BASIC FIRE FIGHTING

GENERAL OBJECTIVE:
At the end of the Seminar, the participants will be able to: - Explain how to minimize the risk of fire and maintain a state of readiness to respond to emergency situations involving fire. - Understand on how to fight and extinguish fire.

SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVE
‡ Familiarize Rules and Regulations ‡ Explain the elements of fire and explosion, ‡ Understand the physical properties, fire hazard and the spread of fire, ‡ Enumerate classes of fire and their extinguising agents. ‡ Knowledge on how to response to emergency situations involving fire ‡ Knowledge of location of fire-fighting appliances and detection system.

MODULE 1 TIME FRAME = 20 min.

OBJECTIVE:
‡ After having completed this section, you will know where to find the rules and regulations governing safety equipment.

They specify details of the emergency alarm signal and also the action to be taken when this alarm is sounded. . 2.Emergency plan ‡ The company employee and workers must familiarize themselves with the muster list and emergency Instruction which are displayed inside the company premises. 1. They show the duties assigned of every personnel including evacuation area for their own safety.

Become familiar with the components of fire triangle 2. 1.MODULE 11 TIME FRAME = 30 MIN. the trainee will be able to. Understand on how to break the chain reactions between the components of fire triangle. . ‡ OBJECTIVES: At the end of the topic.

Oxygen 2. Fuel . Heat 3. The following components are: 1. there has to be an unbroken chain reactions between three components.THE FIRE TRIANGLE ‡ In order for there to be a fire.

TO FIGHT A FIRE ‡ Remove the Heat ‡ Remove combustible materials ‡ Remove the oxygen ‡ Break the Chain Reaction HEAT CHAIN REACTION FUEL OXYGEN .

MODULE 111 TIME FRAME = 30 MIN ‡ LEARNING OBJECTIVE At the end of the session . the trainee will be able to. flash points and ( Fire point) explosive limits. 2. Fire Hazards 4. 1. Knowledge to define ignition points. Flammable Materials 3. Spreading of Fire .

.IGNITION POINTS ( AUTO/SELF) ‡ The temperature at which the product will give sufficient vapour that can be ignited and will continue to support combustion after the application of an outside source of ignition.

560 C 595 305 220 230 250 455 200-400 185-350 250-350 LIQUID SOLID MATERIALS .EXAMPLE OF IGNITION POINTS Physical Condition GAS Materials Hydrogen Methane Acetylene Diesel Oil Petroleum Gasoline Methanol Wood Paper Coal Temp. in Deg.

FLASH POINT ‡ Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient gas to form a flammable gas mixture near the surface of the liquid. OR ‡ The lowest temperature at which a burnable substance gives off sufficient flammable vapour which when mixed w/ oxygen in the proper proportion will burn temporarily when a spark or flame is applied. .

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Below 40 Below 30 + 35 / + 55 + 40 Above + 60 Above + 100 .EXAMPLE OF FLASH POINT LIQUID ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ether Gasoline Petroleum White Spirit Diesel Lube oil FLASH POINT IN deg C.

The LFL ( Lower Flammable Limit) is also used. This level means that hydro carbon concentration has an insufficient amount of hydrocarbon gas to support and propagate combustion. The mixture is to Lean .EXPLOSIVE LIMITS A hydrocarbon gas mixture and air cannot be ignited and burned unless its composition lies Within a range of gas-in-air concentration known as the flammable range The lower limit of this range is called LEL ( Lower Explosive Limit). .

the mixture is flammable and results in a fire or explosion when ignited. This level means that the hydro carbon concentration is insufficient amount of air to support and propagate combustion. . The mixture is ( too RICH ) Between these two areas .The upper limit of the range is known as the UEL ( Upper explosive Limit) also known as UFL ( Upper Flammable Limit).

Combustion Intensity LEL 0 2 Flammable area 10 UEL 11 % Volume percentage of gas in air .

and sets fire to combustible materials. The heat spread upwards in seconds.EXPLOSIVE LIMITS When a fire occurs . SECONDS MINUTES HOUR . heat is transported to all neighbouring areas. sideways in minutes and downwards in hour.

such as the transmission of heat from the sun .TRANSMISSION OF HEAT RADIATION = Transmission of heat in all directions from a sourceeven through space.

CONDUCTION Transmission of heat from one substance to another by direct contact from molecule to molecule. .

these molecules move upward and transmits the heat to any other molecule or surface it comes in contact with. When molecules of gases become heated.CONVECTION Transmission of heat through contact with molecules of hot gases. .

