UNEMPLOYMENT AND EDUCATION

by NOEL A. BALARES

UNEMPLOYMENT
‡ as defined by the International Labour Organization, occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively looked for work within the past four weeks.

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
‡ is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment ‡ it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labour force

Unemployment rate

=

Unemployed workers Total labour force

What is

UNEMPLOYMENT
anyway? ‡ refers to the condition of unwanted job losses ‡ willing workers without jobs

but
not everyone who s out of work is seen as unemployed Example: A person with a large fortune not looking a job is not counted in the unemployed population in that he is not willing to work in the first place, though he s officially out of work.

TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT
‡ Frictional unemployment ‡ Structural unemployment ‡ Seasonal unemployment ‡ Cyclical or Keynesian unemployment

FRICTIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT

T Y P E S

‡ This is the time when people need time to find the best job, thus voluntarily rubbing back and forth between choices and staying unemployed. ‡ a type of voluntary unemployment that arises because of the time needed to match job seekers with job openings.

y A good example is that when you make up your mind and set off looking for a better job and abandoning the current one, you are in the frictional unemployment labor force.

STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT

T Y P E S

‡ when a large amount of unemployed workers (labor force supply) don t qualify for a large amount of labor force demand. ‡ unemployment caused by massive mismatch of skills or geographic location While frictional unemployment is short-term and mostly voluntary, structural unemployment poses more of a problem because workers must seek jobs elsewhere or must develop the skills demanded.

SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT

T Y P E S

‡ unemployment caused by seasonal changes in labor supply and demand during the year y periodic employment, exists in any field or industry that is dependent upon the weather. As the season of Christmas comes, demand for postal services rise sharply so is postal workers because the workload is much bigger than that of any seasons else in the year. After that, demand for postal service drops to normal and so does demand for postal workers, bringing about unemployment.

CYCLICAL UNEMPLOYMENT

T Y P E S

‡ the fluctuation in unemployment that is incurred by business cycles, more specifically, the unemployment caused by economic recessions. y Happens when firms reduce the demand for inputs, including labor in recessional periods when production declines. Until workers can be retrained for other positions or find jobs where demand still remains high, they may experience long periods of unemployment.

UNEMPLOYMENT AND EDUCATION: How are they related?

How unemployment harms the economy and our daily lives?

It¶s a recession when your neighbor loses his job; it¶s a depression when you lose your own. ~Harry S. Truman

How unemployment harms the economy and our daily lives?

Hunger is not the worst feature of unemployment; idleness is.

~William E. Barrett

How unemployment harms the economy and our daily lives?

The hardest work in the world is being out of work. ~Whitney Young, Jr.

How unemployment harms our economy?  

Lost of income for individuals and outputs for economy would come up first as the costs of unemployment. For individuals and households, unemployment forces them to curtail their consumption drastically and perhaps liquidate some of the assets ± often at a loss ± to meet financial obligations.

How unemployment harms our daily lives? 

Unemployment ruins family happiness also results to:
± ±

±

quarrel, fight, divorce, health that would have an enduring effect over their lives, and children losing their education;

UNEMPLOYMENT STATISTICS IN THE PHILIPPINES (2010)
Description Proportion Unemployed 51.5% Total

15-24 years old 25-34 years old High School Graduates College Undergraduates College Graduates

80.6%
29.1% 33.1% 19.3% 18.5%

70.9%

EDUCATIONAL SITUATION 

Inadequate preparation of high school graduates for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education. most graduates are too young to enter the labor force. Our graduates are not automatically recognized as professionals abroad. More importantly, the short basic education program affects the human development of the Filipino children.   

THE PROPOSAL:
THE ENHANCED K+12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM

What does Enhanced K + 12 means? 

Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. Under the K+12, the intention is not just to add two years of schooling but more importantly to enhance the basic education curriculum.

BENEFITS OF THE K + 12
Graduates will possess competencies and skills relevant to the job market. Graduates will be able to earn higher wages and/or better prepared to start their own business. Graduates could now be recognized abroad. The economy will experience accelerated growth in the long run.

ENHANCED K+12 BASIC EDUCATION MODEL

ENHANCED K+12 BASIC EDUCATION MODEL

K - 6 - 4 - 2 MODEL
This model involves
Kindergarten six years of elementary education four years of junior high school (Grades7 to 10) two years of senior high school (Grades 11 to 12)

ENHANCED K+12 BASIC EDUCATION MODEL
The two years of senior high school intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies. The curriculum will allow specializations in science and technology, music and arts, agriculture and fisheries, sports, business and entrepreneurship, etc.

Schematic Presentation of the K-6-4-2 Model Implementation K-

THANK YOU!!