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Management Essentials

! Primary Functions of Management

O  3 establishing goals
x  3 etermining what activities
nee to be one
Ô  3 assuring the right people are
on the job an motivate
   3 monitoring activities to be
sure goals are met


! Personnel Management is an important branch in

Management of any organisation.
! The main aim is to establish a better coor ination between
all the members from top level management to own below
the subor inates to have:
! better cooperation,
! better focus to bring out innovative i eas,
! their objectives, un erstan ing in the enterprise.
! Co-operative relationship is achieve within the enterprise
by creating harmonious relations, genuine consultation an
participation an system of effective communication.

This is a function more concerne with training

an evelopment, career planning an
evelopment an organization evelopment.
rhy is HRM Important to an
! The role of human resource personnels has change .
HRM jobs to ay require a new level of sophistication.
Employment legislation has place new requirements on
Jobs have become more technical an skille .
Tra itional job boun aries have become blurre with the
a vent of such things as project teams an
Global competition has increase eman s for
pro uctivity.
rhy is HRM Important to an

! The Strategic Nature 3 HRM must be

a strategic organization partner an represent
forwar -thinking, support the organization
strategy, an assist the organization in
maintaining competitive a vantage.
concerne with the total cost of its function an
for etermining value a e to the organization.
rhy is HRM Important to an

! HRM is the part of the organization

concerne with the ͞people͟ imension.
! HRM is both a staff, an support function
that assists line employees, an a function of
every manager͛s job.
! HRM Certification
Colleges an universities offer HR programs.
rhy is HRM Important to an

! Staffing
! Training an
! Motivation
! Maintenance
How External Influences
Affect HRM

! Strategic Environment
! Governmental Legislation
! Labor Unions
! Management Thought
How External Influences Affect
! HRM Strategic Environment inclu es:
rork force iversity
Changing skill requirements
Continuous improvement
rork process engineering
Decentralize work sites
Employee involvement
How External Influences
Affect HRM

! Governmental Legislation
Laws supporting employer an employee actions
Staffing Function Activities
! i   

ensures that staffing will contribute to the
organization͛s mission an strategy

etermining the specific skills, knowle ge an
abilities nee e to be successful in a particular
efining the essential functions of the job
Staffing Function Activities
the process of attracting a pool of qualifie
applicants that is representative of all groups in
the labour market.
! Î

the process of assessing who will be successful
on the job, an
the communication of information to assist job
can i ates in their ecision to accept an offer
Goals of the Training an
Development Function
! Activities in HRM concerne with assisting
employees to evelop up-to- ate skills, knowle ge,
an abilities
! x

 help employees to
a apt
! Four phases of training an evelopment
Employee training
Employee evelopment
Organization evelopment
Career evelopment
Characteristics of an HR Specialist

The chareateristics/role of the HR specialist is as

! Interviewer,
! Compensation analyst,
! Benefits coor inator,
! Job analyst an
! Trainer.
HR Manager:

The HR Manager is a generalist who a ministers

an coor inates programmes cutting across
functional areas. The HR Manager is a top
ranking person in an Organisation an is
expecte to know about all the areas of HRM.
This is because the HR Manager has to
oversee the implementation of the HR
policies at the facility an a vise line
managers on HR issues.
Mualities of an HR Manager

! Selling Skills.
! Knowle ge of overall esign ͞Organisation͟.
! rillingness to work har .
! Broa base knowle ge of HR management an personnel
! Goo listening skills.
! Ability to form relationships with a wi e variety of ifferent
! Superior verbal an written communication abilities.
Objectives of Personnel Management

! The main objective of personnel management is to

un erstan what has happene an is happening an to be
prepare for what will happen in the area of working
relationships between the managers an the manage
! Personnel or manpower) management involves proce ures
an practices through which human resources are manage
i.e. organize an irecte ) towar s the attainment of the
in ivi ual, social an organizational goals.
! By controlling an effectively using manpower resources,
management tries to pro uce goo s an services for the

Broa ly speaking, experts have generally classifie

the functions into two major categories:

Others have classifie functions as general an
specific functions, an yet others as ͚Personnel
A ministration Functions͛. Functions have also
been classifie on the basis of the capacities; or
on the basis of authority.
Functions of PM Cont 

management may be thought of as the process of
allocating an organizations inputs human an
economic resources) by O  x 
      for the purpose of
pro ucing outputs goo s an services) so that
organisation objectives are accomplishe .

