# SLaLlc of parLlcle

2 - 1
onLenLs
2 - 2
· Introduction
· Resultant oI Two Forces
· Vectors
· Resultant oI Several Concurrent
Forces
· Sample Problem 2.1
· Rectangular Components oI a
Force: Unit Vectors
· Addition oI Forces by Summing
Components
· Sample Problem 2.3
· Equilibrium oI a Particle
· Free-Body Diagrams
· Sample Problem 2.4
· Sample Problem 2.6
· Rectangular Components in Space
nLroducLlon
2 - 3
· The obiective Ior the current chapter is to investigate the eIIects oI Iorces
on particles:
- replacing multiple Iorces acting on a particle with a single
equivalent or resultant Iorce,
- relations between Iorces acting on a particle that is in a
state oI equilibrium.
· The Iocus on particles does not imply a restriction to miniscule bodies.
Rather, the study is restricted to analyses in which the size and shape oI
the bodies is not signiIicant so that all Iorces may be assumed to be
applied at a single point.
esulLanL of 1wo lorces
2 - 4
· Iorce: action oI one body on another;
characterized by its point of application,
magnitude, line of action, and sense.
· Experimental evidence shows that the
combined eIIect oI two Iorces may be
represented by a single resultant Iorce.
· The resultant is equivalent to the diagonal oI
a parallelogram which contains the two
· Force is a vector quantity.
IecLors
2 - 5
· 'ector: parameter possessing magnitude and direction
which add according to the parallelogram law. Examples:
displacements, velocities, accelerations.
· Vector classiIications:
- Fixed or bound vectors have well deIined points oI
application that cannot be changed without aIIecting
an analysis.
- Free vectors may be Ireely moved in space without
changing their eIIect on an analysis.
- Sliding vectors may be applied anywhere along their
line oI action without aIIecting an analysis.
· Equal vectors have the same magnitude and direction.
· Negative vector oI a given vector has the same magnitude
and the opposite direction.
· Scalar: parameter possessing magnitude but not
direction. Examples: mass, volume, temperature
ddlLlon of IecLors
2 - 6
· Trapezoid rule Ior vector addition
· Triangle rule Ior vector addition
B
B
C
C
" ! #
!" " ! #
6 6 6

cos 2
2 2 2
· Law oI cosines,
· Law oI sines,
"

#

!
sin sin sin

! " " !
6 6 6 6

· Vector subtraction
ddlLlon of IecLors
2 - 7
· Addition oI three or more vectors through
repeated application oI the triangle rule
· The polygon rule Ior the addition oI three or
more vectors.
S " ! S " ! S " !
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

· Multiplication oI a vector by a scalar
esulLanL of Several oncurrenL lorces
2 - 8
· oncurrent forces: set oI Iorces which all
pass through the same point.
A set oI concurrent Iorces applied to a
particle may be replaced by a single
resultant Iorce which is the vector sum oI the
applied Iorces.
· 'ector force components: two or more Iorce
vectors which, together, have the same eIIect
as a single Iorce vector.
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ1
2 - 9
The two Iorces act on a bolt at
. Determine their resultant.
SOLUTION:
· Graphical solution - construct a
parallelogram with sides in the same
direction as ! and " and lengths in
proportion. Graphically evaluate the
resultant which is equivalent in direction
and proportional in magnitude to the the
diagonal.
· Trigonometric solution - use the triangle
rule Ior vector addition in coniunction
with the law oI cosines and law oI sines
to Iind the resultant.
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ1
2 - 10
· Graphical solution - A parallelogram with sides
equal to ! and " is drawn to scale. The
magnitude and direction oI the resultant or oI
the diagonal to the parallelogram are measured,
H 35 N 98 - #
· Trigonometric solution - A triangle is drawn
with ! and " head-to-tail and to scale. The
magnitude and direction oI the resultant or oI
the third side oI the triangle are measured,
H 35 N 98 - #
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ1
2 - 11
· Trigonometric solution - Apply the triangle rule.
From the Law oI Cosines,
H