Understand the suitability of the various extinguishing agents for the fire classes. Explain the extinguishing agents normally used. Explain the internationally used fire classes 3. OBJECTIVE: At the end of the session. 2. .Module 1V Time frame = 30 min. the participants will be able to. 1.

CLASS A Fire that involves ordinary solid materials rags wood paper .CLASSES OF FIRE 1.

Leaves ashes or residue .Penetrates throughout 3.Class A fire characteristics 1.Deep.seated 2.Normally of organic in nature 4.

CLASS B Fire = Fire that occurs with vapours or burns over the surface of a flammable liquid or liquefiable solids. Paints Fuel Oil Cooking oil .

Class C fire = Fires involving Liquefied Gases LPG LNG .

CLASS D FIRE = Fire involving combustible metals .

CLASS E FIRE = Class E fire is an electrical fire The essential action in the event of electrical fire is to cut off electrical supply. Electrical fire . To avoid the spread of fire it will be frequently necessary to fight an electrical fire before the electric supply has been cut off.

Water extinguished the fire by cooling it below the ignition point. It also easily available in a large quantities .Extinguishing agents WATER Water is normally the most suitable extinguisher to fight Class A fire. It removes the heat side of the fire triangle.

.CO2 CO2 Extinguishes the fire mainly by cutting off oxygen supply. CO2 does not conduct electricity and is the most suitable medium for extinguishing electrical fires and operates on the principle of smothering the fire by displacing the oxygen. Available through a fixed installation system or in portable extinguisher.

. Foam is available through hoses and nozzles . portable extinguishes and fixed foam guns.FOAM EXTINGUISHER Foam extinguishes the fire mainly by cutting off the oxygen supply.

but there is no cooling effect. Powder is suitable for electrical fire as well. .DRY POWDER Powder breaks the chain reactions in the fire triangle. Dry powder is useful in dealing with liquid spill fires.

HALON 1301 IS PROHIBITED (January 1994) AND NOT ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY Good agent in confined and enclosed space Halon 1301 .

3.MODULE 5 TIME FRAME = 30 MIN. Understand the fire fighting organization. Explain on how to respond once hear an alarm. 2. Knowledge on how to response if detecting a fire. OBJECTIVES: At the end of this session the participants will be able to: 1. .

PKIMT Fire Fighting Organization COMPANY PRESIDENT FIREFIGHTING SQUAD FIRST AID . On the emergency plan you will find information about your office organization during fire.Each member has a special duty during emergencies.

COMPANY PRESIDENT = Overall in charge on scene and on direct communication to the authorities FIRE FIGHTING TEAM = in charge for combatting a fire FIRST AID TEAM = In charge for medical kit and on casualties .

. all personnel should be aware of the risk of fire . Even though the office are constructed as safe as possible there is still the risk that accidents may occur. air conditioning unit . This is because the company are using electronic equipment . proper behaviour and individuals responsibility.THE NEED FOR CONSTANT VIGILANCE Constant vigilance or watchfulness is important. etc that may begin to create a fire.

.BEHAVIOUR / ATTITUDE It is essential that all personnel and staff have the right attitude towards the prevention of fire. Keep the work place clear and tidy. All staff and personnel should be. Be aware and report of some irregularities b. a. The company should therefor ensure that safety awareness is an important factor in their quality management. orders and company regulations c. Have a good understanding of contingency plan d. Follow instructions.

For individuals responsibility It is therefore of vital importance that you know your duties when accident occur and that you show safety consciousness. .

Good working environment 5. Well planned work operations. 2. Training and drill 4.Safety is among other factors 1. Correct use of tools . Trained co-workers 3. Good working methods and procedures 6.

REPORT .FIND .INVESTIGATE .EXTINGUISH .What shall you do if you detect a fire .

Understand Fire and Smoke detection device.Module VI Time Frame = 20 min OBJECTIVE: At the end of the session the participants will be able to: 1. Knowledge on how to identify emergency exit 2. .

Emergency Exit Sign It is important that all personnel become familiar with the escape ways and exit emergencies Emergency exit should be properly marked in such a way that everybody regardless of race and nationality understand the marking and symbols. .

FIRE . FIRE ALARM SMOKE DETECTOR HEAT DETECTOR .HEAT AND SMOKE DETECTION The detection system will detect when there is development of heat. smoke or flames and alarm the office perimeter.