The operating functions of personnel management
are concerne with the activities specifically
ealing with O    
Human Resource Policies:

    are systems of co ifie
ecisions, establishe by an organization, to
support a ministrative personnel functions,
performance management, employee
relations an resource planning.
Purpose of Policies:

! The nature of the organisation.
! rhat they shoul expect from the organisation.
! rhat the organisation expects of them.
! How policies an proce ures work in the
! rhat is acceptable an unacceptable behaviour.
! The consequences of unacceptable behaviour.
Formulating Policies:
! Past practice in the organisation.
! Prevailing practice in the rival/competing oganisations.
! Attitu es an philosophies of foun ers of the organisation
an also its irectors an top management.
! Attitu es an philosophy of mi le an lower management.
! Knowle ge an experience gaine from han ling countless
personnel problems on a ay-to- ay basis.
Personnel Policies

! Policy of hiring people with ue respect to factors
like reservation, gen er, marital status, etc.
! Policy on terms an con itions of employment 3
compensation policy an metho s, hours of
work, overtime, promotion, transfer, etc.
! Policy regar ing housing, transport an other
! Policies regar ing training an evelopment.
Î ! 

Organisation owners shoul make sure that they a ress the

following basic human resource issues when putting together
their personnel policies:
! Equal Employment Opportunity policies.
! Employee classifications.
! rork ays, pay ays, an pay a vances.
! Overtime compensation.
! Meal perio s an break perio s.
! Payroll e uctions.
! Vacation policies.
! Holi ays.
! Sick ays an personal leave for bereavement, voting, etc.).

! Performance evaluations an salary increases.

! Performance improvement.
! Termination policies.
Cont ..

In a ition, a broa spectrum of other issues can be a resse

via human resource policies, epen ing on the nature of the
! Promotion policies;
! Me ical/ ental benefits provi e to employees;
! Use of organisations equipment/resources access to
Internet, personal use of fax machines an telephones, etc.);
! Continuity of policies; sexual harassment; substance abuse
an /or rug testing; smoking;
Cont ..

! Pension, profit-sharing, an retirement plans;

! Reimbursement of employee expenses for traveling
expenses an other expenses associate with con ucting
company business);
! Chil or el er care;
! E ucational assistance;
! Grievance proce ures;
! Employee privacy;
! Dress co es;
@" ##



Intro uction
  is a process
by which an organization ensures that
it has the right number an kin s of
at the right place
at the right time
capable of effectively an efficiently
completing those tasks that will help
the organization achieve its overall
strategic objectives.
Intro uction
! Linke to the organization͛s overall strategy
an planning to compete omestically an
! Overall plans an objectives must be
translate into the number an types of
workers nee e .
! Senior HRM staff nee to lea top
management in planning for HRM issues.
Linking Organizational Strategy
to Human Resource Planning
! Ensures that people are available to meet the
requirements set uring strategic planning.
! Assessing current human resources
A human resources inventory report
summarizes information on current
workers an their skills.
! Human Resource Information Systems
HRIS are increasingly popular
computerize atabases that contain
important information about employees.
Linking Organizational Strategy
to Human Resource Planning
! Assessing current human resources
! Î  
inclu es the evelopment of

portray mi le-to-upper level management
positions that may become vacant in the near
lists information about in ivi uals who might
qualify to fill the positions
Linking Organizational Strategy
to Human Resource Planning
! Determining the Deman for manpower

can be evelope to
project year-by-year estimates of future HRM
nee s for every significant job level an type.
Forecasts must be ma e of the nee for specific
knowle ge, skills an abilities.

