Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) Course

Course Outlines
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: Introduction to GSM. GSM Radio planning. GSM Radio Transmission. GSM Network Elements. Air Interface. Traffic Cases.

GSM

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Chapter 1
Introduction to GSM

GSM 4 . ±Marconi patents complete wireless telegraph system (1897). (1897). ‡ 1838±1866 Telegraphy: Morse perfects his 1838± system. ‡ 1864 Maxwell¶s equations predict Maxwell¶ electromagnetic radiation. ‡ 1887±1907 Wireless telegraphy : 1887± Maxwell¶ ±Heinrich Hertz verifies Maxwell¶s theory.Mobile Communications Evolution. Stein hill finds that the earth can be used for a current path.

‡ 1938±1945 Radar and microwave systems developed during World War II. GSM 5 .‡ 1923±1938 Television: Mechanical imageformation system demonstrated. ‡ 1936 Armstrong¶s paper states the case of frequency modulation (FM) radio. FM used extensively for military communications. field tests and experimental broadcasting begin. ‡ 1937 Alec Reeves conceives pulse code modulation (PCM). DuMont and others perfect vacuum cathode-ray tubes.

± 1985 TACS (Total Access Communication System) in Europe and China. ‡ 1975±1985 High-capacity optical systems developed. GSM 6 .‡ 1968±1969 Digitalization of telephone network begins. ‡ 1980±1985 The first generation(1G) of modern cellular mobile networks put into service. ± 1983 AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) in the United States. But it was all based on analog system: ± 1981 NMT-450 (Nordisk MobilTelefoni ) in Northern Europe. the breakthrough of optical technology and fully integrated switching systems.

GSM became the world's leading and fastest growing mobile standard. ‡ 1992 GSM900 in World Wide. serving more than one in ten of the world's population.6 kbps which is too slow. ‡ Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a secondgeneration digital cellular telephone system.‡ 1985 Standardization for second generation(2G) digital cellular systems is initialized. GSM providing data rates of 9. GSM 7 . ‡ 1993 GSM1800 in Europe. spanning over 174 countries. ‡ 1994 GSM1900 was firstly commercial.

‡ 1999 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
reuses the existing GSM infrastructure to provide higher data rate. It was lunched to increase the data rate to 171.2kbit/s.

‡ 2001 Evolved Data rate for GSM Evolution
(EDGE) offers data rate of 384 kbps by using new modulation scheme(8psk). .

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‡ 1993 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
is a second-generation digital cellular telephone system that was first deployed. ‡ Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) is the marketing name for the 3G has two standardization bodies: 1- 3GPP which uses the W-CDMA technology. 2- 3GPP2 which uses the CDMA2000 technology.
GSM 9

Development of Mobile Communication

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cellular solutions successfully compete with traditional wire line networks and cordless telephones. cellular systems employing digital technology will become the universal method of telecommunication. it represents an increasingly high percentage of all new telephone subscriptions worldwide. In many cases.Mobile Telephony Mobile telecommunication is one of the fastest growing and most demanding of all telecommunication technologies. Currently. GSM 11 . In the future.

Development of GSM Global System for Mobile communication(GSM) is the European digital cellular telecommunications standard. cellular subscribers can use their telephones over the entire GSM service area. GSM provides a common standard. And provides a common standard that means cellular subscribers can use their mobile telephones all over Europe and increasingly throughout the world. GSM 12 .and a Short Message Service (SMS). GSM provides user services such as high-speed data communication. GSM is the current digital mobile telephony standard specified by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) .

The GSM specifications do not specify the actual hardware requirements.GSM Specifications GSM was designed to be platform independent. GSM 13 . At the same time it is possible for operators to buy equipment from different suppliers. This allows hardware designers to be creative in how they provide the functionality. but instead specify the network functions and interfaces in detail.

The GSM recommendations consist of twelve series. GSM 14 .

Chapter 2 GSM Radio planning .

To solve this problem. the cells might be square.Cell Geometry The simplest shape of a cell is to be circular with its transceiver at the center. which will have no any coverage. triangular. or hexagonal shaped. But it is obvious from the following figure that there will be dead spots between the adjacent cells. GSM 16 .

Differentiation between these three shapes will be in order to optimize the number of cells required to cover a given service area against the cell transceiver power. you will find that using hexagonal shaped cells achieves the optimum. where both parameters are functions of the variable ³R´. By some calculations. GSM 17 .

GSM 18 . Hence the actual shape of a cell will be random.The radiation of the transceiver antenna cannot take a hexagonal shape. like large buildings. Usually a coverage area contains obstacles. so the cells will take the form of Overlapping circles in order to overcome the problem of dead spots. which deform the radiation of a cell. The circular shape is the nearest one.

Hence a site consists of three cells at most. Directional or sectorial antenna: with the main lobe of radiation directed to specific area. When using the second type of antennas. GSM 19 .Transceiver Antenna There are two types of antennas that are used: Omni-directional antenna: transmits equally in all directions (360 degrees). each sector is then called a ³cell´. there will be three 120 degree sectorial antennae for each site.

