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Presented by

Avishek Nag

Networks Research Lab UC Davis

Page 1

Outline

Introduction Classifications Single-Source Network Coding

± Global and Local Descriptions of a Network Code ± Linear Multicast, Broadcast, and Dispersion ± Static codes ± Network Coding for Cyclic Networks

11/26/2008

Page 2

Introduction

DEFINITION: Network coding is a particular in-network data processing technique that exploits the characteristics of the broadcast communication channel in order to increase the capacity or the throughput of the network

11/26/2008

Page 3

Communication networks TERMINOLOGY Communication network = finite directed graph Acyclic communication network = network without any directed cycle Source node = node without any incoming edges (square) Channel = noiseless communication link for the transmission of a data unit per unit time (edge) ± WX has capacity equal to 2 11/26/2008 Page 4 .

5 bits per time unit 11/26/2008 Page 5 .The canonical example (I) Without network coding ± Simple store and forward ± Multicast rate of 1.

The canonical example (II) With network coding ± X-OR is one of the simplest form of data coding ± Multicast rate of 2 bits per time unit 11/26/2008 Page 6 .

NC and wireless communications Problem: send b1 from A to B and b2 from B to A using node C as a relay A and B are not in communication range (r) Without network coding. 4 transmissions are required. only 3 transmissions are needed b1 (a) A r C B (c) (b) b2 b1 b2 A 11/26/2008 C B A C B Page 7 . With network coding.

the current understanding of multi-source network coding is quite far from being complete 11/26/2008 Page 8 .Network Coding Classifications Based on Topology ± Acyclic Network Coding ± Cyclic Network Coding Based on number of nodes sourcing information ± Single Source Network Coding: Simple Algebraic Notion ± Multi Source Network Coding: Probabilistic Notion.

a [-dimensional row vector in a finite field F.Single-Source Network Coding Network is acyclic. 11/26/2008 Page 9 . is generated at the source node. A symbol in F can be sent on each channel. The message x.

and c in F. Commutativity of addition and multiplication ± For all a and b in F. 11/26/2008 Page 10 . Associativity of addition and multiplication ± For all a. the following equalities hold: a + b = b + a and a · b = b · a. the following equalities hold: a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c and a · (b · c) = (a · b) · c. + and · are binary operations on F). both a + b and a · b are in F (or more formally. usually called addition (+) and multiplication (·). b in F. b.Definition of a Field A field is a set together with two operations. such that the following axioms hold: Closure of F under addition and multiplication ± For all a.

there exists an element aí1 in F.Definition of a Field Additive and multiplicative identity ± There exists an element of F. 11/26/2008 Page 11 . ± Similarly. the following equality holds: a · (b + c) = (a · b) + (a · c). a · 1 = a. there exists an element ía in F. such that for all a in F. a + 0 = a. the multiplicative identity element denoted by 1. Distributivity of multiplication over addition ± For all a. b and c in F. called the additive identity element and denoted by 0. such that a · aí1 = 1. such that for all a in F. such that a + (ía) = 0. for any a in F other than 0. Additive and multiplicative inverses ± For every a in F. ± Similarly.

3 bits is a 3-dimensional row vector in GF(2) 11/26/2008 Page 12 .Example: Binary Field A field with finite number of elements: finite field or Galois Field A binary field with elements 0 and 1 and operations XOR and AND is a GF(2) A message consisting of 1¶s and 0¶s and containing say.

called the local encoding kernel. e . e) be called an adjacent pair when there exists a node T with d In(T ) and e ut( ) Let F be a finite field and [ a positive integer.e » dIn( ½ ).Local Description of Network Code Let a pair of channels (d. for every adjacent pair (d. An [ dimensional F-valued linear network code on an acyclic communication network consists of a scalar k d . e) The local encoding kernel at the node T means the |In(T)| × |Out(T)| matrix K ! «kd .e ut ( ) 11/26/2008 Page 13 .

here e ut ( ) d In ( ) (2)The vectors fe or the [ imaginary channels e In(S ) orm the natural basis o the vector space [ The vector f e is called the global encoding kernel for the channel e 11/26/2008 Page 14 .Global Description of Network Code Let F be a finite field and [ a positive integer. e for every adjacent pair (d. e) in the network as well as an [ -dimensional column vector f e for every channel e such that (1) f e ! § kd . An [ dimensional F-valued linear network code on an acyclic communication network consists of a scalar k d .e f d .

Local Description vs. the global encoding kernels can be calculated recursively in any upstream-to-downstream order by (1). Global Description Given the local encoding kernels for all channels in an acyclic network. while (2) provides the boundary conditions The global description and the local description are the two sides of a coin: ± They are equivalent. ± Both can describe the most general form of a (block) linear network code 11/26/2008 Page 15 .

An Example 11/26/2008 Page 16 .

d message x e T 11/26/2008 Page 17 .

