Mobile Communication

Instructor: Swarup Sinha Ray

Slide # 1

Learning Objectives

‡ To support you to refresh the basics of cellular technologies ‡ To know the scope of functioning in cellular environment ‡ To explain the technical aspects of cellular telecommunications

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Course Agenda
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Access Method & Wireless Access Multiple Access Mobile Service Evolution of Cellular Communication GSM Basics Mobile Network Cellular Telephony in India CDMA Basics CDMA vs GSM Wireless in Local Loop Mobile Data (3G)
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g.g. Wi-Fi Wi- .Access Methods WIRELINE ‡ Copper ± ± Local Loop 2 Wire (analog) e. E1 line. E3 line ‡ ‡ Optic Fiber Modem ± ± ± Optical ISDN BRI Digital Subscriber Line (DSL . Plain Old Telephone system Local Loop 4 Wire (digital) e.2 wire) WIRELESS ‡ Microwave ± ± ± LMDS ± Local Multichannel Distribution Service MMDS ± Multipoint/Microwave Multichannel Distribution Service UBR ± Unlicensed Band Radio Link ‡ ‡ VSAT = Very Small Aperture Terminal Cellular ± ± GSM CDMA 2000 1x Slide # 4 ‡ WiWi-MAX.

1.7 GHz 3.9 GHz) ‡ Radio 2.8 GHz.5 GHz / 2.2 GHz / 5.Electromagnetic Wave ‡ Light (Optic Fiber Cable) ‡ Infrared for device to device data transfer ‡ Microwave ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) + Satellite LMDS (Local Multichannel Distribution system) MMDS (Multipoint Multichannel Distribution system) WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) UBRS (Unlicensed Band Radio system) (2.4 GHz) Cordless / Walkie Talkie Cellular (450 MHz.5 GHz 24.5 GHz 5.5 GHz / 26 GHz 54 GHz / 66 GHz Slide # 5 .3 GHz / 3. 800MHz.7 GHz 10. 1.4 GHz) WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) (2. 900 MHz.

Multiple Access To share communication channels or physical communication mediums (air interface in case of wireless) between multiple users Multiple access techniques developed due to Digital technology Slide # 6 .

Frequency & Time Division Multiple Access FDMA Frequency Channel Frequency Channel TDMA Time User¶s channel is private radio frequency (RF) channel during the duration of call When call is finished channel is released for another user Low radio capacity (no. of users) Extended TDMA corrects the problem of wasted bandwidth by creating buffer queue for allocation of channel ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ User¶s channel is specific RF channel Multiple users access each channel w/o interference Each user is allocated unique time slots within each channel Current cellular standard divides signals into 6 time slots Each signal uses 2 slots. hence allowing 3 signals per channel Hence the channel belongs to the user during the time slots in a repeating sequence Problem of bandwidth wastage if no signal Slide # 7 Time .

Police system ‡ Full-duplex system ± allows communication in both directions. Walkie-Talkie. but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously) ± Example: Radio. with TDMA to allow multiple handsets to work in a single cell. WiFi / Wi-MAX Slide # 8 . Taxi Despatch system. Mobile phone allows to talk & listen simultaneously ‡ Point-to-Multipoint Network ± Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) is the application of FDMA to separate outward and return signals ‡ Example: GSM combines the use of FDD to prevent interference between outward and return signals. ± Time Division Duplexing (TDD) is the application of TDMA to separate outward and return signals ‡ Example: LMDS. Push-to-Talk (PTT). and allows this to happen simultaneously ± Example: Telephone. MMDS. UBR.Duplexing ‡ Duplex communication system ± signal can flow in both directions between connected parties ‡ Half-duplex system ± allows communications in both directions.

temporary RF based channel to talk to base station ‡ Channels use a pair of RF for communication ± Forward link (down link) ± Reverse link (up link) ‡ Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) ± Mobile Switching Center ± Point of Interconnect (PoI) with Public Switch telephone Network (PSTN) ± PoI with other Mobile Service Provider Slide # 9 . using one channel per mobile ‡ Each mobile station uses a separate.Elements of Mobile Communication ‡ Mobile Station (MS) (Mobile Subscriber Unit) ± Mobile Telephone ± Fixed Wireless Telephone ‡ Base station ‡ Mobile station talks to many mobile stations at once.

Mobile Radio Service Mobile radio service operates in a closed network Very powerful transmitter located at the highest spot in an area Transmission upto 50 km radius like television broadcast Slide # 10 .

Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) standard (Analogue) was released in the US using 800 MHz to 900 MHz frequency and 30 kHz bandwidth for each channel Slide # 11 . Lious 1977 ± First frequency modulation based cellular telephone system by Bell Labs 1981 ± Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) was introduced as first Commercial Cellular Services in the Nordic countries 1983 .Mobile Radio Telephone System PSTN M TSO B ase S ta tio n MTSO = Mobile Telephone Switching Office ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 1946 ± First car-based mobile system set-up in St.

Evolution of Cellular Communication 2G Cellular Technologies GSM ( (Global System for Mobile Communications) CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) Slide # 12 .

Comparison Chart Technology AMPS D-AMPS (IS-54/136) GSM CDMA Theory Calls / Omni Cell 6 36 8 22 / 14 Actual Calls / Omni Cell 6 18 8 22 / 14 Slide # 13 .

Later name was changed to Global System for Mobile Communication .1982: Groupe Speciale Mobile (GSM) was instituted by a group of European Committees.1987: GSM design considered the following objectives To enable greater capacity compared to 1G (analogue) To offer good spectral efficiency To support international roaming To ensure inter-operability of network elements of different vendors To offer good subjective speech quality To keep phone or terminal cost low To allow terminals to be handheld To offer ISDN compatibility To ensure privacy ITU = International Telecommunications Union Slide # 14 .1991: Commercial system start-up .Evolution of GSM .

GSM Design Digital technology.8 kbps ‡ Error correction to overcome problems of interference requires around 11-12 kbps ‡ Available data rate for transporting digitally encoded voice / data = 13 kbps . Cellular Architecture Narrowband TDMA was chosen as the Access method Defines Radio Frequency / Air Interface .Deployed using radio frequency band of 900 MHz or 1800 MHz in Europe and 800 MHz or 1900 MHz in the US .833 kbps ‡ Management Overhead causes data rate available to each time slot of 24. 933-960 MHz for uplink & 890-915 MHz for downlink .Spectrum efficiency through usage of digital TDMA combined with 200 kHz RF channel separation .GSM channels are time division multiplexed to enable upto 8 users to access each carrier .Difference between uplink and downlink frequencies is 80 MHz .eg.Carrier modulation uses Gaussian Minimum Shift Key (GMSK) causing usage of narrow bandwidth and constant power level - Defines Network Elements to fulfill objectives ITU = International Telecommunications Union Slide # 15 .Transmission rate over the air @ 270.

natural terrain. less expensive cells ‡ Handoff of call for roaming user from one cell to another Slide # 16 . manmade structures and hence may not be perfect hexagons ‡ CLUSTERS ± Interference problems are caused by mobile units using the same channel in adjacent areas led to cell wise channel allocation ± Interference effects are lowered by reducing the distance between cell areas (radius) to BTS ± Group of cells in which channels are not reused ± FREQUENCY PLANNING through 7 cell frequency re-use pattern in a cluster ± CELL SPLITTING is used when a service area becomes full of users ‡ Urban centers are split into more cells to provide acceptable service in heavytraffic regions ‡ Rural regions have larger.Cellular Architecture ‡ CELL ± Basic geographic unit of cellular system ± CGI = Cell Global Identity to identify each cell ± FOOTPRINT = Coverage region around Base Stations are divided into honeycomb shape (hexagon) or cell coverage area ± Cell coverage area or size depends on landscape.

Cell Representation Actual Cell Coverage Diagrammatic Cell Coverage The cells are normally drawn as hexagonal. but in practice they are irregularly shaped. this is as a result of the influence of the surrounding terrain. or of design by the network planners Slide # 17 .

Power = In GSM.Cell Size Max 60-70 km 200 m+ Large Cells Small Cells Number of cells in any geographic area is determined by the number of MS subscribers operating in the area. Small cells are used with a large number of MSs in a small geographic region. or where a low transmission power may be required to reduce the effects of interference. Slide # 18 . buildings etc). Terrain = cell site is on top of a hill. installation & maintenance cost. lakes. geographic layout of the area (hills. the MS can be transmitting anything up to 8 Watts. the higher the power output of the MS the larger the cell size. Large Cell size is dependent on the terrain the cell is covering and the power class of the MS. with no obstructions for miles.

high capacity) or sparsely populated rural expanse (large omni cells. low capacity). small cells. Frequency re±use pattern is planned to avoid co±channel and/or adjacent channel interference. Slide # 19 ..densely populated city (high frequency re±use.Frequency Re-use Frequency 1 Frequency 2 Frequency 1 Frequency Re-use Standard GSM has a small subset of 124 frequencies available for use in a network. It depends on nature of the area to be covered . low re±use.

