The WWII Home Front

Inflation & Food Prices     

Facing rapidly increasing food prices and wage rates, Roosevelt submitted a bill to Congress on September 7, 1942. Roosevelt spoke to the American people that evening warning that farm prices may succumb to drastic inflation unless the government establishes further price controls. He also explained to the nation the need for the government to increase the federal income tax rates. The Office of Price Administration established price controls to control inflation. Congress passed a stabilization bill on October 2.

´Victory Gardenersµ  

The federal government, through the Office of War Mobilization, encouraged citizens to participate in the war effort. One popular idea was the creation of victory gardens. 30-40% of all the produce 30grown during the war years were grown in such gardens.

Stabilization of the Economy   As the war began. the president assumes an unprecedented executive control over the American economy. . FDR attempted to stabilize the national economy by creating an Office of Economic Stabilization led by an Economic Director. In the process.

By borrowing money. the federal government encouraged citizens to purchase war bonds. the federal government financed approximately 40% of the cost of the war.Victory Loan Drive    To finance the war. . However. the high levels of deficit spending also boosted the national debt five-fold fivefrom 1940 ² 1945.

S. had produced 86. Britain & Germany in 1939.S. Italy & Japan combined & tripled the combined output of Germany & Japan. the U. .Aircraft Production Ranking behind the USSR. became the top aircraft producer in the world by 1941. By war's end.500 more aircraft than Germany. the U.

When compared with England and Japan. the U.Merchant Ship Production Another insightful statistic illustrating the United States' enormous industrial output is the gross tonnage of merchant ships built during the war.S. the second and third largest fleets respectively. output is staggering. .

Rationing   The productive capacity of the United States during World War II surpassed all expectations. . Americans at home were asked to conserve materials and to accept ration coupons or stamps that limited the purchase of certain products such as:      Gasoline Rubber Sugar Butter Certain cloths  American responses to rationing varied from cheerful compliance to resigned grumbling to instances of black market subversion and profiteering.

It was also necessary to begin stepping up production and conservation of materials for the war effort. and quickly stepped up pro-war propropaganda.Home Front Propaganda      Having sustained losses in World War I and only now coming out of an economic crisis. This was not extremely successful until after Pearl Harbor. . most specifically posters. most Americans thought that energies should be spent here at home. As the war began in earnest. when the war no longer seemed comfortably distant but very close to home. the government recognized that American participation was necessary. improving America. instead of becoming involved in war overseas. America increased the flood of propaganda. utilizing especially the radio and visual media. because the Allies only tremendous advantage was their great production power. However.

.

.

.

.

.

both sides attempted to demonize their adversary.Demonizing the Enemy During the war. . the Germans and Japanese are depicted in less than flattering light. In these American posters.

. In 1943 civilians were only allotted 15% of the nation's steel production. as well as canned fruits. canned. An obstacle that the 1940's housewife ran into was the shortage of steel. contributed to the low rate of women aged 25 to 34 that participated in the labor force. Women who lived in big cities felt this squeeze more than ever. while women who lived on farms and in small towns were able to garden and preserve their own supply of fresh produce. dried. and soups. This caused the rationing of such items as bottled. there was much public resistance to the idea of working mothers. juices. and frozen vegetables.Women and the Homefront     Not all women were asked to join the workforce.

They switched from lowerlowerpaying traditionally female jobs to higher-paying factory jobs. lucrative contracts with the government just as all the men were leaving for the service. several companies already had contracts with the government to produce war equipment for the Allies. Half of the women who took war jobs were minority and lower-class lowerwomen who were already in the workforce. Women responded to the call to work differently depending on age. Eventually. efficient. class. and number of children. and pretty. The government decided to launch a propaganda campaign to sell the importance of the war effort and to lure women into working. race. higher- . At first companies did not think that there would be a labor shortage so they did not take the idea of hiring women seriously. women were needed because companies were signing large.Women in the Workforce        Before the United States entered World War II. patriotic. Americans agreed that having women work in the war industries would only be temporary. marital status. They promoted the fictional character of ´Rosie the Riveterµ as the ideal woman worker: loyal.

.

.

.

.

Discrimination .

.

.

This slogan was adopted on a national scale to criticize the discrimination that AfricanAfricanAmericans were facing in defensedefense-related industries.Double V Campaign   The Pittsburg Courier designed this ad campaign to symbolize the efforts of African-Americans Africanwho were fighting for victory against fascism abroad and fighting racism at home. .

the organizers postponed the march which curbed a potential political mess for FDR during a period in which he was emphasizing American democratic ideals in his foreign policy. . In return.C.Executive Order 8802    As wartime mobilization was underway in the United States. Pressure by civil rights leaders and their threat to organize a march on Washington D. American businesses and the federal government continued to practice racial discrimination in the workforce. caused President Roosevelt to issue an executive order.