Desirable Properties of a Linear Network Code Law of information conservation: the content of information sent out from any group of non-source nodes must be derived from the accumulated information received by the group from outside maxflow(T): the maximum flow from S to a nonsource node T maxflow(P): the maximum flow from S to a collection P of non-source nodes Max-flow Min-cut Theorem: the information rate received by the node T cannot exceed maxflow(T) 11/26/2008 Page 18 .

and the coding scheme determines achievability of the upper bound Three special classes of linear network codes are defined below by the achievement of this bound to three different extents ± Linear Dispersion ± Linear Broadcast ± Linear Multicast Each notion is strictly weaker than the previous notion! 11/26/2008 Page 19 . the dimension [ .Desirable Properties of a Linear Network Code The network topology.

if maxflow(v) u [. then the message x can be recovered. 11/26/2008 Page 20 .Linear Multicast For each node v.

± If maxflow(v) u [. Linear Broadcast Linear Multicast 11/26/2008 Page 21 . maxflow(v) dimensions of the message x can be recovered.Linear Broadcast For every node v. the message x can be received. ± If maxflow(v) < [.

the message x can be received. where each individual node u in P may have maxflow(u) < [. ± If maxflow(P) u [. a new comer who wants to receive the message x can do so by accessing a collection of nodes P such that maxflow(P) u [. maxflow(P) dimensions of the message x can be recovered. ± If maxflow(P) < [. Linear Dispersion Linear Broadcast Linear Mulicast For a linear dispersion.Linear Dispersion For every collection of nodes P. 11/26/2008 Page 22 .

the vectors fe1. fen are linearly independent provided that £{fd: d In(vj)}³ £{fek: k { j}³ for 1 e j e n 11/26/2008 Page 23 . where n e [ and ej Out(vj). « .Code Constructions Construction of multicast/broadcast/dispersion: consider a linear network code in which every collection of global encoding kernels that can possibly be linearly independent is linearly independent This motivates the following concept of a generic linear network code: A linear network code is said to be generic if: For every set of channels {e1. en}. e2. fe2. « .

A linear dispersion. a polynomial time algorithm for constructing a linear multicast has been reported independently by Sanders et al.Code Constructions A generic network code exists for all sufficiently large F and can be constructed by the Li-YeungCai (LYC) algorithm. 11/26/2008 Page 24 . and Jaggi et al. In particular. and a linear multicast can potentially be constructed with decreasing complexity since they satisfy a set of properties of decreasing strength. a linear broadcast.

11/26/2008 Page 25 .

11/26/2008 Page 26 .

Static Network Codes Convention: A configuration I of a network is a mapping from the set of channels in the network to the set {0.1} I(e) =0 for any link e signifies that the link e is absent due to link failure 11/26/2008 Page 27 .

I is [ dimensional column vector calculated recursively in an upstream-to-downstream order by (1) f e. e for every adjacent pair (d.Static Network Codes Let F be a finite field and [ a positive integer. where e Out (T ) (2)The I -global encoding kernals for the [ imaginary channels are independent of I and form the natural basis of the space F [ 11/26/2008 Page 28 . denoted by f e . The I -global encoding kernel for the channel e. An [ dimensional F-valued linear network code on an acyclic communication network consists of a scalar k d .e f d .I ! I (e) § dIn (T ) kd . e) in the network.

while the configuration I varies. the local encoding kernels remain unchanged The advantage of using a static network code in case of link failure is that the local operation at any node in the network is affected only at the minimum level 11/26/2008 Page 29 .Static Codes The adjective ³static´ in the terms above stresses the fact that.

Example 11/26/2008 Page 30 .

operation at all nodes synchronized Cyclic: the global encoding kernels simultaneously implemented under the ideal assumption of delayfree communications (unrealistic) The time dimension is an essential part of the consideration in network coding Non-equivalence between local and global descriptions 11/26/2008 Page 31 .Cyclic Networks Networks with at least one directed cycle Acyclic: the network coding problem independent of the propagation delay.

Non-Equivalence Example The local encoding kernels doesn¶t give an unique solution for the global encoding kernels 11/26/2008 Page 32 .

in the trellis network A channel in the trellis network represents a physical channel e only for a particular time slot t > 0. X(2). . and is thereby identified by the pair (e. . X(1). the channel (e. t) When e is from the node X to the node Y . . there is a sequence of nodes X(0).Convolutional Codes for Cyclic Networks Corresponding to a physical node X. t) is then from the node X(t) to the node Y(t+1) 11/26/2008 Page 33 .

Convolutional Codes for Cyclic Networks 11/26/2008 Page 34 .

Li. ³Network Coding Theory.References R. Cai and Z. ³Wireless Systems Lecture: Network Coding Techniques. S. N. Zhang. 2006. R. Elena Fasolo. W. Y.´ Now Publishers Inc.´ March 2004 11/26/2008 Page 35 .. Yeung.

Thank You! 11/26/2008 Page 36 .

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