Quality Management

 Objectives

be able to understand modern concepts of quality and dimensions of quality  be able to discuss employee involvement and JIT in Total Quality Management  be able to describe basic quality tools  Introduction to ISO

What does the term QUALITY mean? QUALITY is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations.

design. at the end of line   No specific methods. before completion  Find mistakes after completion.  Use statistical.Traditional vs. small group   Modern Include everyone from raw material. Modern Concept of Quality Control Traditional One person. productivity. control based on experience charts to monitor . top management Find where the mistakes might occur. process.

Dimension of Quality  Performance – main characteristics  Special Features – extra characteristics  Conformance – how well corresponds to expectation  Reliability – consistency of performance without breakdown  Durability – useful life time  Safety – safe to use as directed  Aesthetics – nice to look at  Service After Sale – handling of complaints. help lines and checking customer satisfaction .

damage or even death  Rework have to be done. slow the process to accommodate rework. legal expenses .Consequences of Poor Quality  Reputation & image will suffer  Pay special attention to potential liability due to injury. high scraps  Increase cost of rework. scrap. repair & replacement.

Responsibility for Quality  Top management  Design  Procurement  Production/operations  Quality assurance  Packaging and shipping  Marketing and sales  Customer service .

downtime)  Appraisal cost: evaluating products (lab testing.Cost of Quality Internal Cost  Failure cost: results from production of defective parts before delivery (rework. inspector)  Prevention cost: reducing potential for defective (training. warranty. sued by customer) . scrap. awareness program) External cost  occur after delivery (liabilities.

award certificate & series of audits . critical to international business ISO 14000  A set of international standards for assessing a company’s environmental performance Must go through process documenting procedures Then onsite visit to verify.Quality Certification ISO 9000  Set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance.

but also services e. banking. hospital .Total Quality Management New attitude towards quality using Three Philosophies  Continuous improvement “KAIZEN”  Involvement of everyone in the organization  Customer satisfaction Expands the traditional view of quality beyond looking only at the quality of the final product or service but to look at quality of every aspect of the process Not only on product.g.

Elements of TQM  Utilizes education & training everyone  Encourages empowerment of the employees in the work place. team approach  Promote understanding & fulfilling the needs of customers  Define quality in term of customer requirement  Use statistical reasoning with data to solve problems & to improve  View quality improvement as never ending quest to improve the process .

involve directly with the system  Everyone must be responsible on their work  Build communication network.Employee Involvement  In every step of production process. employees with supervisor (open minded. supportive) .

reduce cost  Limits potential sources of error. deliver just as needed  Target less inventory. give early warning. rework. produce in small batches . less scrap.Relationship between TQM and Just-In-Time  JIT emphasizes continuous improvement & enforces problem solving since design to production stage.

replacement .TQM Lead to Lower Production Cost  Emphasize the quality from supplier & distributor  Reduce prevention cost ( less potential for defective parts from employees)  Reduce cost of inspection  Reduce cost of rework.

Obstacles to Implementing TQM Lack of:  Company-wide definition of quality  Strategic plan for change  Customer focus  Real employee empowerment  Emphasis on short-term financial results  Time to devote to quality initiatives  Leadership  View of quality as a “quick fix” .

Plan Act The PDSA Cycle Do Study .

The Process Improvement Cycle Select a process Document Study/document Evaluate Implement the Improved process Seek ways to Improve it Design an Improved process .

and provide the basis for decision making .Basic Quality Tools There are a number of tools that can be used for problem solving and process improvement Tools aid in data collection and interpretation.

Basic Quality Tools  Flowcharts  Check sheets Charts diagrams charts diagrams  Histograms  Pareto  Scatter  Control  Cause-and-effect .

FLOWCHART Drive in check price self serve? to pump yes no check card transmit approved? yes no copy to file employee totals charges check accuracy prepare receipt sign copy return to car on the road again turn on pump back to car pump gas walk to booth wait shut off engine walk to pay station copy to wallet .

CHECK SHEETS Body Defects Paint Dent Wheels Loose Stuck Monday .

PARETO ANALYSIS Number of defects Off Smeared Missing Loose Other center print label 80% of the 80% of the problems problems may be may be attributed to attributed to 20% of the 20% of the causes. causes. .

CONTROL CHART 1020 1010 1000 990 980 970 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 UCL LCL .

CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM Methods Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Materials Cause Cause Cause Environment Cause Cause Effect People Equipment .

Benchmarking Process  Identify a critical process that needs improving  Identify an organization that excels in this process  Contact that organization  Analyze the data  Improve the critical process .

Let’s Recap!  What are the dimensions of quality?  Who responsibility for quality?  Name some of the basic quality tools.  What are the consequences of poor quality?  Which quality certificate involve with environmental performance? .

Summary  Understand the Concept of Total Quality Management  Significant Impact of Total Quality Management in Modern Manufacturing  Next class. we will have some calculations in Statistical Quality Control .