LEADERSHIP

LEADERSHIP
IT IS THE ACTIVITY OF PERSUADING PEOPLE TO COOPERATE IN THE ACHIEVEMENT OF A COMMON OBJECTIVE

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TRAITS THEORY
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HONESTY AND INTEGRITY LEADERSHIP MOTIVATION SELF CONFIDENCE COGNITIVE ABILITY KNOWLEDGE CREATIVITY FLEXIBILITY
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GETS SUGGESTIONS AND DECIDES LEADER PRESENTS TENTATIVE DECISIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE RBK 4 .AUTHORITARIAN TASK ORIENTED USE OF AUTHORITY BY LEADER DEMOCRATIC RELATIONSHIP ORIENTED AREA OF FREEDOM FOR SUBORDINATES LEADER MAKES DECISION AND ANNOUNCES(TELLS) LEADER SELLS DECISION LEADER PRESENTS IDEAS AND INVITES QUESTIONS LEADER PERMITS SUBORDINATES TO FUNCTION WITHIN DEFINED LIMITS LEADER DEFINES LIMITS & ASKS GROUP TO MAKE DECISIONS LEADER PRESENTS PROBLEM.

Behavioural Theories • Ohio State Studies – Initiating Structure – Consideration 5 RBK .

leaders who describe the person they least like to work with in relatively positive terms are relationship oriented." 6 RBK . Task-oriented leaders are primarily interested in "getting the job done. Those who describe their least favorite co-worker in generally negative terms are task oriented. Relationship-oriented leaders are primarily interested in maintaining and developing strong personal relationships with co-workers.FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY APPROACH • Identify leadership style According to Fiedler.

discipline. promotions and salary increases. firing.FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY APPROACH • Define the Situation – Depends on – Leader member relations : confidence. 7 RBK . • Match leader and situation – Very favourable or unfavourable : Task oriented – Moderately favourable: Relationship oriented. trust and respect for leader – Task structure: Structured or unstructured – Position power: Hiring.

1 8 AUTOCRAT .BLAKE AND MOUTON GRID 1. 9 COUNTRY CLUB 9. 1 IMPOVERISHED RBK CONCERN FOR TASK 9. 9 WIN FRIENDS AND INFLUENCE PEOPLE TEAM MANAGEMENT PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH PARTICIPATION DEMOCRATIC CONCERN FOR PEOPLE 5. 5 DON’T ROCK THE BOAT TASK ORIENTED LEADERSHIP PRODUCE OR PERISH 1.

9 9. 9 CONCERN FOR PEOPLE MISSIONARY DEVELOPER RELATED EXECUTIVE INTEGRATED COMPROMISER 5. 5 BUREAUCRAT DESERTER SEPARATED BENEVOLENT AUTOCRAT DEDICATED AUTOCRATIC 1. 1 RBK CONCERN FOR TASK 9.BASIC STYLES INEFFECTIVE STYLES EFFECTIVE STYLES 1. 1 9 .

1 IMPOVERISHED RBK CONCERN FOR TASK . 5 9. 1 10 AUTOCRAT 1. 9 COUNTRY CLUB ENCOURAGE ABLE COLLABORATE UNWILLING COMMIT INSECURE UNABLE EXPLAIN WILLING CLARIFY CONFIDENT PERSUADE SELLING 5.LIFE CYCLE THEORY MATURITY OF GROUP 1. 9 DEMOCRATIC CONCERN FOR PEOPLE PARTICIPATING DELEGATING OBSERVE ABLE MONITOR WILLING FULFILL CONFIDENT TELLING GUIDE UNABLE DIRECT UNWILLING ESTABLISH INSECURE 9.

