Chapter 1 :: MATTER Chapter 1 MATTER

1.1 Atoms and Molecules 1.2 Mole Concept

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1.1 Atoms and 1.1 Atoms and Molecules Molecules

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Learning Outcome
At the end of this topic, students should be able : (a) Identify and describe proton, electron and neutron as subatomic particle. (b) Define proton number, Z, nucleon number, A and isotope. Write isotope notation.

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(c) Define relative atomic mass, Ar and relative molecular mass, Mr based on the C-12 scale. (d) Sketch and explain the following main components of a simple mass spectrometer.

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Calculate the average atomic mass of an element given the relative abundance of isotopes or a mass spectrum. 03/10/11 matter 5 . (f) Name cation. anions and salt according to the IUPAC nomenclature.(e) Analyse mass spectrum of an element.

water. e. animals. trees. molecules or ions. 03/10/11 matter 6 . atoms..Introduction • Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass. • Matter may consists of atoms. ….g air.

Three States of Matter SOLID 03/10/11 LIQUID matter GAS 7 .

In an atom.1 Atoms and Molecules 1.Electron (e) Packed in a small nucleus Move rapidly around the nucleus of an atom 03/10/11 matter 8 . there are three subatomic particles: .1.Neutron (n) • .1 Atoms An atom is the smallest unit of a chemical element/compound.Proton (p) • .1.

03/10/11 matter 9 .Modern Model of the Atom • Electrons move around the region of the atom.

67 x 10-24 Charge (Coulomb) -1.Subatomic Particles Particle Electron (e) Proton (p) Neutron (n) Mass (gram) 9.67 x 10-24 1.1 x 10-28 1.6 x 10-19 +1.6 x 10-19 0 Charge (units) -1 +1 0 03/10/11 matter 10 .

Elements • A substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. • An element is composed of atoms of only one kind. 03/10/11 matter 11 .

Isotope • Isotopes are two or more atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons in their nucleus but different number of neutrons. • Examples: H g 1 1 200 80 Hg H 20 0 8 0 2 1 H(D) 238 92 3 1 H(T) 235 92 U U matter 12 03/10/11 .

• An atom can be represented by an isotope notation X = Z = element symbol Proton Number of X = p A = Nucleon Number of X = Z+n Isotope Notation ( atomic symbol ) 03/10/11 matter 13 .

Z = 80 03/10/11 matter 14 . A = 202 Total charge on the ion The number of neutrons =A–Z = 202 – 80 = 122 Number of atoms that formed the ion proton number of mercury.Nucleon number of mercury.

Exercise 1 neutrons.electrons and charge in each of the following species: Symbol Number of : Charge Proton Neutro Electr0n H g n 200 80 63 29 17 8 59 27 Cu O2− Co 3+ 03/10/11 matter 15 .• Give the number of protons.

• Write the appropriate notation for each of Exercise 2 the following nuclide : Species Proton Number of : Notation for Neutron Electron nuclide 2 2 1 7 matter A B C D 03/10/11 2 1 1 7 2 0 1 10 16 .

Anion a negative charge ion formed when a neutral atom gains an electron(s).1. 11 protons Na 11 electrons 11 protons + Na 10 electrons Cl 17 protons 17 electrons Cl17 protons 18 electrons 03/10/11 matter 17 .5 Ion a) cation b) anion Cation a positive charge ion formed when a neutral atom loses an electron(s).• Two types of ions : 1.

• A molecule consists of a small number of atoms joined together by bonds. Molecule 03/10/11 matter 18 .

CH4 03/10/11 matter 19 . H2O. N2.A diatomic molecule • Contains only two atoms • Example : H2. NH3. O2. Br2. HCl. CO A polyatomic molecule • Contains more than two atoms • Example : O3.

000 Relativeatomic mass. Ar = Mass of one atom of element 1 X Mass of one atom of 12C 12 03/10/11 matter 20 .Relative Mass i. Ar A mass of one atom of an element compared to 1/12 mass of one atom of 12 C with the mass 12. Relative Atomic Mass.

45 x 12 = 5.45 ANSWER: Ar (Y) = Mass of one atom of Y____ 1/12 x Mass of one atom of C-12 Example 1 = 0.• Determine the relative atomic mass of an element Y if the ratio of the atomic mass of Y to carbon-12 atom is 0.4 03/10/11 matter 21 .

000 Mass of one molecule Relative molecular mass. Mr A mass of one molecule of a compound compared to 1/12 mass of one atom of 12 C with the mass 12.ii) • Relative Molecular Mass. Mr = of a compound 1 X Mass of one atom of 12 12 C • The relative molecular mass of a compound is the summation of the relative atomic masses of all atoms in a molecular formula. 03/10/11 matter 22 .

01 60.01) + 14.01 14.Example 2 • Calculate the relative molecular mass of C5H5N.05 + 5.05 + 14.01 79.01 Ar C = Ar H= Ar N= ANSWER: Mr = = = = 5(Ar of C) + 5(Ar of H) + Ar of N 5(12.01 1. 12.11 03/10/11 matter 23 .01) + 5(1.

the abundance and its isotopic mass relative iv. Relative molecular mass of a compound iii. Recognize the structure of the compound in an unknown sample 03/10/11 matter 24 . Types of isotopes.Mass Spectrometer • A mass spectrometer is used to determine: i. Relative atomic mass of an element ii.

