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ConLenLs

5 - 2

· Introduction oI Centroids

· Centroids and Center oI Gravity

· First Moments oI Areas & Lines

· Centroids oI Common Shapes oI

Areas

· Centroids oI Common Shapes oI

Lines

· Composite Plates & Areas

· Determination oI Centroids by

Integration

· Theorems oI Pappus-Guldinus

· Distributed Loads on Beams

· Moment oI Inertia oI Areas

· Parallel Axis Theorem

· Moment oI Inertia by Integration

· Polar Moment oI Inertia

· Radius oI Gyration oI Area

· Moments oI Inertia oI Composite Area

CPAÞ1L8 C8!LC1lvLSť

1o dlscuss Lhe concepL of Lhe cenLer of aravlLv and Lhe cenLrolds

1o show how Lo deLermlne Lhe locaLlon of Lhe cenLer of aravlLv

and cenLrold

1o use Lheorem of ÞappusŴCuldlnus for flndlna area and volume

for a surface of revoluLlon

1o develop a meLhod for deLermlnlna Lhe momenL of lnerLla for

an area

5 - 3

lnLroducLlon

5 - 4

· The earth exerts a gravitational Iorce on each oI the particles

Iorming a body. These Iorces can be replace by a single

equivalent Iorce equal to the weight oI the body and applied

at the center of gravitv Ior the body.

· The centroid of an area is analogous to the center oI

gravity oI a body. The concept oI the first moment of an

area is used to locate the centroid.

· Determination oI the area oI a surface of revolution and

the volume oI a bodv of revolution are accomplished

with the Theorems of Pappus-Guldinus.

CenLer of CravlLv

5 - 5

· Center oI gravity oI a plate

¦

¯ ¯

¦

¯ ¯

=

A =

=

A =

dW v

W v W v M

dW x

W x W x M

x

v

· Center oI gravity oI a wire

CenLrolds and llrsL MomenLs of Areas and Llnes

5 - 6

x

Q dA v A v

v

Q dA x A x

dA t x At x

dW x W x

x

v

respect to h moment wit Iirst

respect to h moment wit Iirst

=

= =

=

= =

=

=

¦

¦

¦

¦

¸ ¸

· Centroid oI an area

¦

¦

¦

¦

=

=

=

=

dL v L v

dL x L x

dL a x La x

dW x W x

¸ ¸

· Centroid oI a line

llrsL MomenLs of Areas and Llnes

5 - 7

· An area is symmetric with respect to an axis

iI Ior every point P there exists a point P such

that PP is perpendicular to and is divided

into two equal parts by

· The Iirst moment oI an area with respect to a

line oI symmetry is zero.

· II an area possesses a line oI symmetry, its

centroid lies on that axis

· II an area possesses two lines oI symmetry, its

centroid lies at their intersection.

· An area is symmetric with respect to a center

iI Ior every element dA at (x.v) there exists an

area dA oI equal area at (-x.-v).

· The centroid oI the area coincides with the

center oI symmetry.

CenLrolds of Common Shapes of Areas

5 - 8

CenLrolds of Common Shapes of Llnes

5 - 9

ComposlLe ÞlaLes and Areas

5 - 10

· Composite plates

¯ ¯

¯ ¯

=

=

W v W Y

W x W X

· Composite area

¯ ¯

¯ ¯

=

=

A v A Y

A x A X

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ1

5 - 11

For the plane area shown, determine

the Iirst moments with respect to the

x and v axes and the location oI the

centroid.

SOLUTION:

· Divide the area into a triangle, rectangle,

and semicircle with a circular cutout.

· Compute the coordinates oI the area

centroid by dividing the Iirst moments by

the total area.

· Find the total area and Iirst moments oI

the triangle, rectangle, and semicircle.

Subtract the area and Iirst moment oI the

circular cutout.

· Calculate the Iirst moments oI each area

with respect to the axes.

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ1

5 - 12

3 3

3 3

mm 10 7 . 757

mm 10 2 . 506

L =

L =

v

x

Q

Q

· Find the total area and Iirst moments oI the

triangle, rectangle, and semicircle. Subtract the

area and Iirst moment oI the circular cutout.

