Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong

)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Energy Resources
Read Web pages :
1. The Energy Story

http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/index.html#table
2. Known fossil fuel resources

http://www.cpast.org/Articles/Artfiles/000/000/014/14.adp

8. Energy

http://www.solcomhouse.com/Energy.htm

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 1

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Energy is the capacity to perform work
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What is energy ?

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

What are energy Resources?
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Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Forms of Energy
   
Electricity to power our factory Gas to cook our food Petrol to drive our vehicle Heat and Light we get from the Sun

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 4

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Energy Resources
 In fact, the Sun is the
Earth’s ultimate source of energy  Even the food we eat contains a dose of energy that originated in the Sun  Energy resources can be divided into nonrenewable and renewable

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 5

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

What are nonrenewable energy resources ?
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 6

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Non-renewable Energy Resources
Non-renewable energy sources will eventually run out Example: When we've extracted all the Earth's oil, there isn't any more

As we realize that oil is going to run out, we're trying harder to develop other means of generating the electricity on which we depend. Renewable sources, such as solar, hydro-electric, tidal and wind power are particularly attractive, although they do have drawbacks.
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 7

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

These are Non-renewable Energy Resources

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 8

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

What are renewable energy resources ?
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 9

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Renewable Energy Sources
Renewable energy resources won't run out Example: Winds will keep on blowing, whether we use the energy or not. So wind power is a renewable energy resource.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 10

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

These are Renewable Energy Resources

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 11

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Energy Resources Video
Click here to view (20 Minutes) 能量的泉源
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 12

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Fossil Fuels
Read Web pages :
1. Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas

http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html
2. Known fossil fuel resources

http://www.cpast.org/Articles/Artfiles/000/000/014/14.adp
3. OPEC Brief http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/opec.html

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 13

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Most non-renewable energy resources are fossil fuels
(Fuels formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago)
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 14

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Fossil Fuels
 Non-renewable energy sources come out of the
ground as liquids, gases and solids

 Oil (petroleum) is the only naturally liquid
commercial fossil fuel

 Natural gas is normally in gaseous form  Coal is a solid

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 15

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Oil
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 16

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

How Oil was Formed
T Oil was formed from the remains of animals and
plants that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment before the dinosaurs. layers of mud.

T Over the years, the remains were covered by T Heat and pressure from these layers helped the
remains turn into what we today call crude oil . from the earth”.

T The word “petroleum” means “rock oil” or “oil
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 17

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

How Oil was Formed

(cont)

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 18

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Facts about Oil
 Oil use didn't develop until the 1860's  Oil is liquid hydrocarbon ( 碳氫化合物 )  three main products: kerosene ( 煤油 ), fuel oil ( 燃
油 ), and gasoline ( 汽油 )

 75% is in or controlled by the OPEC countries

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 19

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

OPEC ( 石油出口國組 織 )
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was founded in Baghdad, Iraq, in September 1960, to unify and coordinate members' petroleum policies.

OPEC Headquarters Vienna, Austria
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Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

OPEC Members
 Iran ( 伊朗 )  Iraq ( 伊拉克 )  Kuwait ( 科威特 )  Saudi Arabia
( 沙地阿拉伯 )

 Libya ( 利比亞 )  United Arab Emirates
( 阿聯合酋長國 )

 Venezuela ( 委內瑞拉
)

 Qatar ( 卡塔爾 )

 Algeria ( 阿爾及利亞 )  Nigeria ( 尼日利亞 )  Gabon ( 加蓬 )  Indonesia ( 印尼 )

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 21

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Facts about OPEC
• OPEC members' national oil ministers meet regularly to discuss prices and, since 1982, to set crude oil production quotas • Original OPEC members include Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. Between 1960 and 1975, the organization expanded to include Qatar (1961), Indonesia (1962), Libya (1962), the United Arab Emirates (1967), Algeria (1969), and Nigeria (1971)

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 22

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Facts about OPEC

(cont)

• Ecuador and Gabon were members of OPEC, but Ecuador withdrew in December 1992, and Gabon followed suit in January 1995 • Although Iraq remains a member of OPEC, Iraqi production has not been a part of any OPEC quota agreements since March 1998 • EIA ( 能源資料協會 ) estimates that the current eleven OPEC members account for about 40% of world oil production, and about 2/3 of the world's proven oil reserves
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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 23