Frequency Planning in GSM f7 f6 f1 f5 f4 f3 f5 f4 f2 f6 f1 f3 f7 f2 Slide # 20 .

so the mobiles must be within the operating range of the base station Slide # 21 .Cellular Coverage Many low-power transmitters placed throughout a coverage area Number of channels increase many-fold increasing system capacity Radio energy dissipates over distance.

Site Sectorization Site 360 Degree cells Omni-directional Cell Site Each site has a single cell and that cell has a single transmit antenna which radiates the radio waves to 360 degrees 1 Transmit/Receive Antenna Cell Cell Cell Site Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell 6 Cell Site 6 Transmit/Receive Antenna 60 Degree Sectors/cells Site Cell 3 Cell Site 3 Transmit/Receive Antenna 120 Degree Sectors/cells Slide # 22 .

known as a cell site or base station. Slide # 23 .Cellular Communication BTS = Base Transceiver Station Reverse Link MS = Mobile Station Forward Link Sector 2 Sector 1 Sector 3 Cell Cellular Network radio network made up of a number of cells each served by a fixed lowpower wireless transceiver.

hence expansion can be made with less equipment ± Half rate speech channel with 16 users per carrier requiring half data to be sent over the air interface ‡ International roaming (carry MS or SIM card) ‡ Better frequency re-use ‡ Multi-band operation (user can make use of both the 900 MHz network and the 1800/1900 networks) Slide # 24 .Flexibility/Increased Capacity ‡ Digital air interface makes it more resilient to interference from users on the same or nearby frequencies ‡ Easily (RF) configured (software driven) making it flexible ± Network re±configurations can be made quickly and easily with a minimum of manual intervention ‡ Users per channel ± One carrier support eight users.

This results in lower costs for the MS subscriber and the network operators. Slide # 25 . and also. due to the number of manufacturers. This means that manufacturers can produce equipment in higher quantities and of better quality.K C-450 GSM TACS SPAIN AUSTRIA SWITZERLAND FINLAND NETHERLANDS FRANCE DENMARK SWEDEN NORWAY NMT RADIOCOM 2000 There is a large market for GSM equipment. a competitive and aggressive pricing structure exists.Compatibility RTMS ITALY PORTUGAL GERMANY U.

Noise Robustness ‡ Sources of Noise for MS ± Vehicle ignition systems ± Lightning bolt ‡ Allows data manipulation ‡ GSM Answers ± Digital interface instead of analog ± Co-channel interference (Another transmission on the same frequency) ± Adjacent channel interference (Another transmission ³breaking through´ from a nearby frequency) ± Background spurious noise intruding because the required signal is too weak to exclude it ‡ Interleaving ‡ Error detection ‡ Error correction ‡ GSM air interface in harsh RF environments can produce a usable signal Slide # 26 .

Cell Handover GSM f2 f1 H/O ROAD Users roaming from one cell to another may get disconnected if time slot is occupied in next cell. the reception becomes weak. when a mobile unit moves out of coverage area of a given cell site. Slide # 27 . During a call. The system switches the call to a stronger-frequency channel in a new site w/o interrupting the call or alerting the user. Hard Handover in GSM = Break before make since adjacent cells use same radio channel.

25 C7 LAP-B ISDN V.3 G.703 X.Use of Standardized Open Interfaces IEEE 802. Slide # 28 .35 LAP-D Network planners can select different manufacturers for different pieces of hardware and have a great deal of flexibility. Competition between manufacturers ensures latest developments at a competitive price.

Subscriber is authenticated by use of a smart card known as a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Allows encryption and digital encoding of all signalling over the air interface. Supports frequency hopping. Mobile Equipment (ME) has a unique number coded into it when it is manufactured. again making it very difficult for an observer (hacker) to follow/listen to a specific call. this entails each ³burst´ of information being transmitted to/from the MS/base site on a different frequency.Improved Security and Confidentiality BSS GSM Offers: ³The Hacker´ Encryption ME Authentication Subscriber Authentication (SIM) Frequency Hopping Security with regards to call theft and equipment theft. Slide # 29 .

