Unless any product is characterized by value addition it is
now impossible to survive in this highly competitive world market.
Processing is important to make a usable but Iinishing gives
value addition to it.
It makes garments attractive, comIortable & Iinishing can
incorporate desirable properties.
Finishing is the heart oI textile processing.
Value addition ÷ ](Technology) + (Innovation)]
x Quality
The need for competitive strategy that utilizes;
· Chemical compatibility to provide one-shot multifunctional
· Cost reduction through process integration and
minimizing the consumption of all utilities.
· More environmentally friendly and application method.
· Cost reduction through minimization of effluent treatment
· Ìmprove process control, monitoring and automation.
· Greater innovation in chemical finishes.
· Quick response through right-first-time, right-on �time,
right-every-time finishing.
inishing of textile fabric is carried out to
increase attractiveness and/or serviceability of
the fabric.
Different finishing treatments are available to
get various effects, which add value to the basic
textile material.
The domestic readymade garment sector is
booming, and garment processing has emerged
as one of the important production routes towards
meeting quick changing demands of the fashion
There are two methods of garment finishing.
Dip process.
TumbIing process
Dip process: -
· Dip the garment inside out in finishing chemical keeping
MLR 1:5. Washing machine may be used.
· Rotate the garment for 20 min.
· Hydro extract the garment to 70 to 80% pick up.
· Tumble dry at 70°C to moisture content 10÷12 %.
· Turn the garment right side out.
· Ìron/steam press the garment to set the creases at desired
· Cure at 150÷160°C
TumbIe method: -
· Ìn this process the garment are placed (inside out) into a
machine with sealed (not perforated) cylinder and
application of recipe by either pumping or spraying.
· The drum is turned for 20 min there should not be
excessive dripping of chemicals from the garment. Ìf so
more tumbling time is allowed.
· This method is being used more and more due to the fact
that there is no wastage of chemicals.
· After saturation the garments are hydro extracted tumble
dry at 70°C to 10÷20 % pick up moisture content.
· The iron and steam press the garments to remove/set
creases. Cure at 150÷160°C for 8 -10 min.
Important features: -
· MLR should not be less than 1: 0.85 for the
garment weighing 600 gm and 1:1 for those
weighing more than 600 gm.
· Minimum time of tumbling should be 20 min.
· Tumble rotation speed 20-30 rpm.
· Tumble drying temp. Should not be more than
· Moisture retention after drying should be 10-
Wash down effects
Ìt can be achieved by a variety of garment
processing techniques which are mainly dependent on
physical and on chemical abrasion of the surface dye there
by producing different wash down or break-in looks.
Ìn garment washing the seams, waistband, pockets,
cuffs, etc develop a contour, which can be obtained by
washing in garment from only.
Washing down of garments is the latest development
in fashion technology. Washing brings out special effects
changing the feel and look of garments
ive good reasons can be attributed for washing the
To influence physical properties such as
softness, handle, drape or fall , absorbency,
creasing etc.
To influence appearance by altering the nature
of yarn of fabric or lusture.
To create shrinkage & effects of shrinkage like
puckering of garments.
To create abrasion & related effects.
To create a trend in fashion with consistent
quality & brand image with range of finishes.
Denim washing
Ìt is the aesthetic finish given to the denim
fabric to enhance the appeal and to provide
Indigo ieans were once the only item processed by the
garment wash method
· Emphasis is on
omfort And
Fashion Trends Favor The Broken-in Look And
Worn/Faded seams
that can only be achieved through garment processing
1. MechanicaI washes
Stone wash
Micro sanding
2. ChemicaI washes
Denim bleaching
nzyme wash
Acid wash
ny oI these procedures can be modiIied
To Iit a particular situation,
Depending upon garment type (i.e.,
heavyweight denim versus lightweight
vailable equipment, and
Process Ilow.
lso, some oI these procedures yield
garments suitable Ior over dyeing, which may
create a whole new look.
. Garments can be inverted to minimize unwanted abrasion streaks (especially
useIul when preset creases are present).
2. Load machine with garments.
3. Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent.
4. Drain.
5. Rinse.
6. Fill machine with water and heat to 60C. The liquor ratio can range Irom
0: to 20:. number oI synthetic detergents can be used. lso, alkaline
products such as soda ash or caustic soda can be added in amounts ranging
Irom 0.5 to 2.0 grams/liter. Some chemical suppliers oIIer special products
that accelerate the wash down process, dependent upon the particular
dyestuII used.
7. Wash/tumble action Ior 20-60 minutes, depending upon desired eIIect.
8. Drain and rinse.
9. pply soItener.