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Natural Gas

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 24

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Natural Gas
 Three types: methane ( 甲烷 ), propane ( 丙烷 ), and
butane ( 丁烷 )  Natural gas is often found in association with oil  The largest reserves are found in the Persian Gulf ( 波斯灣 ) countries  Advantages of natural gas is that it burns more cleanly than the other fossil fuels. Less nitrous oxides and sulfur oxides are produced, and less particulate matter, but CO2 is still produced

 There is less natural gas available and it is difficult
and costly to transport. Most natural gas is used in the country of origin
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 25

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Coal
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 26

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Coal
 Main sources for coal are China, the US, and the
former USSR. These countries hold 75% of the coal reserves

 Coal is a form of solid hydrocarbon  Coal was the first fossil fuel exploited  Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel  It is the least expensive energy source for generating
electricity

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 27

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Environmental Impacts of Coal
in coal production, mining creates environmental problems: strip mines must be reclaimed; acid runoff from coal mining sites

 At the site where we burn coal, nitrous oxides and
sulfur oxides are released, as well as particulate matter

 These oxides are responsible for acid rain. CO2 is
also released, which contributes to global warming

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 28

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

What are the advantages of using fossil fuels ?
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 29

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Advantages of Using Fossil Fuels
Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in one place using coal, fairly cheaply Transporting oil and gas to the power stations is easy Gas-fired power stations are very efficient A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere, so long as you can get large quantities of fuel to it

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 30

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Combined Cycle Thermal Power Plant

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 31

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Combined Cycle Thermal Power Plant

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 32

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

What are the disadvantages of using fossil fuels ?
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 33

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Disadvantages of Using Fossil Fuels
 Basically, the main drawback of fossil fuels is pollution.
Burning any fossil fuel produces carbon dioxide (CO2), which contributes to the "greenhouse effect", warming the Earth

 Burning coal produces more CO2 than burning oil or gas  It also produces sulphur dioxide (SO2), a gas that
contributes to acid rain

 Mining coal can be difficult and dangerous. Strip mining
destroys large areas of the landscape
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 34

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Problems of Fossil Fuels
Read Web pages :
1. Known fossil fuel resources

http://www.cpast.org/Articles/Artfiles/000/000/014/14.adp

6. Global Warming http://www.solcomhouse.com/globalwarming.htm 9. Climate Change http://www.solcomhouse.com/climatechange.htm
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 35

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Pollution
T Almost all fossil fuel use is by burning (or "combustion").
Burning produces waste products due to impurities in the fuel, especially particulates and various gases such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), and volatile organic compounds. These waste products may affect our environment or people, in harmful ways.

T Moreover, burning fossil may produce other harmful
wastes. However, in some cases the amount of waste is so small that the effect is difficult to detect. Mercury ( 水銀 ) from coal burning is an example.

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 36

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Greenhouse Effect

Under normal conditions some of the sun's heat is radiated back into space. The 'Greenhouse Effect' occurs when heat is trapped in the atmosphere by gases. (BBC Graphic)
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 37

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 38

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Major Elements of the Climate System

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 39

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Climate Change
T The increase of Greenhouse Effect could result in an
increase in mean global temperatures as well as changes in precipitation patterns.

T When weather patterns for an area change in one direction
over long periods of time, they can result in a net climate change for that area.

T The key concept in climate change is time. Natural changes
in climate usually occur over such a long periods of time that they are often not noticed within several human lifetimes.

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 40

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Climate Change

(cont)

This gradual nature of the changes in climate enables the plants, animals, and microorganisms on earth to evolve and adapt to the new temperatures, precipitation patterns, etc. The real threat of climate change lies in how rapidly the change occurs. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are likely to accelerate the rate of climate change.

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 41

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 42

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Fossil Fuel Reserve

Estimated global amount of fossil fuel energy resources as of 1 January 1996 (U.S. Dept. of Energy 1996 Annual Energy Review)
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Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Fossil Fuel Reserve

(cont)

Source: Shell Oil

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 44

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Rate of Fossil Fuel Resource Use
Annual fossil fuel usage from 1973 1995 (data are from the U.S. DOE 1996 Annual Energy Review)

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Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 45

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Run Out of Fossil Fuel
Estimate 1 Assume that the rate of fossil fuel energy use remains the same as in 1995 (327.3 EJ/year) for every year thereafter. Then the fossil fuel energy resources known as of Jan. 1, 1996 will be exhausted in year 2111. Estimate 2 Assume that the rate of fossil fuel energy use continues to increase linearly, as it has (approximately) between 1973 - 1995, for every year after 1995. Then the world's fossil fuel energy reserves (as estimated on Jan. 1, 1996) will be used up in year 2074.
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 46

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

The End
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