GSM 20 .

due to the problem of time alignment the maximum distance an MS can be from a BTS is 35 km. The carrier-to-reflection (C/R) ratio is defined as the ratio between the direct signal (C) and the reflected signal (R). In reality. Also. GSM 21 . This is the maximum radius of a GSM cell. it is represented as a straight line. the environment will determine this line.The border between the coverage areas of two cells is the set of points at which the signal strength from both antennas is the same. but for simplicity.

a cellular network overcome this constraint and maximizes the number of subscribers that it can service by using frequency re-use. then we can only serve 8 x 60 = 480 Calls if we only use the frequency once. If the GSM900 system has 124 Absolute Radio Frequency Traffic Channels.Frequency Re±use Modern cellular networks are planned using the technique of frequency re-use.Within a cellular network. and if we are using only in our network 60 of them. However. GSM 22 . the number of calls that the network can support is limited by the amount of radio frequencies allocated to that network.

Groups of frequencies can be placed together into patterns of cells called clusters. provided that there is a sufficient geographical distance (the frequency reuse distance) between them so they will not interfere with each other. Since the same frequencies can be used in neighboring clusters. GSM 23 .Frequency re-use means that two radio channels within the same network can use exactly the same pair of frequencies. 4/12 means that there are four three-sector sites supporting twelve cells using twelve frequency groups. A cluster is a group of cells in which all available frequencies have been used once and only once. The re-use patterns recommended for GSM are the 4/12 and the 3/9 pattern.

GSM 24 .

Interference Time domain Frequency domain ISI Fading Time dispersion Co-Channel Adjacent channel interference interference Carrier to reflection interference GSM Time delay 25 .

Signal level (dB) Filter Adjacent channel interference GSM Frequency 26 .Adjacent channel interference: Adjacent frequency (A) that are frequencies shifted 200KHZ from the carrier frequency (C) must be avoided in the same cell and preferably in neighboring cells also.

GSM 27 . the former will interface with the latter leading to the terms interfering frequency (I) and carrier frequency (C) the GSM specification recommends that the carrier to interference (C/I) ratio is greater than 9 decibels (db).Co-Channel interference It is caused by the use of frequency close to the exact same frequency.

GSM 28 . Micro/pico cell: A cell which has a very small radius giving location coverage so it is suitable to be used in a shopping mall or in subway system.Cell Classifications Normal cell: A cell with no other attributes. Macro cell: it is large cell for remote and separately population.small cell. Umbrella cell: A cell can coverage to areas that do not have radio coverage usually the antenna is as high as possible that the cell can fill in the gaps left by the other cells. underlaid cell: A cell that gives coverage only to a part of the whole cell. for population area. Overlaid cell: A cell that gives radio coverage to the whole cell.

The Erlang (E) is a unit of measurement of traffic intensity. GSM Land usage data. Grade Of Service (GOS). The types of data collected are: Cost. . Income level distribution. Telephone usage statistics subscription/call29 charge and price of MSs. and System growth capability The basis for all cell planning is the traffic demand. Speech quality.e. Coverage. It can be calculated with the following formula: A = n x T / 3600 Erlang A = offered traffic from one or more users in the system n = number of calls per hour T = average call time in seconds The geographical distribution of traffic demand can be calculated by the use of demographic data (Population distribution. Available frequencies. how many subscribers use the network and how much traffic they generate. i. Capacity. Car usage distribution.Introduction to cell planning Step 1: Traffic and Coverage Analysis Cell planning begins with traffic and coverage analysis. The analysis should produce information about the geographical area and the expected capacity (traffic load).

The GOS is the percentage of allowed congested calls and defines the quality of the service. If n=1 and T=90 seconds then the traffic per subscriber is: A = 1 x 90 / 3600 = 25mE If the following data exists for a network:: Number of subscribers: 10.000 Available frequencies: 24 Cell pattern: 4/12 GOS: 2% Traffic per subscriber: 25mE GSM 30 .Calculation of required number of BTS¶s To determine the number and layout of BTS¶s the number of subscribers and the Grade Of Service (GOS) have to be known.

2E / 25mE = 328 subscribers per cell If there are 10.000 / 328 = 30 cells. the number of three sector sites needed is 30 / 3 = 10 GSM 31 .2 (control channels) =14 TCH Traffic per cell = 14 TCH with a 2% GOS implies 8. Therefore.000 subscribers then the number of cells needed is 10.This leads to the following calculations: Frequencies per cell = 24 / 12 = 2 Traffic channels per cell = 2 x 8 .2 Erlangs per cell (see the above Erlang table) The number of subscribers per cell = 8.

co-channel interference predictions and Adjacent channel interference predictions. GSM 32 . providing coverage predictions. Nominal cell plans are the first cell plans and form the basis for further planning. composite coverage synthesis. -The site could be analyzed with a carrier±to±reflection ratio (C/R) prediction tool. TEst Mobile System (TEMS) CellPlanner. TEMS cell planner is a software package designed to simplify the process of planning and optimizing a cellular network. If there are doubts about the risks of time dispersion at a particular site the following steps could be taken: -The site location could be changed.Step 2:Nominal Cell Plan A nominal cell plan can be produced from the data compiled from traffic and coverage analysis. includes a prediction package. -The site could be measured with respect to time dispersion. With TEMS CellPlanner. The nominal cell plan is a graphical representation of the network and looks like a cell pattern on a map.

