Project Report On occupational hazard of hydrochloric acid

.INTRODUCTION ‡ Hydrogen chloride readily dissolves in water to form hydrochloric acid. a corrosive solution. Hydrochloric acid is most often used as a chemical intermediate to manufacture other chemicals and is used for the pickling/cleaning of metal surfaces. Technical grades of hydrochloric acid are called muriatic acid. acrid odor. Muriatic acid is often yellow in color due to its impurity. At room temperature it is a colorless. non-flammable gas with an unpleasant.

in the production of carbonated soft drinks.g. . the concentration of CaCl2 in the produced solution will be approximately 36% and further evaporation is only needed when flakes are produced. The purification of the product is mainly accomplished by adding Ca(OH)2 as described in the natural brine process. ‡ The high purity of the produced carbon dioxide (CO2)makes it suitable for applications within the food and pharmaceutical industries e.Acid Process ‡ Limestone-Hydrochloric Acid Process Limestone can be treated with hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride and carbon dioxide: ‡ If concentrated (36%) hydrochloric acid is utilized..

Finland facilities. Sweden and Kokkali. The limestone comes from Gotland in the Baltic Sea and the hydrochloric acid is produced at neighboring chemical plants. ‡ Extremely pure calcium chloride products can be obtained using this process if the purity of the hydrochloric acid is sufficient.‡ The limestone process is utilized for calcium chloride production in our Helsingborg. . the process is well suited for producing food grade products. Hence. It is also an environmentally friendly method to utilize by-product hydrochloric acid.

2. 3. Psychosocial hazards. 4.OCCUPATION HAZARDS An industrial worker may be exposed to five type of hazard depending upon his occupation. Chemical hazards. 1. 5. Mechanical hazards. . Biological hazards. Physical hazards.

or severe burns with deep ulcerations. Ingestion of concentrated solution can cause severe pain in the mouth. can irritate the eyes and cause burning. sloughing of the surface cells of the eye. blurred vision. ‡ Contact with the Eyes. nausea and vomiting. Immediate burning in the mouth and throat occur when hydrochloric acid is swallowed. tearing of the eyes. tissue death. photophobia.PHYSICAL HAZARDS OF HYDROCHLRIC ACID and cause chemical burns ranging from mild to severe depending on the concentration of the hydrochloric acid solution. ‡ Ingestion. even with short-term exposure. swelling. Hydrochloric acid can irritate the skin . Signs displayed by skin exposed to liquefied hydrochloric acid can include frostbite. and blisters. Concentrated vapor or solution may cause the victim to experience pain. redness of the skin. ‡ Contact with the Skin. and may cause blindness. Hydrochloric acid. chest and abdomen.

Signs and symptoms of hydrochloric acid inhalation can include: ± Coughing ± Choking ± Burning of the throat . The most common way for hydrochloric acid to enter the body is through the respiratory system.CHEMICAL HAZARD ‡ Inhalation.

Health Hazard Information ‡ Hydrochloric acid is corrosive to the eyes. Dermal contact may produce severe burns. hoarseness. inflammation and ulceration of the respiratory tract. mice. and pulmonary edema in humans. ulceration. esophagus. and scarring. ‡ Acute oral exposure may cause corrosion of the mucous membranes. chest pain. and rabbits. Acute inhalation exposure may cause coughing. and diarrhea reported in humans. and mucous membranes. with nausea. . vomiting. and stomach. skin. ‡ Acute animal tests in rats. have demonstrated hydrochloric acid to have moderate to high acute toxicity from inhalation and moderate acute toxicity from oral exposure.

Chronic Effects ‡ Chronic occupational exposure to hydrochloric acid has been reported to cause gastritis. and trachea and lesions in the nasal cavity in rats. ‡ Chronic inhalation exposure caused hyperplasia of the nasal mucosa. larynx. . Prolonged exposure to low concentrations may also cause dental discoloration and erosion. chronic bronchitis. and photosensitization in workers. dermatitis.

Physical Properties ‡ Hydrogen chloride is a common synonym for hydrochloric acid. and its molecular weight is 36. pungent odor. with an odor threshold of about 7 mg/m3.47 g/mol. ‡ Hydrochloric acid occurs as a colorless. ‡ The chemical formula for hydrochloric acid is HCl. nonflammable aqueous solution or gas. ‡ Hydrochloric acid has an irritating. .