LEADER – SITUATION .GROUP GROUP •NEED FOR AUTONOMY •SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY •UNDERSTANDS GOAL •JOB INTEREST •MOTIVATION •KNOWLEDGE & EXPERTISE •HOMOGENIETY SITUATION •DANGER •JOB DEMANDS •PRESSURE •TIME LEADER •COURAGE •ENERGY •MATURITY •MENTAL ABILITY •MOTIVATION •SOCIAL ORIENTATION RBK O TI A TU SI N GR OU P 11 .

LOW UNDERSTANDING OF GOALS SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY NEED FOR AUTONOMY INTEREST AND MOTIVATION KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE HOMOGENIETY JOB DEMANDS DANGER PRESSURE TIME HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH DIFFERENT INNOVATIVE LOW LOW LOTS JOINS DEMOCRATIC 12 GROUP LOW LOW LOW LOW SITUATION ALIKE STRUCTURED HIGH HIGH LITTLE TELLS AUTHORITARIAN SELLS/CONSULTS VARIABLE LEADER RBK .

13 RBK .INDIAN CONTEXT • Leadership determines organisation’s health. Characterised by: – Adaption (Rigidity) – Congruence of system and individual goals – Reality orientation (Rooted in the past) – Mutuality (Individuality) – Continuity in power distribution – delegation of authority and responsibility.

INDIAN CONTEXT • • • • • RAMA MODEL INDRA MODEL VIRAT PURUSH MODEL DADHICHI MODEL RAVANA MODEL 14 RBK .

RAMA MODEL • • • • • Mai baap Role centred Authority with the leader Expects formal obedience “Do your duty” and leave the rest to the powers that be 15 RBK .

RAMA MODEL • Characteristics: – Duty vs participative definition of role – System bound authority vs task related authority – Self an instrument for and an extension of goals of the patriarch – Formal obedience vs emergence of responsibility through negotiation – Affiliative vs task approach 16 RBK .

INDRA MODEL • Authority centered • Top management has a thousand eyes and ‘vajra’ for punishment • Control through fear • Breeds anxiety and distrust 17 RBK .

VIRAT PURUSH MODEL • • • • Grander version of Rama model Goal centred Charismatic personality People work under protection. guidance and blessings of the virat purush • Little creativity 18 RBK .

DADHICHI MODEL • Value centred • Externalise all blame – Govt – Unions – Environment – New generation 19 RBK .

RAVANA MODEL • Guided by personal gainsof power • Utilisation of organisation for selfish interests • Breeds ‘kitchen cabinets’ • Others feel helpless 20 RBK .

• Dimensions: – Integrity – Competence – Consistency – Loyalty – Openness 21 RBK . actions or decisions – act opportunistically.TRUST • Positive expectation that another will not through words.

TYPES OF TRUST • Deterrence based • Knowledge based • Identification based 22 RBK .

Basic Principles of Trust • • • • • • • Mistrust drives out trust Trust begets trust Growth often masks mistrust Decline or downsizing tests trust Trust increases cohesion Mistrusting groups self destruct Mistrust generally reduces productivity 23 RBK .

24 RBK .Framing • Way to use language to manage meaning • Used by leaders to influence how leaders are seen.

CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP • Followers make men heroes or extraordinary leaders when they observe certain behaviour. • Characteristics – – – – – Vision and articulation Personal risk Environmental sensitivity Sensitivity to follower’s needs Unconventional behaviour • Born or made? 25 RBK .

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Presentation – Transactional leadership Vs Transformational leadership 26 RBK .

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE • • • • • Self-awareness Self-management Self-motivation Empathy Social skills 27 RBK .

28 RBK .TEAM LEADERSHIP • • • • • • • Coaching Facilitating Handling disciplinary problems Reviewing team/individual performance Training Communication Managing team’s external boundary and facilitating team process.

TEAM LEADERSHIP • Roles – Liaison with external agencies – Troubleshooter – Conflict manager – Coach 29 RBK .

sponsoring • Self leadership • Online leadership • Attribution model of leadership • Substitutes and neutralisers for leadership 30 RBK . counselling.Other Contemporary Issues • Mentoring – Coaching.