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1

** For next time:
**

± Look at practice exams and pick questions for next time ± HW5 due on Thursday, October 2nd at the exam

Outline:

± Conventions for heat and work ± Work ± Heat

Important points:

± How to determine the direction of heat and work flow ± Integral and specific case equations for heat and work ± How to compute work from property paths

2

Energy Transfer

Open system or control volume-energy can be added to or taken away from the system by heat transfer, work interactions, or with the mass that flows in or out. Closed systems--energy transfer is only by heat and work interactions, because by definition no mass goes in or out.

3

work and mass transfer Qin + Qout Sign convention Wout + Winmout min+ Qin is positive Qout is negative Win is negative Wout is positive min is positive mout is negative 4 .Signs for heat.

WORK Work--is done by a system (on its surroundings) if the sole effect on everything external to the system could have been the raising of a weight. 5 .

System boundary Motor 6 .

Remember! W < 0 is work done on the system W > 0 is work done by the system 7 .

8 . It¶s defined in terms of force and displacement W ! ´ F ds Note that F and ds are vectors«.You¶ve seen work before in mechanics.

What is work again? Work--an interaction between a system and its surroundings whose equivalent action can be the raising of a weight. 9 .

what you¶ve seen in calculus is primarily exact differentials Exact differentials are path-independent s2 ds ! S 2 S1 ´ s1 10 .Path-dependent quantities Up to this point.

W! ´H . with work.Work is path dependent We use an inexact differential. H.

W 11 .

ft-lbf/h. dW/dt. J/s or Watts Rate of doing work is called POWER 12 .Units of WORK Btu or kJ Rate of doing work. has units of Btu/h.

Moving boundary work Gas s s ds s1 s2 A differential amount of volume is given by dV=Apistonvds 13 .

Moving boundary work The force F on the piston is ! P v A piston 14 .

Moving boundary work 2 2 W ! ´ d s ! ´ ds 1 1 ! P v A piston W ! ´ ds ! ´ P v A piston ds 2 W ! ´ PdV 1 dV 15 .

What did an integral represent in calculus? P 2 W ! ´ PdV 1 AREA 1 2 v 16 .

So. then work due to compression can be interpreted as the area under a curve in pressure .volume coordinates. if we know p = p(V). 17 .

TEAMPLAY For a piston-cylinder system. kPa 1 300 A a 150 b 0. Compute the work in kJ done in going by path A from 1 to a to 2 (call the work WA) and by path B from 1 to b to 2 (call the work WB).15 V. two paths are shown from point 1 to 2. P. m3 18 .05 B 2 0.

compressible system is given by 2 W ! 1 ´ PdV This has a variety of names: ± expansion work ± PdV work ± boundary work ± compression work 19 .Moving boundary work Work for a closed.

20 . we must know the pressure as a function of the volume P = P(V) This will give us the path of the work.Boundary work To integrate for work.

process PVn=C. ideal gas.temp.Some Common P(V) Paths P=C . constant pressure process P=C/V. polytropic process 21 . const.

The constant pressure process is the easiest Since P=c. it¶s pulled out of the integral 2 W! d ´ 1 ! ( 2 ) 1 22 .

YOU CAN ONLY DO THIS IF THE PRESSURE IS CONSTANT DURING THE PROCESS! P AREA 1 2 v 23 .

TEAMPLAY How do you find the area under the curve (work) when the pressure isn¶t constant? P = f(v) below? P v1 v2 v 24 .

Start with the expression for work 2 W ! ´ pdV 1 25 .Moving boundary work Consider an ideal gas undergoing an isothermal process.

PV = mRT or P ! V mRT W ! ´ PdV ! ´ dV V 1 1 Collecting terms and integrating yields: 2 2 dV «V 2 » W ! mRT ´ ! mRT ln ¬ ¼ V V 1 ½ 1 26 2 .mRT For the gas.

Note that this result is very different from the work for a constant pressure process! 27 .

TEAMPLAY If you start at a P1 and volume 1 and expand to a volume 2. which process will produce more work: (a) a constant pressure or (b) constant temperature process? Why? Justify your answer. 28 .

Polytropic process A frequently encountered process for gases is the polytropic process: PV ! c ! constant Since this expression relates P & V. n V W ! ´ 2 PdV 29 V1 . we can calculate the work for this path.

137 30 .n The derivation is on pg.General case of boundary work for a gas which obeys the polytropic equation 2 W ! ´ PdV 1 2 2 dV ! c´ n V 1 1 1 2 P V P V ! 1.

Other Forms of Work Electrical Work HW ! VI dt Shaft Work HW ! T[ dt 31 .

Another way is by means of heat transfer 32 .Work and heat transfer Work is one way a system can interact with its surroundings.

HEAT TRANSFER Heat is a form of energy transfer that occurs solely as a result of a temperature difference Q ! f ( (T ) 33 .

Sign convention is the opposite of that for work: Q > 0: heat transfer to the system Q < 0: heat transfer from the system 34 .

just as work is not a property.Heat transfer is not a property of a system. Heat energy can be transferred to and from the system or transformed into another form of energy. 35 . 2 Q ! ´ H Q { Q 2 Q1 1 We can¶t identify Q2 (Q at state 2) or Q1.

They are associated with a process. q and w do not. Unlike u and h which have definite values at any state.Heat and work summary They are only recognized at the boundary of a system. They are both path-dependent functions. 36 . not a state. A system in general does not possess heat or work. as they cross the boundary.

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