0. Tumble dry.
. Invert garments, iI previously turned.
2. Press, iI required.
· In the process oI stone washing, Ireshly dyed ieans
are loaded into large washing machines and tumbled
with pumice stones
· It means Pre washed, abraded, Iaded either regular or
irregular looks are produced by subiecting the dyed
garments to severe washing treatments
· In order to accelerate the garment wash eIIect and to
give garments an even more unique appearance.
desirable look and softer hand. abrasive stones
were introduced to the wash bath.
· Variations in composition, hardness, size shape
and porosity make these stones multiIunctional.
The process is quite expensive and requires high
capital investment.
· !umice stones give the additional effect of a
faded or worn look as it abrades the surface
of the jeans like sandpaper. removing some
dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn.
· variety of natural and synthetic stones are
available Ior stonewashing with perhaps the
most widely used being pumice or volcanic
s the stones are used, they slowly disintegrate,
reducing the severity oI the stonewash eIIect over
a period oI time.
The stones not only abrade the Iabric but also
gradually abrade the inside oI the rotary drum.
machine used Ior stonewashing should not be
used to dye delicate articles or when abrasion
would be detrimental to the Iabric.
It`s gives used look because of varying degrees
of abrasion in areas such as the waistband.
pocket and seems
Degree oI colour Iading
Garments to stone ratio
Washing time
Size oI stone
Load oI garments
Stone weight 0.5-3
Selection of stone
· Stone should be selected oI the proper hardness. shape. and
size Ior the particular end product.
· It should be noted that large. hard stones last longer and may
be suited Ior heavy weight fabrics only.
· Smaller, softer stones would be used Ior light weight fabrics
and more delicate items.
· STONE WT. /FABRI WT. ÷ 0.5 TO 3 /1
· It depends on the degree oI abrasion needed to achieve the
desired result.
· Stones can be reused until they completely disintegrate or
washed down the drain.
. Load stones into machine.
2. Load garments into machine (ratio usually 0.5 - 3.0 part weight
stones: part weight garments).
3. Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent. Liquor ratio
approximately 5-8:.
4. Rinse.
5. ReIill and tumble with stones 30 to 90 minutes, depending
upon desired eIIect. Liquor ratio 5-8: at 50-70C. Scouring
additives can also be used.
6. Drain. Separate garments Irom stones (garments
can be transIerred to another machine).
7. Rinse.
8. pply soItener (garments can be transIerred to
another machine Ior soItening).
9. Extract and unload.
0. De-stone and tumble dry.
. Press, iI required.
· The dye removed from denim material after the
treatment with cellulose or by a conventional
washing process may cause "back staining¨ or
· Re-coloration of blue threads and blue
coloration of white threads, resulting in less
contrast between blue and white threads.
· Damage to wash machineries and garment due to
stone to machine and machine to stone abrasion
· Ìncrease in labor to remove dust from finished
· Water pollution during disposal of used liquor.
· Back staining and re deposition.
· Adding dispersion/suspension agent to
wash cycle.
· Ìntermediate replacement of wash liquor.
· Using alkaline detergent like sodium per
borate with optical brightener as after wash
· Quality of the abrasion process is difficult to control
outcome of a load of jeans is never uniform, little
percentage always getting ruined by too much abrasion.
· The process is non-selective.
· Metal buttons and rivets on the jeans in the washing
machines get abraded.
· This reduces quality of the products and life of equipment,
and increases production costs.
· Stones may turn into powder during the process of making
the garment grayish in color and rough too
· Provides rougher feel than enzyme wash
· Stone may lead the harm to the machine parts
· In traditional washing process, volcanic rocks or pumice stones
are added to the garments during washing as abradant. Due to ring
dyeing and heavy abrasion Iading is more apparent but less
· The degree oI colour Iading depends on the garment to stone ratio,
washing time, size oI stones, material to liquor ratio and load oI
· Normally aIter desizing, stone wash process starts with pumice
stone addition in rotary drum type garment washer.
· Process time varies Irom 60-20 mins.
· Stone wash eIIect is one oI the oldest but highly demanded
washing eIIects.
· Stone wash process gives 'used¨ look or 'vintage¨ on
the garments, because oI varying degree oI abrasion in
the area such as waistband, pocket, seam and body.
· There are many limitations and drawbacks associated
with stone washing process, which can be overcome by
using new enzyme based washing technology.
· This technology also helps to conserve water, time,
energy and environment
· Cellulase enzymes are natural proteins which are
used in denim garment processing to get stone
wash look on to the denim garments without
using stones or by reducing the use of pumice
· Cellulase attacks primarily on the surface of the
cellulose fibre, leaving the interior of the fibre as it
is, by removing the indigo present in the surface
layer of fibre.
