CHAPTER 3

Lecture notes by :
STATIC OF RIGID BODIES IN
TWO DIMENSIONS
1. EQUIVALENT SYSTEMS OF FORCES
2. EQUILIBRIUM OF RIGID BODIES
Associate ProI. Moktar C. Ngah
INTRODUCTION
W Treatment oI a body as a single particle is not always possible. In general,
the size oI the body and the speciIic points oI application oI the Iorces must
be considered.
W Most bodies in elementary mechanics are assumed to be rigid, i.e., the
actual deIormations are small and do not aIIect the conditions oI
equilibrium or motion oI the body.
W Current chapter describes the eIIect oI Iorces exerted on a rigid body and
how to replace a given system oI Iorces with a simpler equivalent system.
W moment oI a Iorce about a point
W moment oI a Iorce about an axis
W moment due to a couple
W Any system oI Iorces acting on a rigid body can be replaced by an
equivalent system consisting oI one Iorce acting at a given point and one
couple.
External and Internal Forces
· Forces acting on rigid bodies are divided into two groups:
- External Iorces
- Internal Iorces
W External Iorces are shown in a Iree-body diagram.
W II unopposed, each external Iorce can impart a motion oI translation or
rotation, or both.
Principle oI Transmissibility: Equivalent Forces
W Principle of Transmissibilitv -
Conditions oI equilibrium or motion are not aIIected by transmitting a
Iorce along its line oI action.
NOTE: F and F` are equivalent Iorces.
W Moving the point oI application oI the Iorce F to the rear bumper does not
aIIect the motion or the other Iorces acting on the truck.
W Principle oI transmissibility may not always apply in determining internal
Iorces and deIormations.
Moment oI a Force About a Point
W Two-dimensional structures have length and breadth but negligible depth
and are subiected to Iorces contained in the plane oI the structure.
· The plane oI the structure contains the point O and the Iorce .

, the
moment oI the Iorce about O is perpendicular to the plane.
· II the Iorce tends to rotate the structure clockwise, the sense oI the moment
vector is out oI the plane oI the structure and the magnitude oI the moment
is positive.
· II the Iorce tends to rotate the structure counterclockwise, the sense oI the
moment vector is into the plane oI the structure and the magnitude oI the
moment is negative.
Varignon`s Theorem

;
9

d
2
d

1
WThe moment oI a Iorce about any axis is equal to the sum oI the moments
oI its components about that axis.
Varignon`s Theorem states that:
d ÷ Pd
1
¹ Qd
2
Sample Problem 3.1
A 100-N vertical Iorce is applied to the end oI
a lever which is attached to a shaIt at O.
Determine:
a) moment about O.
b) horizontal Iorce at A which creates the
same moment,
c) smallest Iorce at A which produces the
same moment,
d) location Ior a 240-N vertical Iorce to
produce the same moment,
e) whether any oI the Iorces Irom b, c, and d
is equivalent to the original Iorce.
Sample Problem 3.1
a) Moment about O is equal to the product oI
the Iorce and the perpendicular distance
between the line oI action oI the Iorce and
O. Since the Iorce tends to rotate the lever
clockwise, the moment vector is into the
plane oI the paper.

cm 12 N 100
cm 12 60 cos cm 24

H

O
O
M
d
d M
m N 2 . 1 c
O
M
Sample Problem 3.1
b) Horizontal Iorce at A that produces the
same moment,


cm 8 . 20
cm N 1200
cm 8 . 20 cm N 1200
cm 8 . 20 60 sin cm 24
c

c

H

d M
d
O
N 7 . 57
Sample Problem 3.1
c) The smallest Iorce A to produce the same
moment occurs when the perpendicular distance
is a maximum or when is perpendicular to OA.

cm 4 2
cm N 1200
cm 4 2 cm N 1200
c

c

d M
O
N 50
Sample Problem 3.1
d) To determine the point oI application oI a 240 N
Iorce to produce the same moment,

cm 5 cos60
cm 5
N 40 2
cm N 1200
N 240 cm N 1200
H

c

c

OB
d
d
d M
O
cm 10 OB
Sample Problem 3.1
e) Although each oI the Iorces in parts b), c), and d)
produces the same moment as the 100 N Iorce,
none are oI the same magnitude and sense, or on
the same line oI action. None oI the Iorces is
equivalent to the 100 N Iorce.
Moment oI a Couple
W Two Iorces and - having the same
magnitude, parallel lines oI action, and
opposite sense are said to Iorm a couple.
W Moment oI a couple,
d
d d
d d M ve