As the name implies.Step 3: Surveys Once a nominal cell plan has been completed and basic coverage and interference predictions are available. TRC and MSC/VLR can be adjusted and the final cell plan produced. this plan can then be used for system installation. dimensioning of the BSC. New coverage and interference predictions are run at this stage. resulting in Cell Design Data (CDD) documents containing cell parameters for each cell. GSM 33 . Step 4: System Design Once the planning parameters have been adjusted to match the actual measurements. site surveys and radio measurements can be performed.

if necessary. It involves:Checking that the final cell plan was implemented successfully Evaluating customer complains Checking that the network performance is acceptable Changing parameters and taking other measurements. starting with a new traffic and coverage analysis. a new building). it is continuously monitored to determine how well it meets demand. If the network needs to be expanded because of an increase in traffic or because of a change in the environment (e. Step 7: System Growth and Change Cell planning is an ongoing process. then the operator must perform the cell planning process again. GSM 34 . This is called system tuning.g.Step 5&6: System Implementation and Tuning Once the system has been installed.

Chapter 3 GSM Radio Transmission .

Advantage:Digital Advantage:Digital signal can be completely regenerated as anew without the distortion. Digital information: It is a set of discrete values. GSM 36 .Analog and digital Transmission Analog information: It is continuous and does not stop at discrete values. However the more often the samples are taken the closer the resulting digital values will be to a true representation of the analog information. The problem with using digital signals to transfer Analog information is that some information will be missing due to the technique of taking samples.

The presence of just two values in the digital system makes It most efficient in error detection and detection and offers high signal to noise ratio Than analog systems. GSM 37 .Analog amplification In analog amplifying the signal amplifies the noise Digital amplification In digital system.zero and one.a sharp value could be assigned to distinguish between just to values.

duration. A wave is defined by: Wave length:represent the distance traveled length:represent by the wave to move one complete cycle.which consist of electromagnetic energy.generally speaking. Speed=wave length/time of one cycle= / = *f GSM 38 .Wave properties A MS communication with a BTS by transmitting or receiving radio waves. Frequency:number Frequency:number of cycle per second. This complete cycle called cycle duration.

3 x 10^8 m/s. Thus. are better suited to transmission over large distances. x f = 3 x 10^8 m/s. no other phenomena move in a speed faster than the speed of light.1 Sec Time T Frequency of wave All Electromagnetic waves travel in air with a fixed speed equal to the speed of light. the shorter the wavelength Lower frequencies. From this formula it can be determined that the higher the frequency. with longer wavelengths. GSM 39 because they bounce on the surface of the earth and in the atmosphere. for any electromagnetic wave. .

These waves are extremely low power waves that can¶t propagate for a long distance by itself. GSM 40 . which suits the transmission requirements and is capable to travel longer distances. This is rather low bit-rate but acceptable as the channel used has high interference level in the air. The output from the modulation process is named the modulated signal. To overcome this fact. Modulation:is done in GSM via Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK).3 bit/s per Hz.Modulation Techniques Audio waves ranges between 3 and 15 kHz. The carrier that will modulate the voice is called the modulating wave. GMSK enables the transmission of 270kbit/s within a 200kHz channel. This gives a bit-rate of 1. the weak audio signal is carried over a carrier frequency.

The GMSK modulation has been chosen as a compromise between spectrum efficiency. complexity and low spurious radiations (that reduce the possibilities of adjacent channel interference) GSM 41 .

80 MHz apart. Access method:GSM utilizes the time division multiple access (TDMA) concept. A channel has two frequencies. In GSM. Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. GSM 42 . this is 200 kHz. TDMA is a technique in which several different calls may share the same carrier. Each call is assigned a particular time slot.channel separation:The separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. Duplex distance: The duplex distance is 80 MHz.

The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate. (890Downlink Band (935-960 MHz). The signal passes through this filter. Frequency band: Uplink Band (890-915 MHz ).Speech coder: GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). GSM data rate is 9. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the vocal tract. (935GSM 43 . Speech is encoded at 13 kbps.6 Kb/s. leaving behind a residual signal.

Uplink and Downlink Uplink High transmitted power Down link MS 44 GSM .

e. i. Channel types GSM 45 .Frequency allocation The Bandwidth is the term used to describe the amount of frequency range allocated to one application. The bandwidth given to an application depends on the amount of available frequency spectrum. The amount of bandwidth available is an important factor in determining the capacity of a mobile system. the number of calls that can be handled.

a TDMA frame consists of 8 time slots. With TDMA.each call using that carrier at designated periods in time. These periods of time are referred to as time slots. one carrier is used to carry a number of calls. In GSM. Each MS on a call is assigned one time slot on the uplink frequency and one on the downlink frequency. GSM 46 . Information sent during one time slot is called a burst. This means that a GSM radio carrier can carry 8 calls. The total bit rate on one channel is equal to 270 Kbit/s.Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Most digital cellular systems use the technique of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to transmit and receive speech signals.

The time duration for every time slot equals 0. the time duration for the whole TDMA frame equals 0.577 x 8 =4. GSM 47 .577 ms.75 Kbit/s.616 ms.and hence the bit rate for every subscriber will be 270/8=33.Hence.

