# Chapter 18

Valuation and Capital Budgeting for the Levered Firm

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Key Concepts and Skills
Understand the effects of leverage on the value created by a project Be able to apply Adjusted Present Value (APV), the Flows to Equity (FTE) approach, and the WACC method for valuing projects with leverage

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Chapter Outline
18.1 Adjusted Present Value Approach 18.2 Flows to Equity Approach 18.3 Weighted Average Cost of Capital Method 18.4 A Comparison of the APV, FTE, and WACC Approaches 18.5 Capital Budgeting When the Discount Rate Must Be Estimated 18.6 APV Example 18.7 Beta and Leverage
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APV = NPV + NPVF The value of a project to the firm can be thought of as the value of the project to an unlevered firm (NPV) plus the present value of the financing side effects (NPVF). There are four side effects of financing: 
  

The Tax Subsidy to Debt The Costs of Issuing New Securities The Costs of Financial Distress Subsidies to Debt Financing

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APV Example
Consider a project of the Pearson Company. The timing and size of the incremental after-tax cash flows for an all-equity firm are: ±\$1,000 0 \$125 1 \$250 2 \$375 3 \$500 4

The unlevered cost of equity is R0 = 10 :

NPV10% NPV10%

\$125 \$250 \$375 \$500 ! \$1,000     2 3 1 10 1 10 1 10 1 10 4 ! \$5 50
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The project would be rejected by an all-equity firm: NPV < 0.

APV Example
Now, imagine that the firm finances the project with \$600 of debt at RB = 8 . Pearson¶s tax rate is 40 , so they have an interest tax shield worth TCBRB = .40×\$600×.08 = \$19.20 each year.
y The net present value of the project under leverage is:

APV = NPV + NPV debt tax shield 4 \$19.20 APV ! \$56.50  § (1.08) t t !1

APV ! \$56.50  63.59 ! \$7.09
y So, Pearson should accept the project with debt.
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18.2 Flow to Equity Approach
Discount the cash flow from the project to the equity holders of the levered firm at the cost of levered equity capital, RS. There are three steps in the FTE Approach:
Step One: Calculate the levered cash flows (LCFs)  Step Two: Calculate RS.  Step Three: Value the levered cash flows at RS. 

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Step One: Levered Cash Flows
Since the firm is using \$600 of debt, the equity holders only have to provide \$400 of the initial \$1,000 investment. Thus, CF0 = ±\$400 Each period, the equity holders must pay interest expense. The after-tax cost of the interest is: B×RB×(1 ± TC) = \$600×.08×(1 ± .40) = \$28.80

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Step One: Levered Cash Flows
CF3 = \$375 ± 28.80 CF2 = \$250 ± 28.80 CF1 = \$125 ± 28.80 ±\$400 \$96.20 \$221.20 \$346.20 ±\$128.80 CF4 = \$500 ± 28.80 ± 600

0

1

2

3

4

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Step Two: Calculate RS
1  TC R  R S B B To calculate the debt to equity ratio, , start with V S
4 \$125 \$250 \$375 \$500 19.20    § PV ! 2 3 4 (1.10) (1.10) (1.10) (1.10) (1.08) t t !1

RS ! R 

P V = \$943.50 + \$63.59 = \$1,007.09 B = \$600 when V = \$1,007.09 so S = \$407.09.

\$600 1  .40 .10  .0 RS ! .10  \$407.09

! 11.77
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Step Three: Valuation
Discount the cash flows to equity holders at RS = 11.77
±\$400 0 \$96.20 1 \$221.20 2 \$346.20 3 ±\$128.80 4

NPV !  NPV ! .

