 

Transfer of Information from one place to another. Should be efficient, reliable, and secured.

Communication system:

components/subsystems act together to accomplish information transfer/exchange

Definitions (Cont’d)

Electronic communication system

transmission, reception and processing of information between two or more locations using electronic circuits. analog/digital form

Information source


Have you ever pictured yourself living in a world without any communication system?

.Need For Communication  Importance of communication: exchange of information between two parties separated in distances in a more faster and reliable way.

A physical embodiment of information – voltage signal or current signal  Message   Signals  . message and signals  Information  The commodity produced by the source for transfer to some user at the destination.Information. The physical manifestation of information as produced by the information source.

Brief History in Communication Year 1844 1876 1904 1923 1936 1962 1966 1972 1989 Events Telegraph Telephone AM Radio Television FM Radio Satellite Optical links using laser and fiber optics Cellular Telephone Internet .

Development and progress  Communications between human beings Form of hand gestures and facial expressions  Verbal grunts and groans   Long distance communications Smoke signals  Telegraph  Telephone  .

Cont’d…  Wireless radio signals Triode vacuum tube  Commercial radio broadcasting  .


Digital  Analog Continuous Variation  Assume the total range of frequencies/time  All information is transmitted   Digital  Takes samples:  non continuous stream of on/off pulses  Translates to 1’s and 0’s .Analog vs.

Digital Digital CS Advantages: -Inexpensive -Privacy preserved(data encrypted) -Can merge different data -error correction  Analog Cs Disadvantages: -expensive -No privacy preserved -Cannot merge different data -No error correction capability  Disadvantages: -Larger bandwidth -synchronization problem is relatively difficult Advantages: -smaller bandwidth -synchronization problem is relatively easier.Analog vs. .

the better  Purity of signal received:   Simplicity of the system   Reliability .Basic Requirements of Communication System  Rate of information transfer:  how fast the information can be transferred whether the signal received is the same as the signal being transmit the simpler the system.

Elements of Communication System(CS) .

Elements of CS(cont’d)  Information The communication system exists to convey a  Message comes from information source  Information forms . text or data  . video.

cont’d…  Transmitter: Processes input signal to produce a transmitted signal that suited the characteristic of transmission channel. filtering. coding.  E. translate  Other functions performed . modulation. speech waves are converted to voltage variation by a microphone  . mixing. antenna  Message converted to into electrical signals by transducers  E.Amplification.g.g.

fiber optics. Eg:Atmosphere (free space). waveguide  signals undergoes degradation from noise .Elements of CS(cont’d)  Channel (transmission media): a medium that bridges the distance from source to destination. coaxial cable. interference and distortion  .

decoding  Other functions performed: Amplification.  E. and convert it to a form suitable for the output transducer. demodulation.g.Elements of CS(cont’d)  Receiver: to recover the message signal contained in the received signal from the output of the channel. filtering. mixing.  Transducer converts the electrical signal at its input into a form desired by the system used  .

E FM – frequency .phase .  One of the characteristics of the carrier signal is changed according to the variations of the modulating signal.     AM – amplitude. θ . ω PM .Modulation  What is modulation? a process of changing one or more properties of the analog carrier in proportion to the information signal.

 For ease radiation and reduction of antenna size  Reduction of noise and interference  Channel assignment  Increase transmission speed  .Modulation (cont’d)  Why modulation is needed? To generate a modulated signal suited and compatible to the characteristics of the transmission channel.

 Internal noise   External noise   noise. noise that is generated outside the circuit. interference and distortion  Noise   unwanted signals that coincide with the desired signals. Two type of noise:internal and external noise. atmospheric noise. cosmic noise.Noise. man made noise. E. Caused by internal devices/components in the circuits.

Noise. interference and distortion (Cont’d)  Interference Contamination by extraneous signals from human sources.  Occurs most often in radio systems whose receiving antennas usually intercept several signals at the same time  One type of noise.  E.g. power lines and machineries.  . from other transmitters.

 .  May be corrected or reduced with the help of equalizers. interference and distortion (Cont’d)  Distortion Signals or waves perturbation caused by imperfect response of the system to the desired signal itself.Noise.

Limitations in communication system  Technological problems Includes equipment availability.  Problem solved in theory but perfect solutions may not be practical.  . economic factors. federal regulations and interaction with existing systems.

 Physicals limitations  Limitations in communication system (cont’d) Bandwidth limitation  Measure of speed  The system ability to follow signal variations depends on the transmission bandwidth. .  Available bandwidth determines the maximum signal speed.

Limitations in communication system (cont’d)  Noise limitation  Unavoidable.  Noise relative to an information signal is measured in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR).  The kinetic theory. .

Communication system design  Compromise within: Transmission time and power  SNR performance  Cost of equipments  Channel capacity  Bandwidth  .

the time distance between two similar points on a periodic wave. Period . Wavelength . .the number of cycles of a signal that occur in one second.One complete occurrence of a repeating wave (periodic signal) such as one positive and one negative alternation of a sine wave. Frequency .the distance traveled by an electromagnetic (radio) wave during one period.FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH     Cycle .

PERIOD AND FREQUENCY COMPARED T = One period time One cycle Frequency = f = 1/T .

Frequency and wavelength compared + T 0 time f = 1/T λ distance .

CALCULATING WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY λ = 300/f f = 300/λ λ = wavelength in meters f = frequency in MHz .