Linking Organizational Strategy
to Human Resource Planning
! Pre icting the Future manpower Supply
A unit͛s supply of human resources comes from:
! new hires
! contingent workers
! transfers-in
! in ivi uals returning from leaves
Pre icting these can range from simple to
Linking Organizational Strategy
to Human Resource Planning

! Pre icting the Future manpower Supply

Decreases in internal supply come about through:
! Retirements
! Dismissals
! Transfers-out
! Lay-offs
! Voluntary quits
! Prolonge illnesses
! Deaths
Linking Organizational Strategy
to Human Resource Planning

Job Analysis
!    $ is a systematic exploration of the
activities within a job.

! It efines an ocuments the uties,

responsibilities an accountabilities of a job
an the con itions un er which a job is
performe .

Job Analysis
!    $  !

   ! 3 job analyst watches
employees irectly or reviews film of workers on
the job.
  ! 3 a team of job
incumbents is selecte an extensively
interviewe .
  ! 3 a number of job
incumbents are interviewe simultaneously.
Job Analysis
!    $  !
  ! 3 workers
complete a specifically esigne questionnaire.
   ! 3 uses supervisors
with an extensive knowle ge of the job.

  ! 3 job incumbents recor their aily
! The best results are usually achieve with
some combination of metho s.
Job Analysis

!   % 
Specify relative value of each job in the

Use to esign equitable compensation program.

Intro uction

Once an organization i entifies its human
resource nee s through employment planning, it
can begin the process of recruiting potential
can i ates for actual or anticipate organizational
Intro uction

!    brings together those

with jobs to fill an those seeking
Recruiting Goals

! To provi e information that will attract a

significant pool of qualifie can i ates an
iscourage unqualifie ones from applying.
Recruiting: A Global
! a
HCNs) are targete as
recruits when companies want each foreign
subsi iary to have its own istinct national
i entity.

! HCN͛s minimize potential problems with

language, family a justment an hostile
political environments.
Recruiting Sources

! Sources shoul match the position to be

fille .
! Î 
Internal Searches
Employee Referrals/
Recommen ations
External Searches
Recruiting Sources

! Organizations that promotes from
within an i entifies current
employees for job openings:
by having in ivi uals bi for jobs
by using their HR management system
by utilizing employee referrals
Recruiting Sources


! ]
of promoting from within inclu e
morale buil ing
encouragement of ambitious employees
availability of information on existing employee
internal can i ates͛ knowle ge of the organization
Recruiting Sources



inclu e:
possible inferiority of internal can i ates
infighting an morale problems
Recruiting Sources

! Current employees can be aske to recommen recruits.
! ]
inclu e:
the employee͛s motivation to make a goo
recommen ation
the availability of accurate job information for the recruit
Employee referrals ten to be more acceptable applicants,
to be more likely to accept an offer an to have a higher
survival rate.
Recruiting Sources



inclu e:
the possibility of frien ship being
confuse with job performance
Recruiting Sources

! ] 
ÿ Must eci e type an
location of a , epen ing on job; eci e
whether to focus on job    

) or on

! Two factors influence the response rate:
i entification of the organization
labor market con itions
Recruiting Sources

! i   

on helping unemploye in ivi uals with
lower skill levels to fin jobs.
 provi e
more comprehensive services an are
perceive to offer positions an
applicants of a higher caliber.
Recruiting Sources

! Î

May provi e entry-level or experience
workers through their placement
May also help companies establish
cooperative e ucation assignments an
Recruiting Sources

! -     

Temporary employees help organizations meet short-term
fluctuations in HRM nee s.
Ol er workers can also provi e high quality temporary
! i  
Traine workers are employe by a leasing company, which
provi es them to employers when nee e for a flat fee.
Typically remain with an organization for longer perio s of





Internal Environmental Factors
Influencing Selection

! Organization characteristics that can influence the

selection process:
Technological ability
External Environmental Factors
Influencing Selection