. 1.   1.1177 1.1177

.  1.1177

1 .  1.1177

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18.3 WACC Method
RWACC S B ! RS  RB 1  TC SB SB

To find the value of the project, discount the unlevered cash flows at the weighted average cost of capital. Suppose Pearson¶s target debt to equity ratio is 1.50

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WACC Method
1.50 ! S

@1.5S ! B
S ! 1  0.60 ! 0.40 SB 
v 8 v 1

1. 5 S 1. 5 ! ! ! 0.60 S  1.5S 2.5 RWACC ! RWACC ! 8
v 11

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WACC Method
To find the value of the project, discount the unlevered cash flows at the weighted average cost of capital
\$125 \$250 \$375 \$500 NPV !  1,000     2 3 (1.0758) (1.0758) (1.0758) (1.0758) 4
NPV7.58 = \$6.68

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18.4 A Comparison of the APV, FTE, and WACC Approaches
All three approaches attempt the same task: valuation in the presence of debt financing. Guidelines: 


Use WACC or FTE if the firm¶s target debt-to-value ratio applies to the project over the life of the project. Use the APV if the project¶s level of debt is known over the life of the project.

In the real world, the WACC is, by far, the most widely used.
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Summary: APV, FTE, and WACC
APV WACC FTE
Initial Investment Cash Flows Discount Rates PV of financing effects All UCF R0 All UCF RWACC Equity Portion LCF RS

Yes

No

No
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Summary: APV, FTE, and WACC
Which approach is best? Use APV when the level of debt is constant Use WACC and FTE when the debt ratio is constant 


WACC is by far the most common FTE is a reasonable choice for a highly levered firm

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18.5 Capital Budgeting When the Discount Rate Must Be Estimated
A scale-enhancing project is one where the project is similar to those of the existing firm. In the real world, executives would make the assumption that the business risk of the non-scaleenhancing project would be about equal to the business risk of firms already in the business. No exact formula exists for this. Some executives might select a discount rate slightly higher on the assumption that the new project is somewhat riskier since it is a new entrant.
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18.7 Beta and Leverage
Recall that an asset beta would be of the form:
sset

!

Cov ( CF , Market)
ar et

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Beta and Leverage: No Corporate Taxes
In a world without corporate taxes, and with riskless corporate debt (FDebt = 0), it can be shown that the relationship between the beta of the unlevered firm and the beta of levered equity is:
quity v sset ! Asset
quity

y In a world without corporate taxes, and with risky

corporate debt, it can be shown that the relationship between the beta of the unlevered firm and the beta of levered equity is:
sset

!

ebt v sset

quity v ebt  sset

quity
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Beta and Leverage: With Corporate Taxes
In a world with corporate taxes, and riskless debt, it can be shown that the relationship between the beta of the unlevered firm and the beta of levered equity is:
¨ ebt quity ! ©1  © quity ª ¨ ebt y Since ©1  © Equity v 1  TC ª ¸ 1  TC ¹ nlevered firm ¹ º ¸ ¹ must be more than 1 for a ¹ º

levered firm, it follows that FEquity > FUnlevered firm
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Beta and Leverage: With Corporate Taxes
If the beta of the debt is non-zero, then:
Equity

B ! Unlevered firm  (1  TC )( Unlevered firm  Debt ) v SL

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Summary
1.

The APV formula can be written as:
g

A
2.

t !1

nitial UCFt  effects of  t in estment 1 R ebt

A itional

The FTE formula can be written as:
Amount ¸ ¨ Initial L Ft © F E !§ t © investment  borrowed¹ ¹ t !1 (1  RS ) ª º
g

3.

The WACC formula can be written as
NPVWACC Initial UCFt !§  t investment t !1 (1  RWACC )
g
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Summary
4

Use the WACC or FTE if the firm's target debt to value ratio applies to the project over its life.
y y

WACC is the most commonly used by far. FTE has appeal for a firm deeply in debt.

5

The APV method is used if the level of debt is known over the project¶s life.
y

The APV method is frequently used for special situations like interest subsidies, LBOs, and leases.

6

The beta of the equity of the firm is positively related to the leverage of the firm.
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Quick Quiz
Explain how leverage impacts the value created by a potential project. Identify when it is appropriate to use the APV method? The FTE approach? The WACC approach?

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