155 cos N 60 N 40 2 N 60 N 40
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2
!" " ! #

#
"

#

"

H
H
H

20
04 . 15
N 73 . 97
N 60
155 sin
sin sin
sin sin
-
N 73 . 97 #
From the Law oI Sines,
H 04 . 35 -
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ2
2 - 12
a) the tension in each oI the ropes
Ior - 45
o
,
b) the value oI - Ior which the
tension in rope 2 is a minimum.
A barge is pulled by two tugboats.
II the resultant oI the Iorces
exerted by the tugboats is 5000 lbI
directed along the axis oI the
barge, determine
SOLUTION:
· Find a graphical solution by applying the
Parallelogram Rule Ior vector addition. The
parallelogram has sides in the directions oI
the two ropes and a diagonal in the direction
oI the barge axis and length proportional to
5000 lbI.
· The angle Ior minimum tension in rope 2 is
determined by applying the Triangle Rule
and observing the eIIect oI variations in -.
· Find a trigonometric solution by applying
the Triangle Rule Ior vector addition. With
the magnitude and direction oI the resultant
known and the directions oI the other two
sides parallel to the ropes, apply the Law oI
Sines to Iind the rope tensions.
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ2
2 - 13
· Graphical solution - Parallelogram Rule
with known resultant direction and
magnitude, known directions Ior sides.
lbI 2600 lbI 3700
2 1
% %
· Trigonometric solution - Triangle Rule
with Law oI Sines
H

H

H 105 sin
lbI 5000
30 sin 45 sin
2 1
% %
lbI 2590 lbI 3660
2 1
% %
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ2
2 - 14
· The angle Ior minimum tension in rope 2 is
determined by applying the Triangle Rule
and observing the eIIect oI variations in -.
· The minimum tension in rope 2 occurs when
%

and %

are perpendicular.
H 30 sin lbI 5000
2
% lbI 2500
2
%
H 30 cos lbI 5000
1
% lbI 4330
1
%
H H 30 90 - H 60 -
ecLanaular omponenLs of a lorceť
unlL IecLors
2 - 15
· Vector components may be expressed as products oI
the unit vectors with the scalar magnitudes oI the
vector components.
F
x
and F
v
are reIerred to as the scalar components oI
i F i F F
v x
6 6 6

F
6
· May resolve a Iorce vector into perpendicular
components so that the resulting parallelogram is a
rectangle. are reIerred to as rectangular
vector components and
v x
F F F
6 6 6

v x
F F
6 6
and
· DeIine perpendicular unit vectors which are
parallel to the x and v axes.
i i
6 6
and
ddlLlon of lorces bv Summlna
omponenLs
2 - 16
S " ! #
6 6 6 6

· Wish to Iind the resultant oI 3 or more
concurrent Iorces,
i S " ! i S " !
i S i S i " i " i ! i ! i # i #
v v v x x x
v x v x v x v x
6 6
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

· Resolve each Iorce into rectangular components

x
x x x x
F
S " ! #
· The scalar components oI the resultant are equal
to the sum oI the corresponding scalar
components oI the given Iorces.

v
v v v v
F
S " ! #
x
v
v x
#
#
# # #
1 2 2
tan

7
· To Iind the resultant magnitude and direction,
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ3
2 - 17
Four Iorces act on bolt as shown.
Determine the resultant oI the Iorce
on the bolt.
SOLUTION:
· Resolve each Iorce into rectangular
components.
· Calculate the magnitude and direction
oI the resultant.
· Determine the components oI the
Iorce components.
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ3
2 - 18
SOLUTION:
· Resolve each Iorce into rectangular components.
9 . 25 6 . 96 100
0 . 110 0 110
2 . 75 4 . 27 80
0 . 75 9 . 129 150
4
3
2
1

