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EEC6120

Introduction to Electrical Supply


Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Energy Resources

Read Web pages :


1. The Energy Story

http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/index.html#table

2. Known fossil fuel resources

http://www.cpast.org/Articles/Artfiles/000/000/014/14.adp
8. Energy
http://www.solcomhouse.com/Energy.htm

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 1
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

What is
energy ?
Energy is the capacity to
perform work

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 2
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

What are
energy
Resources?
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 3
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Forms of Energy
 Electricity to power our factory
 Gas to cook our food
 Petrol to drive our vehicle
 Heat and Light we get from the Sun

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 4
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Energy Resources
 In fact, the Sun is the
Earth’s ultimate source of
energy
 Even the food we eat
contains a dose of energy
that originated in the Sun
 Energy resources can be
divided into non-
renewable and renewable

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 5
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

What are non-


renewable
energy resources
?
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 6
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Non-renewable Energy Resources

Non-renewable energy sources


will eventually run out

Example:
When we've extracted all the
Earth's oil, there isn't any more

As we realize that oil is going to run out, we're trying harder to develop other
means of generating the electricity on which we depend. Renewable sources,
such as solar, hydro-electric, tidal and wind power are particularly attractive,
although they do have drawbacks.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 7
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

These are Non-renewable Energy


Resources

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 8
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

What are
renewable
energy
resources ?
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 9
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Renewable Energy Sources


Renewable energy resources won't run out

Example:
Winds will keep on blowing, whether we use the energy or not.
So wind power is a renewable energy resource.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 10
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

These are Renewable Energy


Resources

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 11
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Energy
Resources
Video Click here to view
(20 Minutes)
能量的泉源

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 12
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Fossil Fuels
Read Web pages :
1. Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas

http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html
2. Known fossil fuel resources

http://www.cpast.org/Articles/Artfiles/000/000/014/14.adp
3. OPEC Brief
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/opec.html

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 13
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Most non-renewable energy resources are fossil fuels


(Fuels formed from the buried remains of plants and animals
that lived millions of years ago)
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 14
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Fossil Fuels

 Non-renewable energy sources come out of the


ground as liquids, gases and solids

 Oil (petroleum) is the only naturally liquid


commercial fossil fuel

 Natural gas is normally in gaseous form

 Coal is a solid

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 15
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Oil
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 16
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

How Oil was Formed


✻ Oil was formed from the remains of animals and
plants that lived millions of years ago in a
marine (water) environment before the
dinosaurs.

✻ Over the years, the remains were covered by


layers of mud.

✻ Heat and pressure from these layers helped the


remains turn into what we today call crude oil .

✻ The word “petroleum” means “rock oil” or “oil


from the earth”.
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 17
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

How Oil was Formed (cont)

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 18
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Facts about Oil


 Oil use didn't develop until the 1860's

 Oil is liquid hydrocarbon ( 碳氫化合物 )

 three main products: kerosene ( 煤油 ), fuel oil ( 燃


油 ), and gasoline ( 汽油 )

 75% is in or controlled by the OPEC countries

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 19
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

OPEC ( 石油出口國組 織 )
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
was founded in Baghdad, Iraq, in September 1960, to unify and
coordinate members' petroleum policies.

OPEC Headquarters Vienna, Austria


© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 20
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

OPEC Members
 Iran ( 伊朗 )  Libya ( 利比亞 )
 Iraq ( 伊拉克 )  United Arab Emirates
 Kuwait ( 科威特 ) ( 阿聯合酋長國 )
 Saudi Arabia  Algeria ( 阿爾及利亞 )
( 沙地阿拉伯 )  Nigeria ( 尼日利亞 )
 Venezuela ( 委內瑞拉  Gabon ( 加蓬 )
)  Indonesia ( 印尼 )
 Qatar ( 卡塔爾 )

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 21
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Facts about OPEC


• OPEC members' national oil ministers meet regularly
to discuss prices and, since 1982, to set crude oil
production quotas

• Original OPEC members include Iran, Iraq, Kuwait,


Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. Between 1960 and
1975, the organization expanded to include Qatar
(1961), Indonesia (1962), Libya (1962), the United
Arab Emirates (1967), Algeria (1969), and Nigeria
(1971)

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 22
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Facts about OPEC (cont)

• Ecuador and Gabon were members of OPEC, but


Ecuador withdrew in December 1992, and Gabon
followed suit in January 1995

• Although Iraq remains a member of OPEC, Iraqi


production has not been a part of any OPEC quota
agreements since March 1998

• EIA ( 能源資料協會 ) estimates that the current eleven


OPEC members account for about 40% of world oil
production, and about 2/3 of the world's proven oil
reserves

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 23
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Natural Gas

