General Guidelines for Crash Analysis in LS-DYNA

Suri Bala Jim Day
© Copyright Livermore Software Technology Corporation

Modeling Guidelines for Crash Analysis
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Element Shapes
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Avoid use of triangular shells, tetrahedrons, pentahedrons whenever possible (ok in rigid bodies). ESORT=1 if triangular shells are present,*CONTROL_SHELL. ESORT=1 if tetrahedrons, pentahedrons are present,*CONTROL_SOLID.

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Warping Stiffness in Shells
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Warped shells are too soft. ‡ For warped B-T shells, use *CONTROL_SHELL to set BWC=1 and invoke the more costly full projection for warping stiffness (PROJ=1) since drill projection inhibits rigid body rotation. ‡ For fully-integrated shell ELFORM=16, set hourglass formulation IHG to 8 to invoke warping stiffness.
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Turn on bulk viscosity for shells by setting TYPE = -1 *CONTROL_BULK_VISCOSITY Q Solids Q Use ELFORM=1 for solids and include appropriate hourglass control LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . Set shear factor in *SECTION_SHELL to theoretical value of 5/6. invoke selectively (by parts) via PSSTUPD and use more stable ISTUPD=4 Use minimum of 3 integration points through the thickness (NIP in *SECTION_SHELL) for shell parts undergoing plastic deformation.Modeling Guidelines for Crash Analysis Q Shells Q Q Q Q Q Invoke invarient node numbering (INN=2 in *CONTROL_ACCURACY) so that results are insensitive to the order of the nodes in the element connectivity. ‡ If thinning is needed. Shell thickness update (ISTUPD in *CONTROL_SHELL) is generally not needed for crash analysis (req¶d for metal forming).

Without Invarient Node Numbering (N1-to-N2 establishes element x-direction) 4 Case 1 y y 3 4 3 Element rotation = 0 x 1 3 Case 2 y y 4 Undeformed 1 4 Deformed 1 x 2 2 1 3 2 x x 2 Element rotation = .20o LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION .

90 = -10 o LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION .With Invarient Node Numbering (based on element bisectors) 4 Case 1 3 Local x = (0+90)/2 ± 45 =0 o 4 3 Local x = (0+70)/2 ± 45 = -10 o Element rotation 1 3 Case 2 2 2 Local x = (90+180)/2 ± 45 = 90 o 1 3 2 2 = -10 ± 0 = -10 o Local x = (70+180)/2 ± 45 = 80 o 4 Undeformed 1 4 Deformed 1 Element rotation = 80 .

03 for metal and plastic parts.Modeling Guidelines for Crash Analysis Q Hourglass Control Q Q Q If using *CONTROL_HOURGLASS. stiffness-based hourglass control (IHQ=4 or 5) causes overly stiff response even with a reduced hourglass coefficient. ‡ Be careful when importing validated barrier/head models Recommend stiffness hourglass control. IHQ=4. Recommend viscosity-based hourglass control for foams and rubbers (IHQ=2 or 3) or hourglass formulation 6 ‡ In soft materials. LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . define part-specific *HOURGLASS cards to overwrite the global hourglass definitions where appropriate. with hourglass coefficient QM = 0.

‡ Unless additional mass is intentional. Mass of null shells and null beams is included in total mass. set VP=1. Curves will be extrapolated by LS-DYNA if necessary. especially for foams.Modeling Guidelines for Crash Analysis Q Materials Q Q Q Q When including strain rate effects in plasticity models. LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . ‡ Results in smoother response Stress-strain curves should be smooth. set density of null shells and beams to a small value. Curves defining constitutive data should have abscissa values in the anticipated working range. ‡ Uses plastic strain rate rather than total strain rate.

‡ When increasing joint penalty factor to take out µslop¶ in penalty-based joint. Joints ‡ Joint node pairs should be a reasonable distance apart.Modeling Guidelines for Crash Analysis Q Connections Q Q Nodal rigid bodies ‡ Avoid 1-noded RB¶s and nodal rigid bodies with numerically insignificant inertia as these rigid bodies are deleted and a warning is issued to the d3hsp file. the time step scale factor may need to be reduced to avoid instability. LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION .

‡ If _NONLINEAR spring material is used. ‡ Exclude spotwelds from contact (automatic if MAT_SPOTWELD is used) ‡ Invoke stiffness damping in shells if using *CONTACT_SPOTWELD_TORSION ‡ Solid spotwelds show promise. ‡ Look out for spotweld nodes that are not tied (see warnings in d3hsp). Q Deformable spotwelds ‡ Avoid ³free/suspended´ spotwelds.Modeling Guidelines for Crash Analysis Q Connections Q Discrete springs ‡ Spring nodes cannot be massless. ‡ Pro: Less sensitive to spotweld placement ‡ Con: No automatic spotweld generation LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . ‡ Use only N1 to N2 orientation. define stiffness in compression and tension.

those of steel.g.Modeling Guidelines for Crash Analysis Q Rigid Bodies Q Q Q Refined mesh of rigid bodies encouraged. ‡ Added expense is minimal. LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . Impose constraints on card 2 of *MAT_RIGID or using the _SPC option for the *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY command. e. Do not impose constraints on nodes of rigid bodies.. ‡ More realistic mass properties and distribution of contact forces. ‡ Affects contact stiffness unless SOFT=2. Specify reasonable elastic constants for *MAT_RIGID.

Inertia Considerations: Example shells solids LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION .

125 1. ms Number of elements shells 6 24 96 384 1536 solids 1 8 64 512 4096 Element length 25 12.79 12.79 12.39 solids 38.79 12.19 14.19 12.25 3.39 13.MMI: Mass Moment of Inertia units: mm. kg.89 Actual MMI (solid) 12.5625 LS-DYNA calculated MMI shells 38.38 25.5 6.79 12.5% 3.1% 0.79 % Error solids 200% 50% 12.8% LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION .59 21.39 21.38 19.59 22.

LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . *PART_INERTIA. *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION ‡ If initial velocity of rigid bodies is inexplicably off.Modeling Guidelines for Crash Analysis Q Initial Velocity Q Q Be careful with rigid body initial velocities. ‡ There is a hierarchy to the commands that specify initial velocity for rigid bodies: *INITIAL_VELOCITY_RIGID_BODY. Make final check of initial velocity with a plot of velocity vectors at time = 0. turn on consistency flag (CONST=1 in *CONTROL_PARALLEL or ncpu=-|#procs| on execution line). Q Parallel Processing Q For SMP. use double precision or use *INITIAL_VELOCITY_RIGID_BODY command. *INITIAL_VELOCITY with IRIGID flag on.

Use AUTOMATIC_GENERAL for beam-to-beam contact. Use of SOFT=1 is preferred over SOFT=0. Use only AUTOMATIC contacts. Use SOFT=2 for contact surfaces with sharp corners. Q Q Q Q Q Q LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . Premature nodal release from contact may lead to inconsistent answers. especially in treating contact between dissimilar materials.Modeling Guidelines for Crash Analysis Q Contact Q Q Take care to account for shell thickness when generating the mesh. Increase contact thickness for very thin shells Use of IGNORE=1 is encouraged for contact in cases where small initial penetrations are reported. Avoid redundant contact definitions.

Segment-Based Contact (SOFT=2) LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION .

Modeling Guidelines for Crash Analysis Q Postprocessing Q Q Q Animate results to check for nonphysical behavior.0. for example. ‡ Energy ratio should remain close to 1. contact energy in GLSTAT should be relatively small. ‡ If no contact friction. contact energy should be positive and not necessarily small. ‡ If contact friction is nonzero. parts noticeably penetrating other parts. Check energies in GLSTAT and MATSUM ‡ Use *CONTROL_ENERGY to turn on computation of relevant energy values. System added mass should be < 1% of physical mass (check GLSTAT) LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . ‡ Hourglass energy < 10% of peak internal energy.

‡ Material strain rate effects ‡ Material damage/failure/erosion Aerospace materials are generally lighter. stiffer. « LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION .Modeling Guidelines for Aerospace Impact Q Automotive Crash guidelines are a good start. more complex. Differences in Automotive Crash and Aerospace Impact? Q Q Q Q Impact velocities and thus strain rates are higher in Aerospace applications.

E-3 for fluids.7. Bulk Viscosity ‡ Increase bulk viscosity coefficients by a factor of 10 for bird material. LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . Hourglass Control ‡ Look at viscous-based hourglass control as first alternative.Modeling Guidelines for Aerospace Impact Q Additional guidelines for Aerospace impact Q Q Q Time Step ‡ Reduce time step scale factor to 0.6 or 0. ‡ Use type 1 hourglass control with hourglass coefficient=1.

‡ Eroding _single_surface otherwise ‡ Retain mass of eroded elements via ENMASS in *CONTROL_CONTACT Materials ‡ Include strain rate effects if data is available. ‡ Eroding_nodes_to_surface for Lagrangian bird strike (bucket sort after each element deletion). invoke laminate shell theory (LAMSHT in *CONTROL_SHELL). ‡ For sandwich composites. « LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . use *CONTACT_ERODING with SOFT=1.Modeling Guidelines for Aerospace Impact Q Additional guidelines for Aerospace impact Q Q Q Contact ‡ When elements are eroded.

Effect of Deleted Nodes on Contact LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION .