BASIC FIRE FIGHTING

By

Mr. Damaso Ronillo A. Villanueva February 10, 2011

GENERAL OBJECTIVE:
At the end of the Seminar, the participants will be able to: Explain how to minimize the risk of fire and maintain a state of readiness to respond to emergency situations involving fire. Understand on how to fight and extinguish fire.

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SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVE
‡ Familiarize Rules and Regulations ‡ Explain the elements of fire and explosion, ‡ Understand the physical properties, fire hazard and the spread of fire, ‡ Enumerate classes of fire and their extinguising agents. ‡ Knowledge on how to response to emergency situations involving fire ‡ Knowledge of location of fire-fighting appliances and detection system.

MODULE 1 TIME FRAME = 20 MIN.

OBJECTIVE:
‡ After having completed this section, you will know where to find the rules and regulations governing safety equipment.

They show the duties assigned of every personnel including evacuation area for their own safety. They specify details of the emergency alarm signal and also the action to be taken when alarm is sounded. 2. this .EMERGENCY PLAN ‡ The company employee and workers must familiarize themselves with the muster list and emergency Instruction which are displayed inside the company premises. 1.

1. . Understand on how to break the chain reactions between the components of fire triangle.MODULE 11 TIME FRAME = 30 MIN. ‡ OBJECTIVES: At the end of the topic. the trainee will be able to. Become familiar with the components of fire triangle 2.

Fuel . Heat 3. there has to be an unbroken chain reactions between three components.THE FIRE TRIANGLE ‡ In order for there to be a fire. Oxygen 2. The following components are: 1.

TO FIGHT A FIRE ‡ Remove the Heat HEAT CHAIN REACTION ‡ Remove combustible materials ‡ Remove the oxygen ‡ Break the Chain Reaction FUEL OXYGEN .

flash points and ( Fire point) explosive limits.MODULE 111 TIME FRAME = 30 MIN ‡ LEARNING OBJECTIVE At the end of the session . Spreading of Fire . 2. 1. Flammable Materials 3. Knowledge to define ignition points. the trainee will be able to. Fire Hazards 4.

.IGNITION POINTS ( AUTO/SELF) ‡ The temperature at which the product will give sufficient vapour that can be ignited and will continue to support combustion after the application of an outside source of ignition.

in Deg. 560 C 595 305 220 230 250 455 200-400 185-350 250-350 LIQUID SOLID MATERIALS .EXAMPLE OF IGNITION POINTS Physical Condition GAS Materials Hydrogen Methane Acetylene Diesel Oil Petroleum Gasoline Methanol Wood Paper Coal Temp.

FLASH POINT ‡ Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient gas to form a flammable gas mixture near the surface of the liquid. OR ‡ The lowest temperature at which a burnable substance gives off sufficient flammable vapour which when mixed w/ oxygen in the proper proportion will burn temporarily when a spark or flame is applied. .

EXAMPLE OF FLASH POINT LIQUID ‡ Ether ‡ Gasoline ‡ Petroleum ‡ White Spirit ‡ Diesel ‡ Lube oil FLASH POINT IN deg C. ‡ Below ² 40 ‡ Below ² 30 ‡ + 35 / + 55 ‡ + 40 ‡ Above + 60 ‡ Above + 100 .

This level means that hydro carbon concentration has an insufficient amount of hydrocarbon gas to support and propagate combustion. .EXPLOSIVE LIMITS A hydrocarbon gas mixture and air cannot be ignited and burned unless its composition lies Within a range of gas-in-air concentration known as the ´flammable range ´ The lower limit of this range is called ´LELµ ( Lower Explosive Limit). The mixture is to ´ Leanµ. The ´LFLµ ( Lower Flammable Limit) is also used.

The upper limit of the range is known as the UEL ( Upper explosive Limit) also known as ´UFLµ ( Upper Flammable Limit). This level means that the hydro carbon concentration is insufficient amount of air to support and propagate combustion. . The mixture is ( too ´ RICHµ) Between these two areas . the mixture is flammable and results in a fire or explosion when ignited.

Combustion Intensity LEL 0 2 Flammable area 10 UEL 11 % Volume percentage of gas in air .

EXPLOSIVE LIMITS When a fire occurs . sideways in minutes and downwards in hour. SECONDS MINUTES HOUR . heat is transported to all neighbouring areas. and sets fire to combustible materials. The heat spread upwards in seconds.

such as the transmission of heat from the sun .TRANSMISSION OF HEAT RADIATION = Transmission of heat in all directions from a sourceeven through space.

CONDUCTION Transmission of heat from one substance to another by direct contact from molecule to molecule. .

CONVECTION Transmission of heat through contact with molecules of hot gases. these molecules move upward and transmits the heat to any other molecule or surface it comes in contact with. When molecules of gases become heated. .