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 24
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Natural Gas
 Three types: methane ( 甲烷 ), propane ( 丙烷 ), and
butane ( 丁烷 )
 Natural gas is often found in association with oil
 The largest reserves are found in the Persian Gulf
( 波斯灣 ) countries
 Advantages of natural gas is that it burns more
cleanly than the other fossil fuels. Less nitrous
oxides and sulfur oxides are produced, and less
particulate matter, but CO2 is still produced
 There is less natural gas available and it is difficult
and costly to transport. Most natural gas is used in
the country of origin

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 25
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Coal

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 26
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Coal
 Main sources for coal are China, the US, and the
former USSR. These countries hold 75% of the coal
reserves

 Coal is a form of solid hydrocarbon

 Coal was the first fossil fuel exploited

 Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel

 It is the least expensive energy source for generating


electricity

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 27
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Environmental Impacts of Coal


in coal production, mining creates environmental
problems: strip mines must be reclaimed; acid
runoff from coal mining sites

 At the site where we burn coal, nitrous oxides and


sulfur oxides are released, as well as particulate
matter

 These oxides are responsible for acid rain. CO2 is


also released, which contributes to global warming

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 28
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

What are the


advantages of
using fossil
fuels ?
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 29
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Advantages of Using Fossil Fuels


Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in
one place using coal, fairly cheaply

Transporting oil and gas to the power stations is easy

Gas-fired power stations are very efficient

A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost


anywhere, so long as you can get large quantities of
fuel to it

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 30
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Combined Cycle Thermal Power Plant

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 31
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Combined Cycle Thermal Power Plant

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 32
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

What are the


disadvantages of
using fossil fuels ?

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 33
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Disadvantages of Using Fossil Fuels


 Basically, the main drawback of fossil fuels is pollution.
Burning any fossil fuel produces carbon dioxide (CO2),
which contributes to the "greenhouse effect", warming
the Earth

 Burning coal produces more CO2 than burning oil or gas

 It also produces sulphur dioxide (SO2), a gas that


contributes to acid rain

 Mining coal can be difficult and dangerous. Strip mining


destroys large areas of the landscape

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 34
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Problems of Fossil Fuels

Read Web pages :

1. Known fossil fuel resources

http://www.cpast.org/Articles/Artfiles/000/000/014/14.adp

6. Global Warming
http://www.solcomhouse.com/globalwarming.htm

9. Climate Change
http://www.solcomhouse.com/climatechange.htm

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 35
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Pollution
✻ Almost all fossil fuel use is by burning (or "combustion").
Burning produces waste products due to impurities in the
fuel, especially particulates and various gases such as sulfur
dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), and volatile organic
compounds. These waste products may affect our
environment or people, in harmful ways.

✻ Moreover, burning fossil may produce other harmful


wastes. However, in some cases the amount of waste is so
small that the effect is difficult to detect. Mercury ( 水銀 )
from coal burning is an example.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 36
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Greenhouse Effect

Under normal conditions some of the sun's heat is radiated back


into space.

The 'Greenhouse Effect' occurs when heat is trapped in the


atmosphere by gases. (BBC Graphic)

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 37
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 38
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Major Elements of the Climate System

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 39
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Climate Change
✻ The increase of Greenhouse Effect could result in an
increase in mean global temperatures as well as changes in
precipitation patterns.

✻ When weather patterns for an area change in one direction


over long periods of time, they can result in a net climate
change for that area.

✻ The key concept in climate change is time. Natural changes


in climate usually occur over such a long periods of time
that they are often not noticed within several human
lifetimes.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 40
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Climate Change (cont)

This gradual nature of the changes in climate enables the


plants, animals, and microorganisms on earth to evolve
and adapt to the new temperatures, precipitation patterns,
etc.

The real threat of climate change lies in how rapidly the


change occurs. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse
gases are likely to accelerate the rate of climate change.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 41
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 42
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Fossil Fuel Reserve

Estimated global amount of fossil fuel energy resources as


of 1 January 1996 (U.S. Dept. of Energy 1996 Annual Energy Review)

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 43
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Fossil Fuel Reserve (cont)

Source: Shell Oil

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 44
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Rate of Fossil Fuel Resource Use

Annual fossil fuel


usage from 1973 -
1995
(data are from the
U.S. DOE 1996
Annual Energy
Review)

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 45
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Run Out of Fossil Fuel


Estimate 1
Assume that the rate of fossil fuel energy use remains the same as
in 1995 (327.3 EJ/year) for every year thereafter. Then the fossil
fuel energy resources known as of Jan. 1, 1996 will be exhausted
in year 2111.

Estimate 2
Assume that the rate of fossil fuel energy use continues to increase
linearly, as it has (approximately) between 1973 - 1995, for every
year after 1995. Then the world's fossil fuel energy reserves (as
estimated on Jan. 1, 1996) will be used up in year 2074.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 46
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

The
End
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Energy Resources / page 47