1-Shadowing (Normal fading) Fading means that the signal strength received fluctuates around a mean value while changing the mobile position.Radio transmission problems A mobile communication environment suffers from many problems related to radio transmission. GSM 48 . We will now discuss the most important problems and their solutions. which may cause unacceptable degradation of the service quality. The reason for shadowing is the presence of obstacles like large buildings or hills in the path between the site and the mobile.

The fading margin is defined as the difference between the mean value of the received signal and the receiver sensitivity. GSM 49 . the fading margin should be large enough that the lowest fading dip is still higher than the receiver sensitivity. To overcome the fading problems.Solution to Normal Fading Problem: Increasing the Fading Margin The receiver sensitivity is defined as the lowest received signal strength required to regenerate the original signal properly.

Rather. it is reflected off buildings.2-Multi-path Fading(Rayleigh fading) This occurs when a signal takes more than one path between the MS and BTS antennas. and is received from several different indirect paths. Rayleigh fading occurs when the obstacles are close to the receiving antenna. the signal is not received on a line of sight path directly from the TX antenna. In this case. for example. The received signal is the sum of many identical signals that differ only in phase (and to some extent amplitude) GSM 50 .

(B) Frequency Diversity (Hopping) During conversation. and they will receive radio signals independently. The fading effect may not be the same for all of the frequencies.Solutions to Rayleigh Fading Problem (A) Antenna (Space) Diversity The cell transceiver will use two receiving antennas instead on one. GSM 51 . so the time slot of the subscriber will jump or ³hop´ between the frequencies of the cell when it is repeated in each TDMA frame. so they will be affected differently by the fading dips and the better signal received will be selected. a mobile subscriber is allocated one TDMA time slot on one of the RF carriers assigned to its serving cell. A distance of about 5 meters will separate them.

3-Time Dispersion Time dispersion is another problem relating to multiple paths to the Rx antenna of either an MS or BTS. However. t GSM 52 R-Signal 1 . the reflected signal comes from an object far away from the Rx antenna. in contrast to Rayleigh fading. Time dispersion causes Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) where consecutive symbols (bits) interfere with each other making it difficult for the receiver to determine which Signal 1 symbol is the correct one.

Solutions to Time Dispersion Problem (A) Increase Carrier to reflection Ratio (C/R) The C/R ratio is defined as the difference in signal strength between the signal received from the RBS and the strongest reflected signal. GSM 53 . Then a probable transmitted bit sequence is fed to the channel model and the output is compared with the received bits until reaching the most probable bit sequence. A bit pattern called the Training Sequence that is known to the mobile is transmitted with every burst. The equalizer compares the received pattern with the expected one and creates a mathematical model of the channel that probably caused the difference between the two patterns. Its value depends on the relative position of the mobile subscriber. (B) Viterbi Equalizer This is an equalizer used to equalize the effect of at most four bits delay. The pattern is inserted in the middle of the burst to make sure that the channel has steady characteristics.

GSM 54 .

4-Time Delay Each MS on a call is allocated a time slot on a TDMA frame. Solution to time delay problem (A) Timing Advance Timing advance is a solution specifically designed to counteract the problem of time alignment. that part may arrive during the next time slot. The time alignment problem occurs when part of the information transmitted by an MS does not arrive within the allocated time slot. A large distance between the MS and the BTS causes time alignment. GSM 55 . and may interfere with information from another MS using that other time slot. This is an amount of time during which the MS transmits information to the BTS. It works by instructing the misaligned MS to transmit its burst earlier or later than it normally would. The information must also arrive at the BTS within that time slot. Instead.

Interleaving. Channel coding. Quantization. Stages are: Sampling. Burst Formatting. 7. 8. Segmentation and Speech coding. 9. Ciphering/Encryption. 4. Modulation and transmission. 2. Coding. 3. 6. GSM 56 1. 5.GSM radio transmission process Converting speech into the final bit stream that will be transmitted over the air interface in GSM system goes through more than one stage. .

Chapter 4 GSM Network Elements .

2-Base Station System (BSS). (B)The GSM network is divided into there systems: 1-Network Switching System (NSS).(A) Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Station is divided into two independent part: 1-Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card. 2-Mobile Equipment (ME). GSM 58 . 3-The operations and maintenance center (OMC).

advice of charge GSM phase 1 SIMs contain all necessary network control information. -Temporary network data: e. which: contains a microprocessor and a memory.(A) Mobile Station (MS) 1-Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card A SIM card is an electronic smart card. GSM 59 . authentication key and security algorithms. while phase 2 SIMs include a large number of extra features such as a language identifier and a preferred language option. IMSI. Two physical types of SIMs are: the´ID-1 SIM´ and the ´Plugin SIM´. The SIM stores three types of subscriber related information: -Fixed data stored before the subscription is sold: e. the location area of the subscriber and forbidden PLMNs.g. language preference.g.g. -Service data: e.

MNC = Mobile Network Code.International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the number that identifies the mobile subscriber on the radio path and through the GSM network. Examples of two IMSI¶s are shown below and as can be seen they are in 3 parts. GSM 60 . IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN MCC = Mobile Country Code. as well as in the network. MSIN = Mobile Station Identification Number. This identity is stored in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).