Cellulase enzyme is classified into two
Acid CeIIuIase:
Ìt works best in the pH range of 4.5-5.5
and exhibit optimum activity at 50°C.
NeutraI ceIIuIase:
Ìt works best at pH 6 however its activity
is not adversely affected in the range of pH
6-8 and show maximum activity at 55°C.
NeutraI CeIIuIase:
These are the enzymes which are active between
pH: 6-8
· lower abrasion than acid celluloses
· low back staining
· pH 6 - 8.0
Acid CeIIuIase:
· high abrasion
· higher back-staining than neutral cellulases
· pH 4.5 - 5.5
· optimized pH and temperature = maximum activity of the
Acid cellulose
Recipe and Condition
Cellulose 450 AP (OWG) 0.5 1 gm/l
Lube pro VX ( crease inhibitor) 0.5 1 gm/l
White MRC (anti-redepositing agent) 1 2 gm/l
Treat at 50C and pH 5 for 30-45 mins
Neutral cellulose
Recipe and Condition
Americos cellucom 110 OM (OWG) 0.5 1 gm/l
Lube pro VX ( crease inhibitor) 0.5 1 gm/l
Americos White MRC (anti-redepositing agent) 1 2gm/l
Treat at 50C and pH 5 for 30-45 mins
1. Load stones in machine (normally 0.5 - 2.0 part
weight stones: 1 part weight garments) if applicable.
2. Load garments.
3. Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent.
4. Rinse.
5. Add cellulase enzyme (amount, pH, temperature,
and cycle time dependent upon type of fabric and
desired effects; manufacturer's recommendations
should be followed).
6. Adjust pH as recommended.
7. Tumble 30-90 minutes.
8. Drain.
*9. Rinse well (70C).
10. Drain.
11. Rinse well (70C).
12. Drain. Separate garments from stones if
used (garments can be transferred to
another machine).
13. Apply softener.
14. xtract and unload.
15. De-stone and tumble dry.
16. Press, if require
Advantage of enzyme washing
· Soft handle and attractive clean appearance is obtained
without severe damage to the surface of yarn.
· Simple process handling and minimum effluent problem.
· Better feel to touch and increased gloss or luster.
· Prevents tendency of pilling after relatively short period of
· Can be applied on cellulose and its blend.
· Due to mild condition of treatment process is less corrosive.
· ancy colour - flenced surface can be obtained without or a
partial use of stone.
· More reproducible effect can be obtained.
· Ìt allows more loading of the garment into machines
· nvironmental friendly treatment.
· Less damage to seam edges and badges.
· Wear and tear of equipment is minimum due to
absence of stone.
· Use of softener can be avoided or minimised.
· asy handling of floor and severs as messy
sludge of stones does not interfere.
· Due to absence of stone, labour intensive
operation of stone removal is not required.
· Homogenous abrasion of the garments.
· Puckering effect can also be obtained
· It is done by tumbling the garments with pumice stones
presoaked in a solution oI sodium hypochlorite (5 to 0°) or
potassium permanganate (3 to 6°) Ior localized bleaching
resulting in a non uniIorm sharp blue/white contrast.
· To remove the colour only on the surIace oI the garment and
produces a Irosted appearance
· In this wash the color contrast oI the denim Iabric can be
enhanced by optical brightening.
· The advantage oI this process is that it saves water as addition
oI water is not required.
Soak the stones in solution oI sodium hypochlorite (5 to 0°) or
potassium permanganate (3 to 6°) Ior -2 hrs
Stones should be drained oI excess liquor with help oI mesh
Placed stones and garments in machine
Tumble Ior 30 mins or until desire eIIects are achieved. Results
are dependent up on the dyestuII, Iabric, and concentration oI
chemical, stones, additives, and equipment
In some cases, stones can be used ( resoaking, porosity )
pply soItener
Tumble dry
Press, iI req.
Limitations of acid wash:
· Acid washed, indigo dyed denim has a tendency to yellow
after wet processing.
· The major cause is residual manganese due to incomplete
neutralization, washing or rinsing.
· Manganese is effectively removed during laundering with
addition of ethelene- diamine -tetra acetic acid as chelating
· Acid washing jeans avoided some of problems of stone
wash, but came with added dangers, expenses, and
There are 3 ways for this technique:
· Sandblasting
· Machine sanding
· Hand sanding or hand brushing
Used in various ways: -
· lat surfaces (tables, ironing boards)
· On the dummy (inflatable dummies,
sometimes standing, sometimes flat,
sometimes 'seated')
· Various templates can be used to create a
3D effect.