8 kbit/s or 2.4 kbit/s) ± Fax ‡ Supplementary Services ± ± ± ± ± ± Number Identification Call Barring Call Forwarding Call Completion Charging Multi-party Slide # 30 .6 kbit/s or 4.Enhanced Range of Services ‡ Offered by Network Provider & Capabilities of Mobile Equipment ‡ Speech Services ± ± ± ± Telephony Emergency Calls Short Message Services Dual Personal and Business Numbers ‡ Data Services ± Raw Data (9.

Base Transceiver Station (cell site) ± BSC .Mobile Switching Center ± HLR .Home Location Register ± VLR .Interworking Function EIR ‡Operation Support System & Billing Support System (OSS / BSS) 892AB_00 Slide # 31 .Equipment Identity Register ± (PoI) Point of Interconnect with PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network & other Cellular Service Provider ± IWF.GSM Network Components ‡Mobile Station (MS) ‡Base Station System (BSS) ± BTS .Base Station Controller AUC ‡Switching System ± MSC .Visitor Location Register ± AuC .Authentication Center ± EIR .

MS ‡Mobile System (MS) or Mobile Equipment (ME) ± Hardware (display. to re-constitute speech data at the receiving end ± Hard coded number known as International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) ± Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card ‡ Carries data of user identity. battery) ± Power ‡ Low standard power level (800 mW) since mobiles transmit for 1/8th of the time ‡ Power saving when person is listening. pausing during speech using Voice Activity Detector ± Electronics to generate signal. case.GSM Network Components . ‡ To store other information known as International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) to allow user to upgrade a phone while retaining the same identity on the network ‡ To store information such as ³phone book´ ‡ To increase demand for new phones with additional features ‡ To allow mobile operators to increase Average Revenue Per User (ARPU) Slide # 32 . process data received and to be transmitted ± VOCODER / CODEC ‡ Digital encoding of Voice to reduce bandwidth requirement as well as to retain privacy ‡ Voice coding to analyse incoming speech data and reducing data rate.

high capacity switch that provides functions as handover. cell configuration data. ± usually co-located with one of the BTSs and controls a small group of BTSs Slide # 33 . RF power level control.GSM Network Components .BSS ‡BTS ± radio equipment (transceiver and antenna) that handles radio interface to the mobile station and to service a cell ± VOCODER / CODEC ‡BSC ± provides control functions and physical links between BTS & MSC.

it registers with the network / BTS it is communicating for incoming calls to be routed ‡ When phone is not active but switched on. authentication. registration.GSM Network Components ± Core Network ‡MSC ± provides telephony switching function. When a mobile unit roams into a new MSC area. ‡ When a user switches the mobile. location information and activity status. if the mobile station makes a roaming call. This is achieved by comparing AuC data with IMSI. call location identification. controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. manages inter-MSC handovers ‡Databases to track location of mobiles and enables calls to be routed to them ± HLR ± database that stores permanent data about subscribers. performs toll ticketing. ‡Gateway MSC (GMSC) is where the call from visiting MS is initially routed. the VLR connected to the MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. ± EIR ± database to identify mobile equipment to prevent calls from stolen. call routing to mobile subscribers. it re-registers periodically to ensure that the network is aware is aware of its latest position ± VLR ± database that contains temporary information about visiting subscriber. interface to PSTN. network interfacing and common channel signaling. Later. This is achieved by comparing EIR data with IMEI. unauthorized or defective mobile stations. It obtains Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) from HLR using Mobile Station-ISDN (MS-ISDN) & routes call to MSC Slide # 34 . the VLR will have data w/o having to interrogate the HLR each time ‡Systems to authenticate mobile unit to allow onto the network and for billing ± AUC ± provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user¶s identity & ensures confidentiality of each call.

International roaming) ‡Roaming outgoing (Domestic roaming. International roaming) ‡Call forwarding to another number if the called mobile unit is not reachable (no reply) ‡Call hold to interrupt an ongoing call and then subsequently reestablishing it ‡Call waiting to be notified of an incoming call during a conversation (Subscriber can answer. ‡Calling line identification to display number of calling party ‡Calling line restriction to override the presentation ‡Voice Mail Slide # 35 .Mobile Services ‡Outgoing call ‡Incoming call ‡Roaming incoming (Domestic roaming. reject or ignore the incoming call) ‡Barring of incoming call ‡Barring of outgoing call ‡Multi-party calling or audio conference ‡Closed user group (CUG) of a group of subscribers who are capable of calling themselves with specific facilities.