In GSM 900 the MSISDN is composed of: MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN 0020 010 1234567 Country Code ( CC ) Network Code (NC) GSM Subscriber Number (SN) 61 . Therefore every GSM telephone number in the world must be unique.Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN) The Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Network (MSISDN) number is the directory number that shall be dialed from anywhere in the world to reach a particular subscriber.

or the MS itself. GSM 62 . any other MS.2-Mobile Equipment (ME) MS features are defined as mandatory or optional. The choice of implementing optional features is left up to the manufacturers. Manufacturers are responsible for ensuring that the MS features neither conflict with the air interface nor interfere with the network. Mandatory features must be implemented as long as they pertain to the MS type.

Communication with HLR.Network Switching System (NSS) The Switching System consists of: (a)-Mobile Switching Center (MSC) The primary node in a GSM network is the MSC. which controls calls both to MS¶s and from MS¶s. It is the node. GSM 63 . Control of connected BSC¶s. Communication with the VLR. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ supervision and release and may interact with other nodes to successfully establish a call. Direct access to Internet services. Digit Analysis tables are thus loaded to the MSC. The primary functions of an MSC include the following: ‡ Switching and call routing: A MSC controls call set-up. Communication with other MSC¶s.(B) The GSM network is divided into there systems: 1. Service provisioning: the SMS service is handled by MSC¶s.

(c)-Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is a centralized network database that stores and manages all mobile subscriptions belonging to a specific operator. Each subscriber record contains a substantial amount of parameters such as the IMSI. GSM 64 . The primary functions of the HLR include Subscription database management: as a database. Supplementary services are also assigned to each subscriber s profile. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC. The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. MSISDN and AMSISDN numbers.(b)-Gateway Mobile Switching Center (GMSC) A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. the HLR must be able to process data quickly in response to data retrieval and update requests.

.Supplementary service information (e.Activity of MS (e.(d)-Visitor Location Register (VLR) The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers.Identity numbers for the subscriber.g. Does the subscriber has call waiting activated or not).Current Location Area of MS. GSM 65 . including the following information: . . The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR then the VLR contains a complete copy of the necessary subscription details. . idle or busy). When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area.g.

A non predictable RANDom number (RAND). 3. A Signed RESponse (SRES). GSM 66 . The AUC is a database connected to the HLR. The information provided by the AUC to ensure authentication processing is called a triplet and consists of: 1. which provides it with the authentication parameters. because of the Appearance of cloning cases (Cracked SIM cards) first occurred in the United States in 1998.(e)-Authentication Center (AUC) PLMN s need a higher level of protection than traditional telecommunication networks. 2. A ciphering Key (Kc). and ciphering keys used by the MSC/VLR to authenticate.

An MS can only decipher information intended for it. the network ensures that no unauthorized users can access the network. the following security functions have been defined: [I] Subscriber authentication: by performing authentication. GSM 67 . including those that are attempting to impersonate others. [ ] Radio information ciphering: the information sent between the network and an MS is ciphered.To protect GSM systems.

. GSM 68 . The signature SRES is sent back to MSC/VLR. The MS computes the signature SRES using RAND and the subscriber authentication key (Ki) through the A3 algorithm.Each call setup attempt. The MS computes the Kc by using Ki and RAND through A8 algorithm. Kc will thereafter be used for ciphering and deciphering in MS. which performs authentication. If so the subscriber is permitted to use the network. If not.[I] Authentication Procedure 1. the subscriber is barred from network access. The MSC/VLR transmits the RAND to the MS. . Authentication can by operator¶s choice be performed during: . 3. by checking whether. .Location updating.Before supplementary service activation and deactivation. 4. 2.Each registration. the SRES from the MS and the SRES from the AUC match.

1. In order to test the ciphering procedure some sample of information must be used. 4. The same applies in the directionGSM from the BTS to the MS. A ciphering sequence is produced using Kc and the TDMA frame number as inputs in the encryption algorithm A5. 5. A5. which are fed through the encryption algorithm. 2.[ ] Ciphering Procedure Means that user information and signaling exchanged between BTS s and MS s is not disclosed to unauthorized individuals. 69 . If the decryption of data was successful. Kc is sent from the MSC/VLR to the BTS. the TDMA frame number and the decryption algorithm. A5. For this purpose the actual ciphering mode command (M) is used. the ciphering mode completed message is sent to the MSC. The purpose of this is to ensure privacy concerning user information (speech and data) as well as user related signaling elements. Encrypted Message is decrypted in the BTS using Kc. 3. All information over the air interface is ciphered from this point on. Data is encrypted using Kc (calculated earlier with SRES in the authentication procedure) and the TDMA frame number. The encrypted message is sent to the BTS. 6.

4. On reception of IMEI. This ensures. The equipment identification procedure uses the identity of the equipment itself (IMEI) to ensure that the MS terminal equipment is valid. A black list which contains all equipment identities that has been barred. that a mobile terminal. MSC/VLR sends IMEI to EIR. the EIR examines three lists: A white list which contains all number series of all equipment identities that have been allocated in the different participating GSM countries.g. is not able to access the network. 1. which has been stolen. The MSC/VLR requests the IMEI from the MS. A gray list (on operator level) which contains faulty or non ± GSM 70 approved mobile equipment. 2. 3. . MS sends IMEI to MSC. e.(F)-Equipment Identification Register (EIR) It is necessary to have a separate authentication process for the MS equipment.