The muggy summer evening of June 20. 1943 saw rioting. Eventually. employers in Detroit turned to a ready pool of African American labor from the South. rumors circulated among the black population that that "whites" had thrown a black woman and her baby over the Belle Isle bridge. white mobs had been stirred up by a rumor that a black man had raped and murdered a white woman on the bridge. 6.Detroit Race Riot (1943)       After the start of the war. Exacerbating the conflict. Enraged. .000 federal troops had to be called in to quell the violence. Similarly. many African-Americans Africanstormed white districts where they looted and destroyed stores and indiscriminately attacked anyone with white skin.

by declaring that Los Angeles would henceforth be off-limits to all offmilitary personnel. They headed to east LA where they attacked all the men they found wearing zoot suits.Zoot Suit Riots      A series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles during World War II between sailors and soldiers and Mexican American youth gangs. The government finally intervened on June 7. On June 3. In many instances. . the police intervened by arresting beaten-up Mexicanbeaten. 1943. often ripping off the suits and burning them in the streets. a group of servicemen on leave complained that they had been assaulted by a gang of pachucos.MexicanAmerican youth for disturbing the peace.

the military designated the entire West Coast of the United States a military zone and began the systematic. forced removal of over 110.000 JapaneseJapaneseAmericans from their homes and businesses.Executive Order 9066    February 19. Taken to an extreme. They were sent to relocation centers located in the deserts of the southwest and other parts of the United States. . 1942: Executive Order 9066 allowed the United States military the authority to establish military zones from which they could then exclude any persons they deemed a threat to national security.

The U. Wyoming. More than 2/3 of the Japanese who were interned in the spring of 1942 were citizens of the United States. and Arkansas. Arizona.S. Food was rationed out at an expense of 48 cents per internee. internment camps were overcrowded and provided poor living conditions. Colorado. and served by fellow internees in a mess hall of 250-300 people.Internment of Japanese Americans     120.000 Americans of Japanese heritage were sent to one of 10 internment camps³officially called camps³ "relocation centers"³in California. Utah. centers"³ Idaho. 250- .

gov/learn/features/immig/alt/images/mexican7_3.jpg Slide 6: R.ny.umkc.wikimedia.lackland.de/imagebank/Propaganda/images/1942x~This_is_the_Enemy_US_%5B2%5D.htm Slide 24: http://www.jpg 18http://www. 133. 1997).C.jpg http://thesituationist.gov/exhibits/african/images/dairy.org/whistlestop/study_collections/japanese_internment/20Slide 30: http://www.on.jpg Slide 16: http://history.detnews.wordpress.jpg Slide 25: http://c250.gif Slide 10: http://orpheus.gif Slide 12: http://afsf.k12.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/stamp_em_out/images_html/images/more_production.gif Slide 15: http://upload.com/vintage_poster/worldwarII_poster_files/usl08329. http://www. 1997).edu/c250_celebrates/harlem_history/pe_politics.jpg http://www.jpg Slide 22: http://orpheus.com/assets/images/internment-notice.jpg Slide 21: http://memory.org/wikipedia/en/d/d2/AntiJapanesePropagandaTakeDayOff.A.edu/speccoll/exhibits/morse/Photo/Panel4/WomenWelders. Slide 8: http://www.edu/speccoll/dspolitic/Frame.umkc.htm http://www.trumanlibrary.uoregon.gif Slide 20: http://www.mil/Images/WWII/images/WWII%20Wanted_jpg.edu/~speccoll/ration.edu/lib/spec-col/ww2/WarNews/victorygarden.loc. (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.archives. Slide 7: R.ucsd. http://www.solpass.ca/english/exhibits/posters/pics/16171_bring_him_home_770.jpg Slide 13: http://www.vulturebookz.files.gov/exhibits/treasures/images/at0071.org/7ss/Images/RosieSlide 19: http://libweb.htm http://www. The Second World War: A Short History (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.gif Slide 28: http://memory.htm Slide 23: http://orpheus.edu/gen/st/~cg3/pics/wneeded.org/wikipedia/en/c/c3/PropagandaNaziStabsBible.GIF Slide 5: http://www.nisk.loc.solpass. Parker.wikimedia.ucsd.org/7ss/Images/Rosie-Riveter_small.gov/service/pnp/fsac/1a35000/1a35300/1a35341v.vulturebookz.jpg Slide 18http://www.edu/speccoll/dspolitic/Frame.vulturebookz.A. http://www.                          Multimedia Citations Slide 2: http://thesituationist. 135.com/2007/05/food-is-a-weapon.com/assets/images/internment .archives.edu/lib/specSlide 4: http://www.com/dn/history/riot/images/mob.sandiego.af.internationalposter. http://www.gif.org/whistlestop/study_collections/japanese_internment/20-1681a.de/imagebank/Propaganda/images/1942x~This_is_the_Enemy_US_%5B1%5D.gov. The Second World War: A Short History.jpg Slide 29: http://www.de/imagebank/Propaganda/images/1942x~This_is_the_Enemy_US_%5B2%5D.loc.vulturehttp://upload.htm Slide 11: http://www.wikimedia.ucsd.files.org/wikipedia/en/c/c3/PropagandaNaziStabsBible.twogypsies.html Slide 27: http://info.jpg Slide 14: http://upload. Parker.edu/speccoll/dspolitic/Frame.columbia.cofc.2s.loc.C.jpg.us/fdr/ideas/portfolio/dorn/gifs/33031801.wordpress.twogypsies.gif.com/2007/05/food-isSlide 3: http://www.jpg.trumanlibrary.