Other Services ‡GSM supports data rates up to 9.6 kbps & provides compatibility with ISDN ‡Specifications incorporates short messaging service (SMS) -Modulation is achieved by Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) -Supports Facsimile group III ‡Short Messaging Service (SMS) ± Allows bi-directional messaging using two SMS gateways ‡ SMS Gateway MSC (SMS-GMSC) for short messages to be sent to MS ‡ SMS Inter-Working MSC (SMS-IWMSC) for short messages originating from a mobile on the network ± Store and forward delivery ± Alphanumeric messages ‡Cell broadcast ‡Facsimile group III support using a special fax converter ‡Advice of charge (AoC) to provide an estimate of call charges Slide # 36 .

1994: Cellular licenses awarded to private sector for Delhi.Cell phone costs dropped from Rs 25k to Rs 2k + ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 2001: 1400 cities and towns covered by GSM. 23000 Cr. Chennai. Mumbai. 26% CDMA) Slide # 37 .Cellular tariffs dropped by 90% because role of independent regulator got clear . ‡ 2000: TRAI Act amended.Cellular Telephony In India ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 1992: Resource gap in the 8th plan of Government of India = Rs. Kolkota. 1998: Cellular operators were near bankruptcy (with less than 1 mn subscribers) 1999: Government of India accorded highest priority to investment and development of telecommunications sector. ± National Telecom Policy introduced revenue sharing. . ± 89 Cellular Licenses released across the country 2003: CDMA introduced under WLL License 2004: CDMA allowed under Unified Telecom License 2006: More than 5000 cities / towns covered across the country ± 105 mn subscibers (74% GSM. (2 operators / circle with license for 10yrs) 1995: Cellular licenses awarded to 19 circles.

CDMA Slide # 38 .

Advent of CDMA .1999: CDMA was selected by ITU as the industry standard for 3G wireless systems ITU = International Telecommunications Union Slide # 39 .1995: CDMA as a digital wireless technology pioneered by Qualcomm-USA was commercially introduced .

Coded Messages in One Area ³Guten Tag´ ³Shalom´ ³Buenos Dias´ ³Bonjour´ ³Hello´  All Users on same Frequency at the same Time Slide # 40 .

Slide # 41 .Code Division Multiple Access ‡ CDMA is a scheme in which multiple users are assigned common radio resources ‡ CDMA uses direct sequence ± spread spectrum techniques ‡ Each user has full time use of the entire spectral allocations ‡ Although all users are transmitting in the same RF band. all users are separated from each other via the use of Orthogonal codes (Walsh code). ‡ Each user¶s signal energy is coded so as to appear like broadband noise to every other user.

Direct Sequence Spread spectrum uses much larger slice (1.25 MHz) of the available bandwidth. Code 1 Code 2 Code 3 Code 4 Code n Slide # 42 . Same slice is used for all user with no time multiplexing but each user is assigned with a different code to uniquely identify them.Spread Spectrum Concept In GSM small time slots of the spectrum (200 kHz) are used by different users as channels. 1800 MHz 1850 MHz 1910 MHz 1930 MHz 1990 MHz 2000 MHz Cell Tx Mobile Tx User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User n In CDMA.

CDMA System PSTN Analog to Digital converter @PCM/DLC Vocoder @MSC/BSC Encoder & Interleaver @BTS Spreader @BTS Code generator @BTS Slide # 43 Digital to Analog (RF) Converter @BTS .

Slide # 44 . It is located at the BSC / BTS and at the mobile station. ‡ ± ± ± CODES separate one encoded voice data from other encoded voice data. CDMA systems can use either 8 kbps or 13 kbps vocoder.CDMA System ‡ ± ± VOCODER (voice coder) is used to compress the digital signal from the Codec (code/decode). ½. Channelization spreads encoded symbols across the entire bandwidth of the CDMA stream of data. Orthogonal (Walsh) code is used on forward link to channelize users and Pseudorandon noise (PN) code is used on reverse link to channelize users. RF signal transmits the channelized data. Variable Rate Vocoder . it compresses voice in one of four rates (full.In CDMA. ¼ or 1/8 rate) determined by user¶s speech activity.

the redundancy can help recover the lost information. If an error occurs. INTERLEAVING reduces the effects of burst errors during transmission & deinterleaving recovers bit burst error making it simpler to decode.CDMA System ‡ RECEIVER despreads / decodes signal & recovers encoded data. ‡ ‡ Slide # 45 . Decoding at the receiver uses a majority logic rule (accept two out of three wins). Each bit of vocoded data is repeated thrice using encoded bits or symbols. ENCODER builds redundancy into the signal.