6 kbits/s.(g)-Data Transmission Inter-working (DTI) The DTI implements the GSM Inter-Working Function (IWF).or 4 time slots on one radio channel each carrying 9. Data Traffic to/from PDNs: the DTI handles data traffic to and from Public Data Networks (PDNs) such as the Packet Switched PDN (PSPDN) and Circuit Switched PDN (CSPDN). GSM 71 . Data Traffic between mobiles. HSCSD: this version of High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) allows the connection of 2. It performs data handling functions such as data rate conversion and provides the functions necessary for data inter-working between GSM networks and other networks. 3. Data Traffic to/from ISDN. including: Data Traffic to/from PSTN: this involves modem and fax calls.

4kbits/s. Non-transparent: in contrast with transparent connections.HSCSD supports the following types of data transmission connections: Transparent: by adding error correction bits to the basic data. the basic data rate is restricted to a maximum of 38. GSM 72 . a more reliable connection is ensured. However.up to 48kbits/s. this form does not add information to the basic data and is therefore less reliable. However. higher basic data rates are possible .

meaning that a short message can not be sent between two SMEs residing outside a GSM network. -SMS Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) text messages. A calling party can record a voice message for the subscriber they are calling. For MS¶s that support fax. a subscriber can set diversion for all or some fax calls to a fax mailbox.(h)-Message Center (MC) An MC may be added to a GSM network to provide one or more of the following messaging services: -Voice mail. A short message always originates or terminates in a GSM network. Fax mail operates similarly to voice mail. The SMSCB service enables a message of up to 93 alphanumeric characters to be delivered to all attached MS¶s in one cell (a hospital or police station). the network will deliver the fax message to a fax machine identified by the MS. Voice mail ensures that all calls to a person can be completed. A short text message consists of up 160 alphanumeric characters. -Fax mail. When the MS is next attached to the network. even when a person does not answer calls. entered at a Short Message Entity (SME) such as an MS (using the keypad) or computer terminal. GSM 73 . -Short Message Service (SMS) text messages.

2-Base Station System (BSS) The Base Station System (BSS) is responsible for all the radio-related functions in the system. (a)-Base Station Controller (BSC) The BSC is the central node within a BSS and co-ordinates the actions of Base Stations. GSM 74 ‡ Internal BSC Operation and Maintenance.8 Kbit/s and 64 Kbit/s respectively. ‡ TRC Handling: The TRC provides the BSS with rate adaptation capabilities. which performs rate adaptation is called a transcoder. This is necessary because the rate used over the air interface and that used by MSC/VLRs are different 33. . The main functional areas of the BSC are: ‡ Radio Network Management. The BSC controls a major part of the radio network. ‡ Handling of MS connections. A device. ‡ BTS Management. ‡ Transmission Network Management.

Synchronization. Radio transmission. This includes the following tasks: Configuration and system start. Signal processing. Radio reception.(b)-Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Radio Resources: A BTS s main function is to provide connection with the MSs over the air interface. GSM 75 .

Chapter 5 Air Interface .

These messages are called logical channel. channel For example on one of the physical channels used for traffic.Physical Channel and Logical Channels GSM band is divided into 124 RF channels. GSM 77 . the traffic itself is transmitted using a traffic channel (TCH) message. and each channel is divided into 8 time slots using TDMA each time slot is called (Physical Channel). A physical channel may carry different messages.

GSM 78 .

Traffic channels are thus UP link and down link . it uses the traffic channel (TCH) logical channel. 1-Traffic Channel (TCH) Once call set up procedures have been completed on the control physical channel. There are two types of TCH: Full Rate : Transmits full rate speech (13Kbps) .5Kbps) Two Half rate TCH occupies one physical channel. A Full rate TCH occupies one physical channel. Half Rate :Transmits half rate speech (6. the MS tunes to a traffic physical channel.Logical channels can carry traffic or control message. GSM 79 . Those doubling the capacity of call.

( FCCH . CBCH) B. ( SDCCH . BCCH . AGCH ) C.2-Control Channels (CCH) The control channel are divided into three types there are : A.Common Control Channel EX.Broadcast channel EX. FACCH ) The following table indicate them in details : GSM 80 .Dedicated channel EX. ( PCH . SCH . SACCH . RACH .

GSM 81 .

GSM 82 .

1.SACCH.AGCH.PCH. We have 5 kinds of Burst.Normal Burst This type is used to carry the information of the traffic channels and the control channels BCCH. GSM 83 . except RACH.CBCCH and FACCH.TDMA Burst Structure The Burst Structure differs according to the type of information transmitted on the TDMA time slot. RACH.SDCCH.

The subscriber speech or data is encrypted into 57 bit blocks ,Each burst will contain two 57 bits blocks from different speech segments. One bits stealing flag will be added to each block indicate whether the burst is stolen for the FACCH signaling or used as a normal traffic channel. The training sequence is inserted in the middle of the burst to help the viterbi equalizer to create the channel model. The tail bits help the equalizer to determine the start and the stop of the transmitted bits ,they are 3 bits and they are always zeros. The guard period of 8.25 length which is equivalent to about 30 µs,it left at the end of each burst to prevent overlapping between consecutive burst And to facilitate burst synchronization.
GSM 84

2- Frequency Burst This is the one used by the channel FCH for frequency correction of the mobile. It consists of a long sequence of bits called the fixed bits which are all equal to zeros, leading to a constant frequency o/p from the GMSK modulator.