Sand blasting technique is based on blasting an abrasive
material in granular, powdered or other Iorm through a nozzle at
very high speed and pressure onto speciIic areas oI the garment
surIace to be treated to give the desired distressed/ abraded/used
· It is purely mechanical process, not using any chemicals.
· It is a water Iree process thereIore no drying required.
· Variety oI distressed or abraded looks possible.
· ny number oI designs could be created by special techniques
Advantages :
Pure chemical process
Water free process therefore no need
Variety of distresses or abraded looks
Any number of designs could be created by
special finishes
Wrinkle Free Finish (or) Anticrease Finish (Or) Wash-
N- Wear Finish
· Cotton fabrics are mainly selected for apparels because of
their durability, ability to with stand the rough laundering,
good absorption, comfort to wear and ability to take up a
wide range of dyestuffs.
· The main headache with the cotton fabric is CRAS
formation during washing, laundering and in use. Ìt is an
undesirable property and hence the crease resistant finish is
to be given. Ìt is called as Anti-crease finish or Crease
resistant or Crease recovery finish or 'Wash-n- Wear'
Object of Anti-crease finish
· Cotton, viscose fabrics form creases during washing,
laundering and in use.
· To prevent it, the anti-crease finish is given. Ìt is called as
Anti-crease finish or Crease resistant or Crease recovery
finish or 'Wash-n- Wear' finishes.
· As the resins are used, it is also called as 'Resin finishing'.
Ìt is a permanent chemical finish.
· To keep the fabric flat smooth and free from undesirable
Usually cotton, linen, viscose and cuprammonium
rayon are Iinished with resin
Depends on
. mount and type oI resin
2. mount and type oI catalyst
3. Curing conditions
4. Quality oI cotton
5. Process preceding Iinishing and possible damage
· Cotton cellulose molecular chain contains OH groups in both
amorphous and crystalline region.
· When a load is applied on to cotton Iabric, the cellulose chain
bends and this bending remains permanent since the chains are In-
· The hydrogen bonds Iorm, between the adiacent chains in the
crystalline region are broken and new hydrogen bond are Iormed
at the Iolding points and in amorphous region, which do not allow
the chain to return. Hence the creases are Iormed.
ethod to prevent creases
The method oI minimizing the Iormation oI creases
involves cross-linking the OH groups oI adiacent
cellulosic chains by means oI cross-linking agents.
The introduction oI cross-links imparts dimensional
stability and elasticity to the Iibrous material an
makes it crease resistant and crease recoverable.
The most commonly used cross-linking agents are
nothing but resins. The resins react with OH groups oI
cellulose Iorming cross links which is durable
Advantages of resin finishing
· Ìt improves the Crease Resistance and Crease Recovery
· Ìt reduces the shrinkage of fabric during laundering
· Ìt improves the resilience, drape and handle
· Ìt imparts a smooth and quick drying property
· Ìt improves the Dimensional stability and weight
· Ìt increase the strength of rayons in both wet and dry states
· Ìt gives resistance to degradation by light and laundering
· Ìt improves the fastness to light and wash
· Ìt prevents the inter-molecular slippage in the fibre
· Ìt becomes partially water proof and rot proof
· Ìt decreases the tensile strength and tearing
· Ìt decreases the abrasion resistance
· Ìt gives harsh and stiff feel
· Ìt gives an unpleasant odour
· Ìt turns yellow after chlorine bleaching
DMU Di Methylol Urea
DMU Di Methylol thylene Urea
DMDHU Di Methylol Di Hydroxy thylene Urea
TMM Tri Methylol Melamine
or Shirting cloth (Cotton, !!
DMU/DMDHU 80 -100 gpl cross-linking resin
MgCl2 - 8 - 10 gpl catalyst for cross linking reaction
P emulsion 20 gpl Lubricant
Reactive softener 30 gpl softener
Padding in two bowl padding mangle with 80% expression
at room temperature
Drying in stenter with minimum tension at 70 - 80°C
Cure at 120°C -150°C for 2-5 min Cross-linking and
polymerization takes place
Washing and soaping - Ì-2gpl soap or TRO and 2-4 gpl
soda ash at 50 -60°C for 10 min acidity is neutralised
Softening and drying - rinsed in water with softener
· Ìt is a computer controlled process for denim
· This technique enables patterns to be created
such as lines and/or dots, images, text or even
· Ìt is water free fading of denim.
· Being an automatic system, chances of human
error are slim.
· Also called spray painting in denims.
· This technique has relatively high cost