) (
2 1
2 1
( ƹ ')
F
`
F

2

1
W The moment M oI a couple is constant. Its magnitude is equal to the product
d oI their common magnitude and the distance between their lines oI action.
The sense oI M (clockwise or counterclockwise) is obtained by direct observation.
Equivalent Couples
W Couples having the same moment, both in magnitude and sense, are
equivalent.
W Each will have the same eIIect on a rigid body.
W When a couple acts on a rigid body, it does not matter where the two Iorces
Iorming the couple act, or what magnitude and direction they have.
W The only thing that counts is the moment (magnitude and sense) oI the
couple.
120 n
120 n
230
mm
300 n
300 n
30 mm
100 mm
30 mm
130 mm
200 n
200 n
130 mm
Addition oI Couples
!`
Q`
Q

!
½
!`
S
S
`
!
½
!` + S`
! + S
½
W A couple is completely deIined by its moment (magnitude and sense).
W Two couples Iormed by !, !` and Q, Q` acting on a rigid body may be
replaced by a single couple oI moment equal to the algebraic sum oI the
moments oI the given couples.
Qq Sp
Qq Pp Sp Pp p S P M
Resolution oI a Given Force into a Force Acting at a
Given Point and a Couple
W Any Iorce F acting on a rigid body may be moved to any given point A,
provided that a couple M is added, the moment M oI the couple must equal the
moment oI F (in its original position) about A.
W This combination is reIerred to as a Iorce-couple system.
ƹ ƹ
F
A
M÷d
F
A
F
F`

A
F
W Inversely, a Iorce F acting at A and a couple M may be combined into a
single resultant Iorce F, by moving F such that the moment M oI the couple
is eliminated.
F

ƹ,$
ƹ
F
M

M
Reduction oI a System oI Coplanar Forces to One Force
and One Couple. Resultant oI a System oI Coplanar
Forces.
W Any given system oI coplanar Iorces may be reduced to a
single Iorce #, called the resultant oI the system or a single
couple M, called the resultant couple oI the system, as the case
may be.
W When both # and M are zero, then the system exerts no
action on the rigid body, and the rigid body is said to be in
equilibrium.
W The reduction oI a system oI coplanar Iorces to a Iorce # at any point and a
couple M, will be considerably simpliIied iI the given Iorces F
1
, F
2
, F
3
. etc.,
are resolved into their and v components prior to moving them to the point.
Equilibrium oI Rigid Bodies
W A rigid body is said to be in equilibrium when the external Iorces acting on
it Iorm a system oI Iorces equivalent to zero, i.e., a system which has no
resultant Iorce and no resultant couple.
W The necessary and suIIicient conditions Ior equilibrium thus can be written
as :
0 0 0
A v
M
Free-Body Diagram
First step in the static equilibrium analysis oI a
rigid body is identiIication oI all Iorces acting
on the body with a free-bodv diagram.
W Select the extent oI the Iree-body and detach
it Irom the ground and all other bodies.
· Indicate point oI application, magnitude,
and direction oI external Iorces,
including the rigid body weight.
W Indicate point oI application and assumed
direction oI unknown applied Iorces. These
usually consist oI reactions through which the
ground and other bodies oppose the possible
motion oI the rigid body.
W Include the dimensions necessary to
compute the moments oI the Iorces.
Reactions at Supports and Connections Ior a Two-
Dimensional Structure
W Reactions equivalent
to a Iorce with known
line oI action.
Reactions at Supports and Connections Ior a Two-
Dimensional Structure
W Reactions equivalent to a
Iorce oI unknown direction
and magnitude.
W Reactions equivalent to a
Iorce oI unknown direction
and magnitude and a
couple.oI unknown
magnitude
Equilibrium oI a Rigid Body in Two Dimensions
· Equations oI equilibrium are

0 0 0
A v
M
where A is any point in the plane oI
the structure.
W The 3 equations can be solved Ior
no more than 3 unknowns.
W The 3 equations can not be
augmented with additional equations,
but they can be replaced

0 0 0
B A
M M
SLaLlcallv lndeLermlnaLe 8eacLlons
More unknowns than
equations
Fewer unknowns than
equations, partially
constrained
Equal number unknowns and
equations but improperly
constrained
Sample Problem 3.1
A Iixed crane has a mass oI 1000 kg
and is used to liIt a 2400 kg crate.
It is held in place by a pin at A and a
rocker at B. The center oI gravity
oI the crane is located at G.
Determine the components oI the
reactions at A and B.
SOLUTION:
· Create a Iree-body diagram
Ior the crane.
W Determine B by solving the
equation Ior the sum oI the moments
oI all Iorces about A. Note there will
be no contribution Irom the unknown
reactions at A.
W Determine the reactions at A by
solving the equations Ior the sum oI all
horizontal Iorce components and all
vertical Iorce components.
W eck Le values obLalned for Le
reacLlons bv verlfvlna LaL Le sum of
Le momenLs abouL of all forces ls
zeroŦ
Sample Problem 3.1
W Determine B by solving the equation Ior the
sum oI the moments oI all Iorces about A.

0 m 6 kN 5 . 23
m 2 kN 81 . 9 m 5 . 1 : 0

B M
A
kN 1 . 107 B
W Determine the reactions at A by solving the
equations Ior the sum oI all horizontal Iorces
and all vertical Iorces.
0 : 0

B A

kN 1 . 107

A
0 kN 5 . 23 kN 81 . 9 : 0

v v
A
kN 3 . 33
v
A
W eck Le values obLalnedŦ
· Create the Iree-body diagram.
Sample Problem 3.2
A loading car is at rest on an inclined
track. The gross weight oI the car and its
load is 5500 N, and it is applied at G.
The cart is held in position by the cable.
Determine the tension in the cable and
the reaction at each pair oI wheels.
SCLu1lCnť
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior the
car with the coordinate system
aligned with the track.
W Determine the reactions at the wheels
by solving equations Ior the sum oI
moments about points above each axle.
W Determine the cable tension by
solving the equation Ior the sum oI
Iorce components parallel to the track.
W Check the values obtained by
veriIying that the sum oI Iorce
components perpendicular to the track
are zero.
Sample Problem 3.2
W Create a Iree-body diagram


N 2320
25 sin N 5500
N 4980
25 cos N 5500




3
3
v

W Determine the reactions at the wheels.

0 0cm 5
cm 6 N 980 4 cm 25 N 2320 : 0
2


#
M
A
N 1758
2
#

0 0cm 5
cm 6 N 980 4 cm 25 N 2320 : 0
1


#
M
B
N 562
1
#
· Determine the cable tension.
0 T N 4980 : 0

N 4980 T
Sample Problem 3.3
The Irame supports part oI the rooI oI a
small building. The tension in the cable is
150 kN.
Determine the reaction at the Iixed end .
SOLUTION:
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior the
Irame and cable.
· Solve 3 equilibrium equations
Ior the reaction Iorce
components and couple at .
Sample Problem 3.3
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior the
Irame and cable.
· Solve 3 equilibrium equations Ior
the reaction Iorce components and
couple.
0 kN 150
5 . 7
5 . 4
: 0

kN 0 . 90

0 kN 150
5 . 7
6
kN 20 4 : 0

v v

: 0

M

0 m 5 . 4 kN 150
5 . 7
6
m 8 . 1 kN 20 m 6 . 3 kN 20
m 4 . 5 kN 20 m 7.2 kN 20


M
kN 200
v

m kN 0 . 180 c

M
Equilibrium oI a Two-Force Body
· Consider a plate subiected to two Iorces F
1
and F
2
· For static equilibrium, the sum oI moments
about A must be zero. The moment oI F
2
must
be zero. It Iollows that the line oI action oI F
2
must pass through A.
· Similarly, the line oI action oI F
1
must
pass through B Ior the sum oI moments
about B to be zero.
· Requiring that the sum oI Iorces in any
direction be zero leads to the conclusion that
F
1
and F
2
must have equal magnitude but
opposite sense.
Equilibrium oI a Three-Force Body
· Consider a rigid body subiected to
Iorces acting at only 3 points.
· Assuming that their lines oI action intersect,
the moment oI
1
and
2
about the point oI
intersection represented by D is zero.
· Since the rigid body is in equilibrium, the sum oI
the moments oI
1
,
2
, and

about any axis
must be zero. It Iollows that the moment oI

about D must be zero as well and that the line oI
action oI

must pass through D.
· The lines oI action oI the three Iorces
must be concurrent or parallel.
Sample Problem 3.4
A man raises a 10 kg ioist, oI length 4 m,
by pulling on a rope.
Find the tension in the rope and the
reaction at A.
SOLUTION:
· Create a Iree-body diagram oI the ioist.
Note that the ioist is a 3 Iorce body
acted upon by the rope, its weight, and
the reaction at A.
· The three Iorces must be concurrent Ior
static equilibrium. ThereIore, the
reaction # must pass through the
intersection oI the lines oI action oI the
weight and rope Iorces. Determine the
direction oI the reaction Iorce #.
· Utilize a Iorce triangle to determine the
magnitude oI the reaction Iorce #.
Sample Problem 3.4
· Create a Iree-body diagram oI the ioist.
· Determine the direction oI the reaction
Iorce #.



636 . 1
414 . 1
313 . 2
tan
m 2.313 m 515 . 0 828 . 2
m 515 . 0 20 tan m 414 . 1 ) 20 45 cot(
m 414 . 1
m 828 . 2 45 cos m 4 45 cos
2
1





A

BD B
D BD
A A D
AB A
-
3
6 . 58 -
Sample Problem 3.4
· Determine the magnitude oI the reaction
Iorce #.
3 3 3
38.6 sin
N 1 . 98
110 sin 4 . 31 sin

# T
N 8 . 147
N 9 . 81

#
T