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Nutrition 
Heterotrophic eukaryote  Absorptive mode of nutrition: hydrolytic

enzymes Saprobic fungi- feed on dead/ non-living organisms Parasitic fungi- feed on nutrients from living hosts Mutualistic fungi- food from other organisms but reciprocate with functions beneficial to others

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Form 
Unicellular: yeast  Filamentous: molds  Complex multicellular: mushrooms  Cell wall: chitin  Hyphae (filaments): can be septate hyphae or

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Structure

coenocytic hyphae  Mycelium (network of several hyphae)  Haustoria (nutrient absorbing hyphal tips that penetrate tissue of hosts)

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Reproduction 
Asexual: binary fission/ budding as in yeast  Sexual: spore formation Syngamy: sexual union of 2 cells from different individual ; with 2 stages: plasmogamy and karyogamy Haplontic life cycle: adult: haploid

DIVISION Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota

CLASS Chytridiomycetes Zygomycetes Ascomycetes

REPRESENTATIVE Nowakoskiella Allomyces Rhizopus stolonifer Saccharomyces Xylaria Cookeina Aspergillus Penicillium Trichoderma

Deuteromycetes

Basidiomycota

Basidiomycetes

Volvariella Ganoderma Auricularia Puccinia

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The chytrids are the most primitive of the fungi and are mostly saprobic (degrading chitin and keratin). Many chytrids are aquatic (mostly found in fresh water).

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Allomyces

Terrestrial, thrive on soil with decaying plant and animal materials ƒ Hyphae: coenocytic; reproductive structure: septated ƒ Asexual reproduction: spores (sporangium and sporangiophore) ƒ Sexual reproduction: zygospores ƒ Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold)
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Hyphae/ mycelium: septated  Sexual reproduction: ascospores

(ascocarp)  Asexual reproduction: conidia (conidiophore)

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Ascomycetes- with a known sexual mode of reproduction

ascospores

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Deuteromycetes

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Also known as the club fungi Ecological importance: decomposition of plant litter Asexual reproduction: basidiospores (n) 
Outside the club-shaped spore producing:

basidia within the basidiocarp
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Complex fungi: jelly fungus (Auricularia), pore fungus (Dictyophora, Fomes), gill fungus (Polyporus), puffball fungi (Lycoperdon, Calvatia)

basidiospore

basidia

gill Cap/ pileus Annulus/ ring

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Puccinia wheat rust

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Mycorrhizae 
Fungus roots  Mutualistic relationship between soil fungi

and roots of most plants  Plants with mycorrhizae grow more successfully in poor soils the relationship helps plants to acquire more mineral nutrients, in turn, the fungi get some carbohydrates 

SYMBIOTIC relationship between a fungi

and an algae (cyanobacteria) or green alga  Efficient in acquiring nutrients even at low moisture or low temperature; also good in abrorbing pollutants, and therefore cannot survive polluted areas--bio-indicator of pollution

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FOLIOSE LICHENS- leaf-like

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FRUTICOSE LICHENS- shrub-like

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CRUSTOSE LICHENS- flaky or crust-like

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Life: The Science of Biology 7th Edition

end

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