F
F
F
F
comp v comp x mag force
6
6
6
6
2 2
3 . 14 1 . 199 #
N 6 . 199 #
· Calculate the magnitude and direction.
N 1 . 199
N 3 . 14
tan -
H 1 . 4 -
· Determine the components oI the resultant by
1 . 199
x
# 3 . 14
v
#
ulllbrlum of a ÞarLlcle
2 - 19
· When the resultant oI all Iorces acting on a particle is zero, the particle is
in equilibrium.
· Particle acted upon by
two Iorces:
- equal magnitude
- same line oI action
- opposite sense
· Particle acted upon by three or more Iorces:
- graphical solution yields a closed polygon
- algebraic solution
0 0
0

v x
F F
F #
6 6
· Newtons First Law: II the resultant Iorce on a particle is zero, the particle will
remain at rest or will continue at constant speed in a straight line.
lreeŴ8odv ulaarams
2 - 20
Space Diagram: A sketch showing
the physical conditions oI the
problem.
Free-odv Diagram: A sketch showing
only the Iorces on the selected particle.
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ4
2 - 21
3500-lb automobile is supported by
a cable. A rope is tied to the cable
and pulled to center the automobile
over its intended position. What is
the tension in the rope?
SOLUTION:
· Construct a Iree-body diagram Ior the
particle at the iunction oI the rope and
cable.
· Apply the conditions Ior equilibrium by
creating a closed polygon Irom the
Iorces applied to the particle.
· Apply trigonometric relations to
determine the unknown Iorce
magnitudes.
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ4
2 - 22
SOLUTION:
· Construct a Iree-body diagram Ior the
particle at .
· Apply the conditions Ior equilibrium.
· Solve Ior the unknown Iorce magnitudes.
H

H

H 58 sin
lb 3500
2 sin 120 sin

% %
lb 3570

%
lb 144

%
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ6
2 - 23
It is desired to determine the drag Iorce
at a given speed on a prototype sailboat
hull. A model is placed in a test
channel and three cables are used to
align its bow on the channel centerline.
For a given speed, the tension is 40 lb
in cable and 60 lb in cable E.
Determine the drag Iorce exerted on the
hull and the tension in cable .
SOLUTION:
· Choosing the hull as the Iree body,
draw a Iree-body diagram.
· Express the condition Ior equilibrium
Ior the hull by writing that the sum oI
all Iorces must be zero.
· Resolve the vector equilibrium
equation into two component
equations. Solve Ior the two unknown
cable tensions.
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ6
2 - 24
SOLUTION:
· Choosing the hull as the Iree body, draw a
Iree-body diagram.
H

25 . 60
75 . 1
It 4
It 7
tan
-
-
H

56 . 20
375 . 0
It 4
It 1.5
tan
.
.
· Express the condition Ior equilibrium
Ior the hull by writing that the sum oI
all Iorces must be zero.
0
D E
F % % % #
6 6 6 6 6
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ6
2 - 25
· Resolve the vector equilibrium equation into
two component equations. Solve Ior the two
unknown cable tensions.

i %
i F %
#
i F F
i %
i % i %
i % i % %
i i
i i %

D
D D

6
6
6
6 6
6 6
6 6
6 6 6
6 6
6 6 6
60 9363 . 0 84 . 19
3512 . 0 73 . 34
0
lb 0 6
9363 . 0 3512 . 0
56 . 20 cos 56 . 20 sin
lb 84 . 19 lb 73 . 34
26 . 60 cos lb 40 26 . 60 sin lb 40

H H

H H
Sample Þroblem 2Ŧ6
2 - 26

i %
i F %
#

D
6
6
6
60 9363 . 0 84 . 19
3512 . 0 73 . 34
0

This equation is satisIied only iI each component
oI the resultant is equal to zero