Unique Identification 42-bit PN Code (ESNzzz) Walsh Code23 Walsh Code 21 15-bit PN Code. Offset 2 Walsh Code 8 15-bit PN Code. Offset 0 Walsh Code 35 15-bit PN Code. Offset 1 42-bit PN Code (ESNnnn) Walsh Code10 42-bit PN Code (ESNxxx) Walsh Code23 42-bit PN Code (ESNyyy) Walsh Code15 Slide # 46 . Offset 0 Walsh Code 35 15-bit PN Code.

Forward traffic channel is used when there is a call Reverse traffic channel is used when there is a call Slide # 47 . respond to commands from base station. send overheads to base station.Signaling Services Pilot channel is constantly transmitted to acquire system and after acquiring system for signal strength measurement Sync channel is constantly transmitted to provide critical timing info to mobile and is used to sync mobile with base station Paging channel is used to transmit overhead info like commands & forward traffic channel assignment to mobile when a call is being set up Access channel is used by mobile when not assigned to traffic. It is used to register with network. originate calls.

CDMA has what is known as "soft capacity". sleep mode and data/fax. Each channel carries a finite number of "slots". CDMA like GSM supports the mobile services Spectral Efficiency of CDMA ‡ Channel capacity in a TDMA system is fixed and indisputable. Capacity is one of CDMA's biggest assets. You can always add just one more caller to a CDMA channel at the cost of quality. Slide # 48 ‡ ‡ ‡ . and a new caller cannot be accommodated once each of those slots is filled.Advantages of CDMA ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ CDMA has 2-3 times more coverage than TDMA based service CDMA offers more channel capacity CDMA offers increased security & enhanced privacy because of the codes transmitted with traffic CDMA does not allow cross talks because of coding CDMA transmits at lower power requirements. ensures precise power control. of users and call quality CDMA allows extended reach & hence is beneficial to rural users situated far from cells. CDMA has a very high "spectral efficiency³. allows increased talk time and standby time for portables CDMA offers advanced features like over-the-air-activation. IT CAN ACCOMMODATE MORE USERS PER Mhz OF BANDWIDTH THAN ANY OTHER TECHNOLOGY. CDMA system capacity is a compromise between the no.

Universal Frequency Re-use in CDMA f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 Slide # 49 .

Cell Handover in CDMA f1 f1 µSoft¶ handover in CDMA Make before break Higher voice quality Less cell-to-cell coordination needed by operators Slide # 50 .

One way to avoid this is to put a time limit on the system. Affected by Multipath. multipaths can be used to increase the quality of the signal.there is signal loss at cell fringes where reflection and refraction may cancel or weaken signal Since CDMA is a wideband signal.Multipath BSC Cell The Mobile can adjust for differing path delays and phase shifts of the different multipath arrivals and then combine the arrivals coherently.eps ‡ ‡ GSM is subjected to multipath distortion. Slide # 51 . MMT98010673Ac.

reduce bit rate." & actually enhances sound quality) rotceleS )emarf eciov tseb stceles( CSB Backhaul Channel Card (Decoding) draC lennahC )gnidoceD( spe. interference and background noise.eps Slide # 52 .cA31101089TMM luahkcaB draC lennahC )gnidoceD & gninibmoC( luahkcaB lleC Selector (selects best voice frame) BSC Backhaul Channel Card (Decoding) MMT98010355Ac. ‡ It takes advantage of reduced speech activity and ³silences´ ‡ CDMA takes advantage of various types of diversity to improve speech quality:  Frequency diversity (protection against frequency selective fading)  Spatial diversity (two receive antennas) & soft hand-offs  Path diversity (rake receiver improves reception of signal experiencing multipath "interference.Superior Voice Quality in CDMA ‡ Variable rate vocoders compress speech.

Slide # 53 . ‡ CDMA network independently controls the power of each mobile ‡ OPEN LOOP is an estimate of what power the mobile should use to transmit based on the strength of the mean signal power received by the mobile ‡ FAST CLOSED LOOP is when there is a call.Continuous Power Control in CDMA ‡ Signals from all mobiles are received at the Base Station with the same received power. Network sends command to mobile to increase or decrease power.