! Government employment laws an

! Size, composition, an availability of local
manpower markets
Reliability of Selection Criteria

!  ( how stable or repeatable a

measurement is over a variety of testing
con itions.
Vali ity of Selection Criteria

! ! ( a resses the questions of:

rhat a selection tool measures
How well it has measure it
! It is not sufficient for a selection tool to be

! The selection tool must also be  

The Selection Process


Involves screening of inquiries an
screening interviews.
Job escription information is
share along with a salary range.
The Selection Process
%  #

Interviews involve a face-to-face meeting with the
can i ate to probe areas not a resse by the
application form or tests
! Two strategies for effective use of interviews:
1. Structuring the interview to be reliable an vali
. Training managers on best interview techniques
The Selection Process

- #

! Unstructure interview
! Structure interview
! Behavioral Interviews
Can i ates are observe not only for what they
say, but how they behave.
Role playing is often use .
! Stress Interviews.
The Selection Process


RJP͛s present unfavorable as well as favorable
information about the job to applicants.

May inclu e brochures, films, tours, work

sampling, or verbal statements that realistically
portray the job.
The Selection Process

% -
! Mechanism that attempts to measure certain
characteristics of in ivi uals, e.g.,
aptitu es

! Shoul be  
  before being use to make
hiring ecisions
The Selection Process
% -
! Estimates say 60% of all organizations use some
type of employment tests.

 requires the
applicant to engage in specific job behaviors
necessary for oing the job successfully.

  Job analysis is use to evelop a
miniature replica of the job on which an applicant
emonstrates his/her skills.
The Selection Process
% -
! ]

 A series of tests an
exercises, inclu ing in ivi ual an group
simulation tests, is use to assess
managerial potential or other complex
sets of skills.
   Selection practices
must be a apte to cultures an regulations
of host country.
The Selection Process

6 )
!#  :
! Verify information from the application form
! Typical information verifie inclu es:
former employers
! previous job performance
e ucation
legal status to work
cre it references
criminal recor s
The Selection Process

6 )
! Do not always provi e an organization with
meaningful information about applicants

! Concerns over the legality of asking for an

provi ing confi ential information about
The socialization Process

! Î * 
A process of a aptation to a new work
A justments must be ma e whenever
in ivi uals change jobs
The most profoun a justment occurs
when an in ivi ual first enters an
The socialization Process

The assumptions of employee socialization:

Socialization strongly influences employee
performance an organizational stability
Provi es information on how to o the job an
ensuring organizational fit.
New members suffer from 
, which
motivates them to learn the values an norms of
the organization.
The Socialization Process Cont͛
Assumptions of employee socialization cont͛ :
Socialization is influence by subtle an less
subtle statements an behaviors exhibite by
colleagues, management, employees, clients
an others.
In ivi uals a just to new situations in
remarkably similar ways.
All new employees go through a settling-in
perio .
The socialization Process
The socialization Process

The Socialization Process

  : In ivi uals arrive

with a set of values, attitu es an
expectations which they have
evelope from previous experience
an the selection process.
The socialization Process
 : In ivi uals
iscover how well their
expectations match realities
within the organization.

rhere ifferences exist,

socialization occurs to instill
the employee with the
organization͛s stan ar s.
The socialization Process

   : In ivi uals have a apte
to the organization, feel accepte an know what
is expecte of them.
New-Employee Orientation

! Orientation may be one by the supervisor, the HRM staff

or some combination.
! Formal or informal, epen ing on the size of the
! Covers such things as:
The organization͛s objectives
Proce ures
HRM policies an benefits
Fellow employees
New-Employee Orientation

! Learning the Organization͛s 

Culture inclu es long-stan ing, often
unwritten rules about what is appropriate
Socialize employees know how things are
one, what matters, an which behaviors
an perspectives are acceptable.
New-Employee Orientation

 : HRM instructs
new employees when an where to
report; provi es information about
benefits choices.
! O 

 : HRM offers its
assistance for future employee nee s
career gui ance, training, etc.).