60 9363 . 0 84 . 19 0 0
3512 . 0 73 . 34 0 0

v
D x
% F
F % F
lb 66 . 19
lb 9 . 42

D

F
%
ecLanaular omponenLs ln Space
2 - 27
· The vector is
contained in the
plane .
F
6
· Resolve into
horizontal and vertical
components.
F
6
v v
F F 7 cos
v h
F F 7 sin
· Resolve into
rectangular components
h
F
7

7

sin sin
sin
cos sin
cos
v
h v
v
h x
F
F F
F
F F

ecLanaular omponenLs ln Space
2 - 28
· With the angles between and the axes, F
6

i i
F
i i F
F i F i F F
F F F F F F
z v x
z v x
z v x
z z v v x x
6
6 6 6
6
6
6 6
6
6 6 6
7 7 7 2
2
7 7 7
7 7 7
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
cos cos cos

· is a unit vector along the line oI action oI
and are the direction
cosines Ior
F
6
F
6
2
6
z v x
7 7 7 cos and , cos , cos
ecLanaular omponenLs ln Space
2 - 29
Direction oI the Iorce is deIined by
the location oI two points,

2 2 2 1 1 1
, , and , , z v x N z v x M

d
Fd
F
d
Fd
F
d
Fd
F
d i d i d
d
F F
z z d v v d x x d
d i d i d
N M d
z
z
v
v
x
x
z v x
z v x
z v x

6
6 6
6
6 6
6
6 6
6
1
and ioining vector
1 2 1 2 1 2
2
2
2 - 30
Example:
A tower guy wire is anchored by means oI a bolt at A. The tension in the
wire is 2500 N. Determine
a) The components F
x
, F
y
, F
z
oI the Iorce acting on the bolt
b) The angle 0
x
, 0
y
, 0
z
deIining the direction oI the Iorce
m d d d
z v x
3 . 94
2 2 2

N F N F N F
therefore F component %he
N i N i N F
m i m i m
m
N
F
obtain we g Subtitutin

m
N

F F F
write we g Introducin
m i m i m
z v x
795 2120 1060
,
) 795 ( ) 2120 ( ) 1060 (
| ) 30 ( ) 80 ( ) 40 ( |
3 . 94
2500
,
3 . 94
2500
, / ,
) 30 ( ) 80 ( ) 40 (

6
6
6
6
6
2
2
2 - 31
Solution:
a) The Iorce directed Irom A to B
d
x
-40 m d
y
80 m d
z
30 m
Total distance Irom A to B
AB d
H

H

H

5 . 71
2500
795
cos
0 . 32
2500
2120
cos
1 . 115
2500
1060
cos
z
z
z
v
v
v
x
x
x
N
N
F
F
N
N
F
F
N
N
F
F
7
7
7
7
7
7
2 - 32
b) Direction oI the Iorce
LND CI CnAÞ1Lk 2
1nANk ¥CU
2 - 33
2 - 34
Question 1:
Two Iorces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using
trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude oI ! is 60 N,
determine
a) The required angle u iI the resultant # oI the two Iorces applied
to the support is to be horizontal
b) The corresponding magnitude oI #

2 - 35
2 - 36
Question 2
Determine
a) the required value oI u iI the resultant oI the three Iorces shown is
to be vertical
b) The corresponding magnitude oI the resultant

2 - 37
2 - 38
Question 3
Two Iorces P and Q are applied as shown to an aircraIt connection. Knowing that
the connection is in equilibrium and that P 1.8 kN and Q 2.3 kN, determine the
magnitudes oI the Iorces exerted on the rods A and B
2 - 39
2 - 40
Question 4
A horizontal circular plate is suspended as shown Irom three wires which
are attached to a support at D and Iorm 30° angles with the vertical.
Knowing that the x component oI the Iorce exerted by wire AD on the
plate is 220.6 N, determine
a) The tension in wire AD
b) The angles 0
x
, 0
y
and 0
z
that the Iorce exerted at A Iorms with the
coordinate axes.
2 - 41