A Mass Spectrometer Ionisation Chamber Vaporisation Chamber Accelaration Chamber + - - Magnetic Chamber Ion Beam Heated Filament Vacuum Pump Ion Detector AMPLIFIER 03/10/11 matter Recorder 25 .

Vaporisation Chamber - sample of the element is vaporised into gaseous atom 03/10/11 matter 26 .

- .Collisions between the electrons and the gaseous sample produce positive ions M M s + - fe M M + s + + - se+ f e 03/10/11 matter 27 .Ionisation Chamber A gaseous sample is bombarded by a stream of highenergy electrons that are emitted from a hot filament.

Vacuum Pump • A pump maintains a vacuum inside the mass spectrometer to avoid any small particle that would block the movement. 03/10/11 matter 28 .

03/10/11 matter 29 .Acceleration Chamber .the electric field is produced by a high voltage between the two plates .the emerging ions are of high and constant velocity.the positive ions are accelerated by an electric field towards the two oppositely charge plates .

The positive ions are separated and deflected into a circular path by a magnet according to its mass / charge (m/e) ratio. 03/10/11 matter 30 . .Magnetic Field .Positive ions with small m/e ratio are deflected most Ions with large m/e ratio are deflected least.

Beam of 35 Cl+ and 37 Cl+ 3 7 3 5 Cl+ Cl+ 03/10/11 matter 31 .

• Example : A mass spectrum of Mg Relative abundance 63 8.1 24 9.Ion Detector • The numbers of ions and types of isotopes are recorded as a mass spectrum.1 m/e (amu) matter 32 25 26 03/10/11 .

1 m/e (amu) • The mass spectrum of Mg shows that Mg consists of three isotopes: 24 Mg.1 24 9.Mass Spectrum of Magnesium Relative abundance 63 8. • The height of each line is propartional to the abundance of each isotope. 25 Mg and 26 Mg. • Mg is the most abundant of the three isotopes 2 4 25 26 03/10/11 matter 33 .

How to calculate the relative atomic mass from mass spectrum? Ar = Q= Σ( QiM i ΣQi ) the relative abundance / percentage abundance of an isotope of the element the relative isotopic mass of the element M= 03/10/11 matter 34 .

Rb. What is the percentage abundance of each isotope? % abundance 85 Rb = 18 x 100 25 = 72 % % abundance 87 Rb = 7 x 100 25 28 % matter = 03/10/11 35 .1 shows the mass spectrum of the element rubidium. Fig 1.Relative abundance Example 1 18 7 85 87 m/e (amu) 1. What isotopes are present in Rb? 8 5 Rb and 87 Rb b. a.

ΣQiMi Average mass of Rb = ΣQi (18 x85 ) + (7 x87 ) = 25 = 85.56 amu 1 x12.00 amu 12 = 85.56 amu A r of Rb = 85.Example 1 (cont…) c.56 03/10/11 matter 36 . Calculate the relative atomic mass of Rb.

Therelative atomicmassof 6Li and 7Li are6. 3 3 Whatis thepercentage abundance each isotope the of if relative atomic massof Li is6.01and 7.02 .94? Example 2 03/10/11 matter 37 .

% abundance of 6Li And % abundance of 7Li 03/10/11 7.x) % ∑QiMi ∑Qi X (6.02 X 100 -1.01 X +1.Assume that. % abundance of 6Li % abundance of 7Li Ar Li 6.92 % = = matter So.02 X + 100 – X 6.08 % 38 .94 694 702 +8 X = = = = = = = = X% (100 .92 % 92.01 X 7.01 X + 702 – 7.94 6.01) + (100 – X) 7.

Cl Calculate theAr of chlorine.127 37Cl Basedon thecarbon 12 scale. therelative atomicmassof 35 = 34.The ratioof relative abundanceof naturally occuringof chlorine isotopes as follow is : 35Cl = 3.9689 Cl and 37 = 36.9659. (Ans: 35.45) Exercise 1 03/10/11 matter 39 .

021 and 193.254) Exercise 2 03/10/11 matter 40 . The relative Ir massof 191 and 193 are Ir Ir 191. is composedof 2 isotopes Ir and Ir 193 in the ratioof 5 : 8 .025 respective Calculate therelative ly. atomicmass of iridium.191 Naturally occuringiridium. (Ans:192.

IUPAC Nomenclature of Ions A) Cations i) For the metals of group 1. Fe3+ : iron(III) ion 03/10/11 matter 41 .g : Cu2+ : copper(II) ion. 2 and 13 : Name the metals followed by the word ‘ ions ‘ e. Al3+ : aluminium ion the metal with more oxidation states. e. Roman numerals are used to indicate the oxidation state.g : ii) For Na+ : sodium ion.

Cr2O72. Anions • Monoatomic ions have names that ended with ‘ide’ e.B.g : F-: fluoride ion. SO42. O2.: dichromate ion 03/10/11 matter 42 .: sulphate ion.g : CO3 : carbonate ion.: oxide ion • Other polyatomic anions have their own names e.

copper(II) chloride 03/10/11 matter 43 .Iron(III) chloride CuCl2 .Iron(III) sulphate FeCl3 .• When a metal combines with a nonmetal element. the metal is named before the nonmetal Example : Fe2(SO4)3 .