GSM

85

3- Synchronization Burst
Consecutive TDMA frames follow a cyclic numbering scheme in which each frame is numbered from 0 to 2715647. one cycle will then take about 2715647. 3.5 hours and it is called a µHyper frame¶ the TDMA frame number is frame¶ used by the mobile to (1) determine which control channel will be transmitted on that frame.(2) it is used also as one of the input frame. parameters to the algorithm that calculates the ciphering key Kc.

The SCH burst consists of a long synchronization sequence along with the important information being encrypted and divided into two blocks. This synchronization sequence is to make it easier for the mobile to recognize this channel.
GSM 86

mobile sends this burst when it does not know the distance to its serving BTS.which is the case when the mobile is switched on or after it makes a handover to a new cell. GSM 87 .Access Burst The Access Burst is used by the RACH channel. The channel.4.

Dummy Burst The dummy burst is sent from the BTS when there is nothing else to be sent.5. GSM 88 . It carries no information and it has the same structure of a normal burst with the encrypted bits replaced by a known bit pattern to the mobile.

more than one logical channel will be made to occupy the same physical time slot alternatively. for example a BCCH is sent on time slot 0 in one TDMA frame and a PCH will be sent on the same time slot in the next frame. Channels´ GSM 89 .Mapping of Logical Channels onto Physical Time Slots It will not be suitable to dedicate one physical channel time slot to each logical channel instead of that. This concept is called ³Mapping of logical Channels´.

GSM 90 .Mapping of Logical Channels onto time slot 0 (Downlink) Time Slot 0 on one of the carrier frequencies allocated to the cell is reserved for Logical Control Channel.

22.21. Multi-frame´ GSM 91   .8.31 &41 11.    FCH is sent on time slot 0 in frame number 1.11. the cycle will be repeated this cycle takes a time slot of 51 TDMA frames and is called a ³ Multi-frame´ .4. Idle channel is sent on time slot 0 in frame number 51. After that.32 &42 12. 50 .33 Up to 40 . 51.22.5 & 6 AGCH or PCH is sent on time slot 0 in frame number 7.13 up to 20 .12.9.21. BCCH is sent on time slot 0 in frame number 3. SCH is sent on time slot 0 in frame number 2.and 43 up to 10.23 up to 30 .10.

Mapping of Logical Channels onto time slot 0(Uplink) Time slot 0 the uplink direction is reserved for RAACH to make random access to the system. GSM 92 .

Mapping of Logical Channels onto time slot 1(Downlink) Time slot 1 on the lowest carrier frequency also is reserved for dedicated control channels SDCCH and SACCH. Thus we can have 8 SDCCH channel from D0 to D7 by using time slot 1 in the first 32 framers. The mapping is performed in the following manner : Subscriber signaling on an SDCCH requires 4 consecutive bursts. It is possible to have 8 SDCCH channels and 8 SACCH channels mapped onto time slot 1. so time slot 1 in frames number 1 up to 4 will be used to send the SDCCH for one subscriber (D0). GSM 93 . SACCH.

Signaling on SACCH requires also 4 consecutive bursts. we will have 8 SDCCH frame. Time slot 1 in the next 16 frames is used to obtain 4 SACCH channels from A0 to A3. In the other half of the multi frame. A7 GSM 94 . A0 A3 Three idle channel are sent on time slot 1 in the next three frames to complete half a multi frame (the multi-frame in multithis case consists of 102 TDMA frames). bursts. channel from D0 to D7 again and 4 SACCH channel from D0 D7 A4 to A7.

So the uplink multi frame is delayed by a period equivalent to 15 TDMA frames.Mapping of Logical Channels onto time slot 1 (Uplink) On time 1 in the uplink direction . GSM 95 .the mobile will reply to the BTS using a multi-frame having the same structure as that used in downlink direction. The mobile needs some time to calculate its answers to the signaling sent from the BTS.

are occupied by the control channels. GSM 96 . There are 26 timeslots in all. I (IDLE): Normally .every timeslot in every TDMA-frame contains information about the mobile allocated to that timeslot . A (SACCH): This contains the control signaling . the conversion.an example of this is an order to change output power.Logical channels Mapped into other timeslot Time slot 0 and time slot 1 up and down link.where nothing is sent . T (TCH): This contains encoded speech or data. This leaves TS 2-7 Free for use as traffic channel.the one exception is the IDLE one .this is used by the mobile to gain certain traffic measurements . After the IDLE TS the sequence starts all over again. channel.

Between the time. The only difference is an offset in time. The offset is three time slots. GSM 97 .The structure of the traffic time slots is identical in both directions. associated uplink and downlink frequencies there is always 45MHZ µduplex 45MHZ distance¶ distance¶ this means that the mobile does not have to transmit and receive at the same time.

TDMA Frame Structure GSM 98 .