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ1

5 - 13

2 3

3 3

mm 10 13.828

mm 10 7 . 757

L

L

= =

¯

¯

A

A x

X

mm 8 . 54 = X

2 3

3 3

mm 10 13.828

mm 10 2 . 506

L

L

= =

¯

¯

A

A v

Y

mm 6 . 36 = Y

· Compute the coordinates oI the area

centroid by dividing the Iirst moments by

the total area.

eLermlnaLlon of CenLrolds bv lnLearaLlon

5 - 14

vdx

v

dA v A v

vdx x

dA x A x

el

el

¦

¦

¦

¦

=

=

=

=

2

)

) dv x a v

dA v A v

dv x a

x a

dA x A x

el

el

=

=

=

=

¦

¦

¦

¦

2

=

=

=

=

¦

¦

¦

¦

o o

o o

d r

r

dA v A v

d r

r

dA x A x

el

el

2

2

2

1

sin

3

2

2

1

cos

3

2

¦ ¦¦ ¦

¦ ¦¦ ¦

= = =

= = =

dA v dv dx v dA v A v

dA x dv dx x dA x A x

el

el

· Double integration to Iind the Iirst moment

may be avoided by deIining dA as a thin

rectangle or strip.

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ2

5 - 15

Determine by direct integration the

location oI the centroid oI a parabolic

spandrel.

SOLUTION:

· Determine the constant k.

· Evaluate the total area.

· Using either vertical or horizontal

strips, perIorm a single integration to

Iind the Iirst moments.

· Evaluate the centroid coordinates.

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ2

5 - 16

SOLUTION:

· Determine the constant k.

2 1

2 1

2

2

2

2

2

v

b

a

x or x

a

b

v

a

b

k a k b

x k v

= =

= ÷ =

=

· Evaluate the total area.

3

3

0

3

2

0

2

2

ab

x

a

b

dx x

a

b

dx v

dA A

a

a

=

¦

¦

¦

¦

= = =

=

¦ ¦

¦

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ2

5 - 17

· Using vertical strips, perIorm a single integration

to Iind the Iirst moments.

10 5

2

2

1

2

4 4

2

0

5

4

2

0

2

2

2

2

0

4

2

0

2

2

ab x

a

b

dx x

a

b

dx v

v

dA v Q

b a x

a

b

dx x

a

b

x dx xv dA x Q

a

a

el x

a

a

el v

=

¦

¦

¦

¦

=

= = =

=

¦

¦

¦

¦

=

= = =

¦ ¦ ¦

¦ ¦ ¦

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ2

5 - 18

· Or, using horizontal strips, perIorm a single

integration to Iind the Iirst moments.

10

4 2

1

2 2

2

0

2 3

2 1

2 1

2 1

2

0

2

2

0

2 2

ab

dv v

b

a

av

dv v

b

a

a v dv x a v dA v Q

b a

dv v

b

a

a

dv

x a

dv x a

x a

dA x Q

b

el x

b

b

el v

=

=

= = =

=

=

=

= =

¦

¦ ¦ ¦

¦

¦ ¦ ¦

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ2

5 - 19

· Evaluate the centroid coordinates.

4 3

2

b a ab

x

Q A x

v

=

=

a x

4

3

=

10 3

2

ab ab

v

Q A v

x

=

=

b v

10

3

=

1heorems of ÞappusŴCuldlnus

5 - 20

· SurIace oI revolution is generated by rotating a

plane curve about a Iixed axis.

· Area oI a surIace oI revolution is

equal to the length oI the generating

curve times the distance traveled by

the centroid through the rotation.

L v A 6 2 =

1heorems of ÞappusŴCuldlnus

5 - 21

· Body oI revolution is generated by rotating a plane

area about a Iixed axis.

· Volume oI a body oI revolution is

equal to the generating area times

the distance traveled by the centroid

through the rotation.

A v J 6 2 =

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ3

5 - 22

The outside diameter oI a pulley is 0.8

m, and the cross section oI its rim is as

shown. Knowing that the pulley is

made oI steel and that the density oI

steel is

determine the mass and weight oI the

rim.

3 3

m kg 10 85 . 7 L = o

SOLUTION:

· Apply the theorem oI Pappus-Guldinus

to evaluate the volumes or revolution

Ior the rectangular rim section and the

inner cutout section.

· Multiply by density and acceleration

to get the mass and acceleration.

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ3

5 - 23

SOLUTION:

· Apply the theorem oI Pappus-Guldinus

to evaluate the volumes or revolution Ior

the rectangular rim section and the inner

cutout section.

L L = =

3

3 9 3 6 3 3

mm m 10 mm 10 65 . 7 m kg 10 85 . 7 J m o

kg 0 . 60 = m

2

s m 81 . 9 kg 0 . 60 = = mg W

N 589 = W

· Multiply by density and acceleration to

get the mass and acceleration.

lsLrlbuLed Loads on 8eams

5 - 24

· A distributed load is represented by plotting the load

per unit length, (N/m) . The total load is equal to

the area under the load curve.