Mobile Data
- GSM supports data rates up to 9.6 kbps & provides compatibility with ISDN - CDMA Data Service superior compared to GSM. - CDMA supports data rates up to 144 kbps with cdma2000 1x technology from Qualcomm - CDMA supports upto 2 mbps with cdma 1xEV-DO technology from Qualcomm - 3G mobile

Slide # 54

Disadvantages of CDMA

Limited Roaming - GSM is older technology and more wide-spread across the
world while CDMA is proprietary and allows limited roaming

Poor Interoperability - CDMA is not interoperable between Service Providers
while GSM is designed for interoperability Near Far Problem ± if all mobiles transmitted at the same power level, signals received by the base station from mobile further away would be weaker than those signals received from mobiles which were closer to the cell. This reduces capacity of a CDMA system. Path Loss ± With distance between cell and mobile, signal becomes weaker. Fading ± Due to two signals from same transmitter received due to multipath. Slide #

55

3G Evolution Path
‡CDMA
‡1996 1998 CDMAOne IS-95A (8 K ~ 13.3 Kbps * ) 13.3 Kbps CDMAOne IS-95B (64 Kbps) 56 Kbps CDMA2000 1x IS-2000 ‡(307 Kbps) ‡144 Kbps CDMA2000 3x CDMA2000 1x Ev-DV (more than 2.0 Mbps) 2000 2002 2004 2006

´

‡ GPRS/ UMTS/ WCDMA

GPRS (115 Kbps) 28 ~ 40 Kbps GPRS (115 Kbps) (115 Kbps) 56 Kbps 112 Kbps EDGE

(384 Kbps) ‡GPRS: General Packet Radio Service « 2.5G ‡EDGE(Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution), UMTS ‡UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (1.920 Mbps) WCDMA ‡WCDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple Access W-CDMA is a type of 3G cellular network. W-CDMA is the technology behind the 3G UMTS standard and is allied with the 2G GSM standard with the International Telecommunication Union ± ITU. (Developed by NTT ± DoCoMo of Japan)

Slide # 56

Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) Slide # 57 .

diverting calls made from fixed lines to mobiles through the SIM cards. Slide # 58 .Wireless Local Loop Fixed Wireless Terminal on CDMA Connects to PSTN using radio signals Can be linked to PBX for outward calling to CDMA mobiles at lower rates Useful for voice / data access Fixed Cellular Terminals with multiple GSM SIM cards It sits neatly along side your telephone exchange. making them mobile to mobile calls.

Fixed Wireless Applications POI WLL Service Provide r Other Service Provide r RJ11 RJ45 DATA POTS FAX Extension Console PBX Slide # 59 .

Mobile Data Slide # 60 .

It uses packet-switching based on a tunneling protocol that delivers IP packers across the mobile network to a router.Evolution of 3G General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a 2.8 kbit/s with modified 8PSK (phase shift key) modulation. 3G allows data communication of 2 mbps with shift from circuit switching to packet switching technology Slide # 61 . Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) improves GSM system data rates of between 160 and 236.5G mobile data service for users of GSM mobile phones with data rates of 115 kbps.

GSM ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Allows transmission of 384kbps for mobile systems and 2Mbps for stationary systems Entirely new networks need to be built and new frequencies need to be assigned to mobile operators to deploy 3G Uses 5 MHz channel carrier width to deliver significantly higher data rates and increased capacity Services applicable with 3G ± Voice data (a telephone call) ± Non-voice data (such as downloading information.5G stage with 3 Mbit/s data rates are underway. ± Music download ± Videophone ‡ ‡ W-CDMA is a wideband spread-spectrum 3G mobile telecommunication air interface that utilizes code division multiple access and is allied with GSM Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a 3G mobile technology that uses W-CDMA and supports upto1920 kbps The first country which introduced 3G on a large commercial scale was Japan. about 40% of subscribers used 3G networks only and upgrades to the next 3.3G . exchanging email. and instant messaging). In 2005. Slide # 62 .