30 Hz ELF 107 m 106 m 105 m 104 m 103 m 102 m 300 Hz VF (f = 300/λ ) 3 kHz VLF 30 kHz LF 300 kHz MF 3 MHz HF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM FROM 30 HZ TO 300 GHZ Frequency Wavelength 30 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz 10 m 1m 10-1 m 10-2 m Millimeter waves (λ VHF UHF SHF EHF = 300/f) 10-3 m 10-4 m .

30 to 300 Hz Voice Frequencies .300 to 3000 Hz Very Low Frequencies .30 kHz to 300 kHz Medium Frequencies .3 kHz to 30 kHz Low Frequencies .LOW AND MEDIUM FREQUENCIES      Extremely Low Frequencies .300 kHz to 3 MHz .

HIGH FREQUENCIES  High Frequencies .30 GHz to 300 GHz .30 MHz to 300 MHz  Ultra High Frequencies .3 GHz to 30 GHz  Extremely High Frequencies .3 MHz to 30 MHz  Very High Frequencies .300 MHz to 3 GHz (1 GHz and above = microwaves)  Super High Frequencies .

8 x 10-6 m Visible 0.300 GHz Millimeter waves 10-4 m 10-5 m Infrared 0.4 x 10-6 m Ultraviolet 10-3 m Wavelength X-rays Gamma rays THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM ABOVE 300 GHZ Cosmic rays .

OPTICAL FREQUENCIES    Infrared .8 micron Ultraviolet . Light waves are measured and expressed in wavelength rather than frequency.7 to 10 micron Visible light .0.4 micron Note: A micron is one millionth of a meter. .4 to 0.0.Shorter than 0.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONS TX Channel RX Simplex: One-way Duplex: Two-way Half duplex: Alternate TX/RX Full duplex: Simultaneous TX/RX TX Channel(s) RX RX TX .

The original information signal such as audio.COMMUNICATIONS SIGNAL VARIATIONS  Baseband . Can be analog or digital. which is usually a sine wave at a frequency much higher than the baseband signal. video.The baseband signal modulates or modifies a carrier signal.  . Broadband . or computer data.

Various forms of communication system     Broadcast: radio and television Mobile communications Fixed communication line Data communication-internet .

It is calculated by subtracting the lowest frequency from the highest.Frequency Spectrum &Bandwidth   The frequency spectrum of a waveform consists of all frequencies contained in the waveform and their amplitudes plotted in the frequency domain. . The bandwidth of a frequency spectrum is the range of of frequencies contained in the spectrum.

bandwidth of communication channel is the difference between the highest and lowest frequency that the channel allow to pass through it Frequency Spectrum &Bandwidth (cont’d) . Similarly.  Bandwidth of the information signal equals to the difference between the highest and lowest frequency contained in the signal.

Power gain Signal level gain .

gear.signal gain       In Engineering Problems. Transformer: secondary voltage/primary voltage gear box: output torque/input torque. we have known the term signal gain / mechanical advantage. . transformer. amplifier. Voltage amplifier: Av= Vo/Vi. Chain pulley block: weight lifted/weight applied. Examples are chain pulley block. cantilever. Transistors current gain: β = ic/ib.

the apparent power gain may be more than one.Power gain  It is the ratio of output power over input power. The signal power is amplified. In amplifiers.    . Power gain is always ≤ 1. chain pulley block. If the energy is consumed in doing a work. gear boxes etc have power gain less than one. Example is transformer. DC electric power is transformed into signal power. Ap = Po/Pi.

is not accounted.In signal gain:    The advantage or. it appears that there is no apparent relation between signal gain and power gain. At first instance. . It is because the friction of the load in which the power is fed. signal gain may be >1 though the power gain is < 1.

 Power gain in dB = 10 log (Po/Pi) dB. Voltage gain in dB = 20 log (Vo/Vi) dB.  It is designated in terms of decibels.  .Power and voltage gain in communication In communication. Here if power gain < 1. dB. voltage gain <1. the power and voltage gains become explicit. due to known characteristic impedance of the channel.

Term is power (Po/Pi) dB = 2(Vo/Vi)dB .Power gain in dB =10 log (Po/Pi) dB. Voltage gain in dB = 20 log (Vo/Vi) dB. are absolute gains  power ratio P /P = 10.000 = 40 dB o i    Voltage ratio Vo/Vi = 100 See that Po/Pi = (Vo/Vi) 2 = 40 dB.

5212x106 watts.4 = 2.Alternatively: Power gain = 10 (g inind /1 ) a B0 Voltage gain = 10 (gainindB/20) Examples: A 64 dB gain means 106.01) = -20 dB . An attenuation by 0.01= 10 log(0.

Their gains are 13 dB and Sum 10 dB respectively. In terms of ratio: 23 dB = 10(23/10)= 200 13 dB = 10(13/10)= 20 same 10 dB = 10(10/10)= 10 Again 20 x 10 = 200.Examples:        Let there be two amplifiers in cascade. multiplication . The overall gain is 13+10 = 23 dB.

it is written as dBµ V . When referenced to 1mW. 1 µ V voltage level. This permits input. it is written dBm When referenced to 1 µ V.signals to be expressed in terms of relative dB.Relative dB     It is convenient to express signals with some reference such as 1mW power or.and output.

  5 watts signal. 10 log(5W/1mW) = 36.Relative dB is not a gain but is termed as gain wrt a reference. In relative dB.99 dBm 500 µ V signal: In relative dB. 20 log(500 µ V /1 µ V ) = 53.98 dBµ V   .