tp titleh re ye e

R idB d s ig o ie (T in sth t d n t c a g s a e h g a o o hne hp)

Dfo a leB d s e rmb o ie (T in sth t d c a g s a e h g a o hne hp)

F id lu s

S tic ta s

Dn m s y a ic

In o p s ib Cmre s le c mre s le o p s ib

What may happen if static s is not applied properly

Fundamental Concepts
 Space - associated with the notion of the position of a point P given in terms of three coordinates measured from a reference point or origin.

 Time - definition of an event requires specification of the time and position at which it occurred.  Mass - used to characterize and compare bodies, e.g., response to earth¶s gravitational attraction and resistance to changes in translational motion.  Force - represents the action of one body on another. A force is characterized by its point of application, magnitude, and direction, i.e., a force is a vector quantity. In Newtonian Mechanics, space, time, and mass are absolute concepts, independent of each other. Force, however, is not independent of the other three. The force acting on a body is related to the mass of the body and the variation of its velocity with time.

Fundamental Principles
 Newton¶s First Law: If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the particle will remain at rest or continue to move in a straight line.  Newton¶s Second Law: A particle will have an acceleration proportional to a nonzero resultant applied force. T T F ! ma  Newton¶s Third Law: The forces of action and reaction between two particles have the same magnitude and line of action with opposite sense.  Newton¶s Law of Gravitation: Two particles are attracted with equal and opposite forces,  Principle of Transmissibility
!G

 Parallelogram Law

r2

W ! g,

g!

G R2

SYSTEMS OF UNITS

 Four fundamental physical quantities.  Length, mass, time, force.
 One equation relates them, F = m * a

 We use this equation to develop systems of units  Units are arbitrary names we give to the physical quantities.

UNIT SYSTEMS
 Define 3 of the units and call them the base units. Derive the 4th unit (called the derived unit) using F = m * a.  We will work with one unit system in static¶s: SI.

RULES FOR USING SI SYMBOLS

 No Plurals (e.g., m = 5 kg not kgs )  Separate Units with a  (e.g., meter second = m  s )

 Most symbols are in lowercase ( some exception are N, Pa, M and G)  Exponential powers apply to units , e.g., cm2 = cm  cm  Other rules are given in your textbook

NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS
 Must have dimensional homogeneity. Dimensions have to be the same on both sides of the equal sign, (e.g. distance = speed v time.)  Use an appropriate number of significant figures (3 for answer, at least 4 for intermediate calculations).  Be consistent when rounding off. - greater than 5, round up (3528 3530) - smaller than 5, round down (0.03521 0.0352) - equal to 5,

PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY: IPE, A 3 Step Approach
1. Interpret: Read carefully and determine what is given and what is to be found/ delivered. Ask, if not clear. If necessary, make assumptions and indicate them. 2. Plan: Think about major steps (or a road map) that you will take to solve a given problem. Think of alternative/creative solutions and choose the best one.

3. Execute: Carry out your steps. Use appropriate diagrams and equations. Estimate your answers. Avoid simple calculation mistakes. Reflect on / revise your work.