4576 Mb/s with Rev. Slide # 63 . smart antennas. advanced signal processors.3G . new modulation techniques like Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). 0 and up to 3.1 Mb/s with Rev. A 4G will offer true high speed data services (2mbps to 156 mbps) based on IP switching.CDMA ‡ CDMA 2000 1x allows data rates upto 144 kbps ‡ Air Card in PCMCIA slot of Laptop / external PCMCIA port of Desktop to access Internet ‡ CDMA2000 1x-EV-DO (1x Evolution-Data Optimized) is a wireless radio broadband data standard with air interface speeds of up to 2.

Its principal application is to enable access to the internet from a mobile phone or PDA. WAP microbrowser software within the mobile device interprets the byte code and displays the interactive WAP content WAP sites. WML (Wireless Markup Language) and accessed via the WAP browser Interactive data applications are required to support now commonplace activities such as: ± ± ± ± ± email by mobile phone tracking of stock market prices sports results news headlines music downloads ‡ ‡ ‡ Slide # 64 .Wireless Application Protocol ‡ Wireless Application Protocol or WAP is an open international standard for applications that use wireless communication. are websites written in. or dynamically converted to.

16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Standards for its wireless metropolitan area network standard. especially from unrelated providers. A standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access over long range (many kilometers) that uses licensed spectrum to deliver a point-to-point connection to the Internet from an ISP to an end user. if a business has a fixed and a wireless internet connection. ‡ ‡ The bandwidth and reach of WiMAX make it suitable for the following potential applications: ± Connecting Wi-Fi hotspots with each other and to other parts of the Internet. which defines broadband Internet access from fixed or mobile devices via antennas. ± Providing a diverse source of Internet connectivity as part of a business continuity plan. ± Providing a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for last mile (last km) broadband access. That is.WiWi-MAX ‡ ‡ WiMAX = Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WiMAX (officially trademarked as WirelessMAN) promotes conformance with IEEE 802. ± Can deliver upto 10 Mbps over 10 km with Line of Sight (LoS) and non-moving recipient. they are unlikely to be affected by the same service outage. Slide # 65 . 2 km without LoS. ± Providing high-speed data and telecommunications services. For moving objects bandwidth falls significantly.

in LANs Used for applications including Internet access to a computer or Personal digital Assistant (PDA). Developed to be used for mobile computing devices.11 specifications. VoIP phone access.WiWi-Fi ‡ ‡ Wi-Fi is the underlying technology of wireless local area networks (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802. typically covering only the network operator's own property. such as laptops. Hotspots are locations with public wireless access points where you can connect your mobile computers (such as a laptop or a PDA) to the Internet. The beacons are transmitted at 1 Mbit/s and are of relatively short duration. A typical Wi-Fi setup contains one or more Access Points (APs) and one or more clients. Wi-Fi is a short range (range is typically measured in hundreds of meters) system that uses unlicensed spectrum to provide access to a network. Based on the identifier settings the client connects to an AP. gaming and basic connectivity of consumer electronics such as televisions and DVD players or digital cameras Wireless access point (WAP or AP) is a device that connects wireless communication devices together to form a wireless network. Wi-Fi uses modulation technologies like single carrier direct-sequence spread spectrum radio and multi-carrier OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) radio. Slide # 66 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . An AP broadcasts its identification packets called beacons every 100 ms. using standard WLAN (Wi-Fi) technology.

peripheral connections for printers. wireless headsets. desktops. PDAs. mouse. keyboards.5 mW 1 mW Maximum Permitted Power (dBm) 20 dBm 4 dBm 0 dBm Range (approximate) ~100 meters ~10 meters ~1 meter Slide # 67 . ‡ Wireless Personal Area Network (PAN) specification developed by a Special Interest Group ‡ Named after Harald Blaatand ³Bluetooth´ II.Bluetooth ‡ Bluetooth is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption with a short range based around low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. bar-coders. King of Denmark 940-981. telephones. joysticks. fax machines. data/voice access devices. who controlled Denmark and Norway ‡ Replaces cables with radio system for linking devices ‡ Designed for notebooks. Class Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Maximum Permitted Power (mW) 100 mW 2. handheld & wearable devices like scanners.

Two Lakh subscribers already use wireless Internet phone in Taipei. malls and airport lobby. subway stations.. anywhere ‡2006 ± Bangalore has 200 private wireless hotspots in hotels. Slide # 68 ‡Municipal wireless network in 250 locations across the US . coffee shops. traffic signals. public buildings.Future of Wireless Broadband Coverage ± anytime. ‡Taipei-Taiwan is the largest unwired metropolis with 90% of public spaces connected by 5000 access points mounted on facilities such as street lamps.