¦ ¦

= = = A dA dx W

L

0

A x dA x A P

dW x W P

L

= =

=

¦

¦

0

· A distributed load can be replace by a concentrated

load with a magnitude equal to the area under the

load curve and a line oI action passing through the

area centroid.

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ4

5 - 25

A beam supports a distributed load as

shown. Determine the equivalent

concentrated load and the reactions at

the supports.

SOLUTION:

· The magnitude oI the concentrated load

is equal to the total load or the area under

the curve.

· The line oI action oI the concentrated

load passes through the centroid oI the

area under the curve.

· Determine the support reactions by

summing moments about the beam

ends.

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ4

5 - 26

SOLUTION:

· The magnitude oI the concentrated load is equal to

the total load or the area under the curve.

kN 0 . 18 =

· The line oI action oI the concentrated load passes

through the centroid oI the area under the curve.

kN 18

m kN 63 c

= X

m 5 . 3 = X

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ4

5 - 27

· Determine the support reactions by summing

moments about the beam ends.

0 m .5 3 kN 18 m 6 : 0 = =

¯

v A

M

kN 5 . 10 =

v

0 m .5 3 m 6 kN 18 m 6 : 0 = =

¯

v

A M

kN 5 . 7 =

v

A

MomenL of lnerLla of Area

5 - 28

· Consider distributed Iorces whose magnitudes are

proportional to the elemental areas on which they

act and also vary linearly with the distance oI

Irom a given axis.

6

A

A A

A A

· Example: Consider a beam subiected to pure bending.

Internal Iorces vary linearly with distance Irom the

neutral axis which passes through the section centroid.

moment second

moment Iirst 0

2 2

= =

= = = =

A = A

¦ ¦

¦ ¦

dA v dA v k M

Q dA v dA v k R

A kv

x

6

· Example: Consider the net hydrostatic Iorce on a

submerged circular gate.

¦

¦

=

=

A = A = A

dA v M

dA v R

A v A p

x

2

¸

¸

¸

Þarallel Axls 1heorem

5 - 29

· Consider moment oI inertia oI an area A

with respect to the axis AA

¦

= dA v

2

· The axis passes through the area centroid

and is called a centroidal axis

¦ ¦ ¦

¦ ¦

@ @ =

@

= =

dA d dA v d dA v

dA d v dA v

2 2

2 2

2

2

Ad =

parallel axis theorem

Þarallel Axls 1heorem

5 - 30

· Moment oI inertia

T

oI a circular area with

respect to a tangent to the circle,

4

4

5

2 2 4

4

1

2

r

r r r Ad

T

6

6 6

=

= =

· Moment oI inertia oI a triangle with respect to a

centroidal axis,

3

36

1

2

3

1

2

1

3

12

1

2

2

bh

h bh bh Ad

Ad

A A

A A

=

= =

=

@ @

@ @

MomenL of lnerLla of an Area bv lnLearaLlon

5 - 31

· $econd moments or moments of inertia oI

an area with respect to the x and v axes,

¦ ¦

= = dA x dA v

v x

2 2

· Evaluation oI the integrals is simpliIied by

choosing dto be a thin strip parallel to

one oI the coordinate axes.

· For a rectangular area,

3

3

1

0

2 2

bh bdv v dA v

h

x

= = =

¦ ¦

· The Iormula Ior rectangular areas may also

be applied to strips parallel to the axes,

dx v x dA x d dx v d

v x

2 2 3

3

1

= = =

Þolar MomenL of lnerLla

5 - 32

· The polar moment of inertia is an important

parameter in problems involving torsion oI

cylindrical shaIts and rotations oI slabs.

¦

= dA r J

2

0

· The polar moment oI inertia is related to the

rectangular moments oI inertia,

x v

dA v dA x dA v x dA r J

=

= = =

¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

2 2 2 2 2

0

8adlus of CvraLlon of an Area

5 - 33

· Consider area A with moment oI inertia

x

. Imagine that the area is

concentrated in a thin strip parallel to

the x axis with equivalent

x

.

A

k A k

x

x x x

= =

2

k

x

radius of gvration with respect

to the x axis

· Similarly,

A

J

k A k J

A

k A k

v

v v v

= =

= =

2

2

2 2 2

v x

k k k =

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ3

5 - 34

Determine the moment oI

inertia oI a triangle with respect

to its base.

SOLUTION:

· A diIIerential strip parallel to the x axis is chosen Ior

dA

dv l dA dA v d

x

= =

2

· For similar triangles,

dv

h

v h

b dA

h

v h

b l

h

v h

b

l

=

=

=

· Integrating d

x

Irom v 0 to v ÷ h.

h

h h

x

v v

h

h

b

dv v hv

h

b

dv

h

v h

b v dA v

0

4 3

0

3 2

0

2 2

4 3

¦

¦

¦

=

=

= =

¦ ¦ ¦

12

3

bh

x

=

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ6

5 - 35

a) Determine the centroidal polar

moment oI inertia oI a circular

area by direct integration.

b) Using the result oI part a,

determine the moment oI inertia

oI a circular area with respect to a

diameter.