Conversion Factors: ‡ To convert concentrations in air (at 25 °C) from ppm to mg/m3: mg/m3 = (ppm) × (molecular weight of the compound)/(24. For hydrochloric acid: 1 ppm = 1.45). ‡ .49 mg/m3.

Acute Health Effects of Hydrochloric Acid Exposures ‡ As the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases. the symptoms become more severe. Acute exposures to hydrochloric acid can cause immediate burning of the eyes. coughing and a burning nose can help to warn people of potentially hazardous exposure levels. nose. . the very old. throat and/ or respiratory system. and people with health problems are at an increased risk from the health effects of hydrochloric acid exposure. The very young. Itchy eyes.

chronic bronchial irritation with cough and/or chronic shortness of breath may occur with repeated or longterm exposure to hydrochloric acid. Skin rashes may also occur with .Chronic Health Effects of Repeated Exposure to Hydrochloric Acid ‡ Erosion of the teeth.

Nitrile and neoprene gloves are best suited for prolonged contact with hydrochloric acid. ‡ Eye Protection For solutions of hydrochloric acid with a pH less than or equal to 3.Personal Protective Equipment ‡ Clothing Avoid skin contact with hydrochloric acid. Check with glove manufacturer for recommended use and duration guidelines. but PVC and rubber gloves are also acceptable. at a minimum. an eightinch face shield. .0. persons should wear. Wear chemicalresistant clothing and protective gloves. Splash-proof goggles are also recommended where mists of hydrochloric acid solution could contact the eyes.

Respiratory protection should be approved by NIOSH specifically for hydrochloric acid and used in accordance with the OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard.134. Companies are also referred to 29 CFR 1910. Under routine exposures where the ambient concentration of hydrochloric acid exceeds 5ppm. full-face respirator equipped with acid gas cartridges appropriate for hydrochloric acid. 29 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 1910. and fitted for the respirator face piece. Respirator use must be limited to individuals who have been medically cleared. Respirators should be used when engineering and work practice controls are not feasible or being installed.‡ Respiratory Protection (respirators) Engineering controls should be implemented to reduce environmental concentrations to the permissible exposure level (5ppm). Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard. such as uncontrolled releases. use an air purifying.119. . adequately trained. only a pressure-demand SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus) is appropriate. For exposures of unknown concentrations of hydrochloric acid.

take the following actions: ‡ Breathing If hydrogen chloride is inhaled.First Aid Management ‡ Prompt action is essential if there is a hydrochloric acid spill or leak. . perform artificial respiration. ‡ Eye Exposure Wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical attention immediately. lifting the upper and lower lids. If breathing stops. If a hydrochloric acid spill or leak occurs. Contacts should not be worn when working with hydrogen chloride/ hydrochloric acid. Seek medical attention immediately. Keep the affected person warm and resting. move the person to fresh air at once.

give him large amounts of water or milk to dilute the hydrogen chloride solution. ‡ Swallowing If hydrogen chloride solution is swallowed.‡ Skin Exposure Skin contaminated with hydrogen chloride/ hydrochloric acid should be flushed with water for at least 15 minutes. call the poison control center (1-800-848-6946). Seek medical attention immediately. . remove clothing and flush the skin with water. Do not attempt to make the exposed person vomit. Do not rub or wash skin. and the person is conscious. Refer to a material safety data sheet (MSDS). If strong concentrations of gas or solution penetrate clothing. Seek medical attention immediately. or call a physician on instructions for inducing vomiting.

. and rubber industries. for pickling and cleaning of metal products. for the neutralization of basic systems. in removing scale from boilers. textile. as a laboratory reagent. for hydrolyzing starch and proteins in the preparation of various food products. for refining ore in the production of tin and tantalum.Uses ‡ Hydrochloric acid is used in the production of chlorides. and in the photographic. in the manufacture of fertilizers and dyes. as a catalyst and solvent in organic syntheses. in electroplating.

Ingestion. Contact with the Eyes. . As like Inhalation. Respiratory Protection . Eye Protection. we control this hazars is Personal Protective Equipment as like Clothing. Contact with the Skin.CONCLUSION In hydrochloric acid so many occupational hazards.