Understand the suitability of the various extinguishing agents for the fire classes. 2. the participants will be able to. 1. .MODULE 1V TIME FRAME = 30 MIN. OBJECTIVE: At the end of the session. Explain the extinguishing agents normally used. Explain the internationally used fire classes 3.

CLASSES OF FIRE 1. CLASS ´Aµ ² Fire that involves ordinary solid materials rags wood paper .

CLASS ´Aµ FIRE CHARACTERISTICS 1. Normally of organic in nature 4. Penetrates throughout 3.seated 2. Deep. Leaves ashes or residue .

Paints Fuel Oil Cooking oil .CLASS ´ Bµ FIRE = Fire that occurs with vapours or burns over the surface of a flammable liquid or liquefiable solids.

CLASS ´ C ´ FIRE = Fires involving Liquefied Gases LPG LNG .

CLASS ´ Dµ FIRE = Fire involving combustible metals .

Electrical fire .CLASS ´ Eµ FIRE = Class E fire is an electrical fire The essential action in the event of electrical fire is to cut off electrical supply. To avoid the spread of fire it will be frequently necessary to fight an electrical fire before the electric supply has been cut off.

It also easily available in a large quantities .EXTINGUISHING AGENTS WATER Water is normally the most suitable extinguisher to fight Class A fire. Water extinguished the fire by cooling it below the ignition point. It removes the heat side of the fire triangle.

CO2 CO2 Extinguishes the fire mainly by cutting off oxygen supply. CO2 does not conduct electricity and is the most suitable medium for extinguishing electrical fires and operates on the principle of smothering the fire by displacing the oxygen. . Available through a fixed installation system or in portable extinguisher.

. portable extinguishes and fixed foam guns.FOAM EXTINGUISHER Foam extinguishes the fire mainly by cutting off the oxygen supply. Foam is available through hoses and nozzles .

. Dry powder is useful in dealing with liquid spill fires. Powder is suitable for electrical fire as well. but there is no cooling effect.DRY POWDER Powder breaks the chain reactions in the fire triangle.

HALON 1301 IS PROHIBITED (JANUARY 1994) AND NOT ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY Good agent in confined and enclosed space Halon 1301 .

MODULE 5 TIME FRAME = 30 MIN. Explain on how to respond once hear an alarm. OBJECTIVES: At the end of this session the participants will be able to: 1. . 2. Knowledge on how to response if detecting a fire. Understand the fire fighting organization. 3.

On the emergency plan you will find information about your office organization during fire.Each member has a special duty during emergencies. PKIMT FIRE FIGHTING ORGANIZATION COMPANY PRESIDENT FIREFIGHTING SQUAD FIRST AID .

COMPANY PRESIDENT = Overall in charge on scene and on direct communication to the authorities FIRE FIGHTING TEAM = in charge for combatting a fire FIRST AID TEAM = In charge for medical kit .

. all personnel should be aware of the risk of fire .THE NEED FOR CONSTANT VIGILANCE Constant vigilance or watchfullness is important. air conditioning unit . proper behaviour and individuals responsibility. Even though the office are constructed as safe as possible there is still the risk that accidents may occur. etc that may begin to create a fire. This is because the company are using electronic equipment .

BEHAVIOUR / ATTITUDE It is essential that all personnel and staff have the right attitude towards the prevention of fire. Be aware and report of some irregularities b. All staff and personnel should be. Follow instructions. . a. Keep the work place clear and tidy. The company should therefor ensure that safety awareness is an important factor in their quality management. orders and company regulations c. Have a good understanding of contingency plan d.

FOR INDIVIDUALS RESPONSIBILITY It is therefore of vital importance that you know your duties when accident occur and that you show safety consciousness. .

Good working methods and procedures 6. Good working environment 5.SAFETY IS AMONG OTHER FACTORS 1. Trained co-workers 3. 2. Training and drill 4. Correct use of tools . Well planned work operations.

INVESTIGATE .REPORT .EXTINGUISH .FIND .WHAT SHALL YOU DO IF YOU DETECT A FIRE .

Knowledge on how to identify emergency exit 2.MODULE V1 TIME FRAME = 20 MIN OBJECTIVE: At the end of the session the participants will be able to: 1. Understand Fire and Smoke detection device. .

EMERGENCY EXIT SIGN It is important that all personnel become familiar with the escape ways and exit emergencies Emergency exit should be properly marked in such a way that everybody regardless of race and nationality understand the marking and symbols. .

HEAT AND SMOKE DETECTION The detection system will detect when there is development of heat. smoke or flames and alarm the office perimeter. FIRE ALARM SMOKE DETECTOR HEAT DETECTOR .FIRE .

QUESTION/ COMMENTS / SUGGESTION Thank you for your kind attention .

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