# Hydraulic actuators: cylinders Cylinder types

:
Single acting:
work can be done only in one direction

Double acting piston: Work is done in both directions Piston rod on both sides

Plunger

Piston

Tandem

Telescopic

Fast moving

Telescopic

Fast moving

2005/2006 I.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems

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Hydraulic cylinders Hydraulic cylinder
Hidraulikus munkahengerek Rögzít pálcás kivitel 1.

Rögzít pálcás hidraulika henger, a hengerfejen található karimás rögzítéssel

2005/2006 I.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems

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Hydraulic cylinders Hydraulic cylinder Hidraulikus munkahengerek Hengeres kivitel 1. Hengeres építési móddal készült hidraulika henger 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 3 .

2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 4 . In this case.Hydraulic cylinders Properties: The cylinders have to be good quality steel with close tolerances. There have to be good sealing both at the piston rod and at the cylinder. This has to be possibly reduced. With time dirt may come in and damage the surfaces. the leakage will increase all the time.

Hydraulic cylinders Calculation of cylinders Fcmax ! FLmax  FF  F1 maximum load friction forces inertial forces slow motion. can be often neglected FCmax } FLmax  FF Outward: Backward: FC 0 ! A1 p1  A2 p2 FCB ! A2 p2  A1 p1 A1 A2 p2 vB v0 p1 Q v0 ! A1 Q vB ! A2 Q 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 5 .

the leakage losses are negligibly small so that: c= c mech v Lc ! v  FL FL ! p1Q1  p2Q2 p1 A1  p2 A2 outwards inwards L cmax ! 0. If the cylinder is new.Hydraulic cylinders Calculation of cylinders 1. Stick-slip Transition Normal behaviour Ff 1 2 3 Hydraulic cylinders should be possibly operated in the 3rd region for smooth operation. 3.92 at higher pressures p 2005/2006 I.85  0. 2. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 6 .

5 lk: buckling length I1: moment of inertia of the piston rod E: elasticity modulus of the rod material d 4T 64 2005/2006 I.Hydraulic cylinders Checking for buckling Maximum permissible force: Fmax L ! 1 ¨T © n © lk ª ¸ ¹  E  I1 ¹ º 2 n: safety factor: 1-3. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 7 .

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 8 .Hydraulic cylinders Cushioning of cylinders: A hard impact of the piston at the end surfaces has to be inhibited ± kinetic energy has to be absorbed. This is done by increasing the hydraulic resistance at the end of the stroke. 2005/2006 I.

Rotary hydraulic actuators Swivel vane rotary actuator: Limited angle in both directions Maximum angle always smaller than 360° The same torque in both directions Limited angle rotary actuator Limited angle rotary actuator Parallel piston rotary actuator Párhuzamdu gattyús leng hajtás Piston rotary actuator: With rack and gear coupling Here maximum angle may be larger than 360° ??? Forgódugattyús leng hajtás menettel m ködtetett meghajtócsappal Mindkét irányban azonosan m köd hengerrel és fogasléces meghajtással m ködtetett tolódugattyús leng hajtás ??? 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 9 .

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 10 .Big pictures End of normal presentation Beginning of big pictures 2005/2006 I.

axial support is necessary but cylinder does not have to be so good quality Without inner buffer With inner buffer (pilot piston) 2005/2006 I. better efficiency.Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: plunger smaller force. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 11 .

Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: piston. pressing-cylinder Spring inside outside 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 12 . single acting.

Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: piston. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 13 . puller Spring inside outside 2005/2006 I. single acting.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 14 . double acting Velocity is different 2005/2006 I.Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: piston.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 15 . double acting Piston rod on both side Velocity is the same in both directions 2005/2006 I.Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: piston.

double acting Piston rod on both side Velocity is different in the two directions depending on cross section ratio of the rods 2005/2006 I.Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: piston. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 16 .

Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: double acting piston. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 17 . tandem 2005/2006 I.

Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: single acting. fast moving 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 18 .

fast moving 2005/2006 I.Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: double acting. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 19 .

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 20 . single acting Large working paths or limited space 2005/2006 I.Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: telescopic.

Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: telescopic. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 21 . double acting Large working paths or limited space 2005/2006 I.

Case Two ends fixed and guided Free buckling length mounting style mounting style mounting style mounting style Manner of end fixing Note 2005/2006 I. Case Two ends pivoted and guided 3.Hydraulic cylinders Checking for buckling: Euler¶s cases Picture 1. Case One end free One end fixed Or trunnion at end 2. Case One end guided and pivoted. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 22 . other end fixed 4.

6.Hydraulic cylinders Cushioning of cylinders: 1. 2. 4. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 23 . 5. 3. 8. Gas valve 2005/2006 I. 7. 9. Piston Cushion nose Cylinder cap Stroke volume Cushion orifice Throttle Cushion adjustment screw Mother Non-return valve 10.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 24 .Rotary hydraulic actuators Parallel piston rotary actuator 2005/2006 I.

Rotary hydraulic actuators ??? 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 25 .

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 26 .Rotary hydraulic actuators Rack-and-pinion piston-type rotary actuator: 2005/2006 I.

Rotary hydraulic actuators Limited angle rotary actuator: 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 27 .

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 28 .Rotary hydraulic actuators Limited angle rotary actuator: 2005/2006 I.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 29 .Rotary hydraulic actuators Helix actuator: 2005/2006 I.