SOLUTION:

· An annular diIIerential area element is chosen,

¦ ¦ ¦

= = =

= =

r r

du u du u u dJ J

du u dA dA u dJ

0

3

0

2

2

2 2

2

6 6

6

4

2

r J

6

=

· From symmetry,

x

v

,

x x v x

r J 2

2

2

4

= = =

6

4

4

r

x diameter

6

= =

MomenLs of lnerLla of ComposlLe Areas

5 - 36

· The moment oI inertia oI a composite area A about a given axis is

obtained by adding the moments oI inertia oI the component areas

A

1

, A

2

, A

3

, ... , with respect to the same axis.

MomenLs of lnerLla of ComposlLe

Areas

5 - 37

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ7

5 - 38

The strength oI a W14x38 rolled steel

beam is increased by attaching a plate

to its upper Ilange.

Determine the moment oI inertia and

radius oI gyration with respect to an

axis which is parallel to the plate and

passes through the centroid oI the

section.

SOLUTION:

· Determine location oI the centroid oI

composite section with respect to a

coordinate system with origin at the

centroid oI the beam section.

· Apply the parallel axis theorem to

determine moments oI inertia oI beam

section and plate with respect to

composite section centroidal axis.

· Calculate the radius oI gyration Irom the

moment oI inertia oI the composite

section.

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ7

5 - 39

SOLUTION:

· Determine location oI the centroid oI composite section

with respect to a coordinate system with origin at the

centroid oI the beam section.

12 . 50 95 . 17

0 0 11.20 Section Beam

12 . 50 425 . 7 6.75 Plate

in , in. , in , Section

3 2

= =

¯ ¯

A v A

A v v A

in. 792 . 2

in 17.95

in 12 . 50

2

3

= = = =

¯

¯

¯ ¯

A

A v

Y A v A Y

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ7

5 - 40

· Apply the parallel axis theorem to determine moments oI

inertia oI beam section and plate with respect to composite

section centroidal axis.

4

2

3

4

3

12

1

2

plate ,

4

2 2

section beam ,

in 2 . 145

792 . 2 425 . 7 75 . 6 9

in 3 . 472

792 . 2 20 . 11 385

=

= =

=

= =

@

@

Ad

Y A

x x

x x

· Calculate the radius oI gyration Irom the moment oI inertia

oI the composite section.

2

4

in 17.95

in 5 . 617

= =

@

@

A

k

x

x

in. 87 . 5 =

@ x

k

2 . 145 3 . 472

plate , section beam ,

= =

@ @ @ x x x

4

in 618 =

@ x

**Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ8
**

5 - 41

Determine the moment oI inertia

oI the shaded area with respect to

the x axis.

SOLUTION:

· Compute the moments oI inertia oI the

bounding rectangle and halI-circle with

respect to the x axis.

· The moment oI inertia oI the shaded area is

obtained by subtracting the moment oI

inertia oI the halI-circle Irom the moment

oI inertia oI the rectangle.

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ8

5 - 42

SOLUTION:

· Compute the moments oI inertia oI the bounding

rectangle and halI-circle with respect to the x axis.

Rectangle:

4 6

3

1

3

3

1

mm 10 2 . 138 120 240 L = = = bh

x

alI-circle:

moment oI inertia with respect to AA.

4 6 4

8

1

4

8

1

mm 10 76 . 25 90 L = = =

@

6 6r

A A

2 3

2

2

1

2

2

1

mm 10 72 . 12

90

mm 81.8 a - 120 b

mm 2 . 38

3

90 4

3

4

L =

= =

= =

= = =

6 6

6 6

r A

r

a

moment oI inertia with respect to x.

4 6

3 6 2

mm 10 20 . 7

10 72 . 12 10 76 . 25

L =

L L = =

@ @

Aa

A A x

moment oI inertia with respect to x,

4 6

2 3 6 2

mm 10 3 . 92

8 . 81 10 72 . 12 10 20 . 7

L =

L L = =

@

Ab

x x

Sample Þroblem 4Ŧ8

5 - 43

· The moment oI inertia oI the shaded area is obtained by

subtracting the moment oI inertia oI the halI-circle Irom

the moment oI inertia oI the rectangle.

4 6

mm 10 9 . 45 L =

x

x

=

4 6

mm 10 2 . 138 L

4 6

mm 10 3 . 92 L

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