SAACH and multiFAACH .this multi26 of these multi-frame form GSMsuper-frame. multia super99 . The chosen number is 2715648 which corresponding to (( 3h 28 mm 53s and 760 ms )) this structure is called Hyper-frame 53s HyperOne hyper -frame is then subdivided into 2048 super-frame super. multiThere are two types of them : The first is type a 26-frame multi-frame containing 26 TDMA 26multiframes This multi-frame is used to carry TCH .12 s .Therefore the BTS must number the frame in a cyclic pattern and there must be a point when the counter returns to zero .the super-frame itself is supersubdivided into multi-frames . .which have duration of 6.51 of these multi-frame form a super-frame multisuperThe second type is a 51-frame multi-frame containing 51 TDMA 51multiframes .this multi-frames is used to carry BCH and CCCH .We have previously seen in TDMA frame is used during the encryption process .

Chapter 6 Traffic Cases .

the subscriber is tied all the time to the switch providing the telephony service.the system . GSM 101 . In mobile network .Different Types of Traffic Cases In fixed network .designed to release the switch ties .the should know where is the subscriber now in order to deliver the call to him . When a call comes to a subscriber .this doesn¶t apply. The wires will never be disconnected from his serving switch and go connected to another switch .at least through his network without feeling any problem. A subscriber is free to roam .

Also the system must be aware if the subscriber goes out of coverage or if he closes the mobile .the system shouldn¶t drop his call and must guarantee its continuity.Handover. All the above leads us to study and specify different types of traffic cases a subscriber may be subjected to.Mobile terminated call. 4. Generally to. the system must handover the call to a cell covering the new location. GSM 102 .Mobile originated call.Location Update. 3. speaking .Also if the subscriber is making call and moving by his mobile station from one location to another .This will make the system more efficient as it will not try to deliver the call although the subscriber is not ready to receive it. traffic cases may be divided to : 1. 2.

Location Update Actually . GSM 103 . huge paging messages. To fulfill this aim . An extreme is never to make a location update and to be paged in the entire network. This will cause network. The HLR will now know the exact cell cell.one can say that we may update the call ID each time the subscriber changes his serving cell.1.the location update process is invited in aim to exactly identify your location within the network so that any incoming call goes directly to the called subscriber.This will result in a huge amount of location update message. messages. you are roaming in .

Each group of cells in the same BSC is assigned a universal unique location area identity . GSM 104 . A subscriber should now inform the network each time he changes his location area so that when a call comes to him the system will search for him in the area covered by the cells forming the location area he is present in.Introducing the concept of location area enables us to make an approximate estimation of your location.We can summarize the previously mentioned facts as following : Location area is a part of the MSC/VLR coverage area.

GSM 105 .

GSM 106 . the LAI contains the following : LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC MCC : Mobile Country Code MNC : Mobile Network Code LAC : Location Area Code The maximum length of LAC is 16 bits. enabling 65536 bits.The LAI for paging indicates to the MCS in which location area the mobile station is operating it is also used for location update of the mobile subscribers. different location areas to be defined in one PLMN .

GSM 107 .Types of location update 1-Normal Location Update. Changing the MSC coverage area within the same PLMN. 2-IMSI Detach and IMSI Attach. Changing the Cell within the same location area. Changing the location area within the same MSC coverage area. 3-Periodic Location Update.

The BCCH broadcasts the cell¶s LAI.1-Normal Location Update. The MS knows that the new cell belongs to the same LA by listing to the BCCH in the new cell.If an MS changes cells within a LA . GSM 108 .it means that the MS has not changed LA¶s and doesn't need inform the network.If .The MS location information stored in the VLR is the LA . If they are the same .the network isn¶t updated. Changing the Cell within the same location area: area: MS¶s are constantly moving around in the cellular network .

4-The MSC/VLR updates its location information of that subscriber and sends a ³location updating confirmation ³ message on the SDCCH channel to the mobile and the SDCCH channel is released.Changing the location area within the same MSC coverage area : 1-The Mobile sends an ³SDCCH Allocation request³ message on the RACCH CHANNEL to the BTS. GSM 109 . 3-The mobile sends a ³ location update request ³ message along with its IMSI on the allocated SDCCH channel to the MSC/VLR . 2-The BTS responds with the ³ SDCCH Allocation´ message on the AGCH channel .

it sends a request to the subscriber¶s HLR for a copy of the MS-subscription.Changing the MSC coverage area within the same PLMN: 1. the VLR checks its database to determine whether or not it has a record for this MS-subscription. MS3.The HLR passes the information to the VLR and updates its location information for the subscriber . GSM 110 . MS2.The VLR sends acknowledgement to the MS .Authentication is performed. If authentication is successful.The VLR stores its subscription information for the MS including the latest location and status ( idle ).the HLR instructs the old VLR to delete the information it has about the MS-subscription . MS4. performed.When the VLR finds no record for the MS .

so that all the incoming calls to the MS will be rejected . IMSI Detach: In The system information broadcast on the control channel (BCCH) .the MS should inform the network .the MS receives information on whether the IMSI attach/detach is used or not . The benefit of using IMSI detach is the reduction of paging message sent to a switched off mobile. If it is used . GSM 111 .2-IMSI Detach and IMSI Attach.the when it is entering an inactive state (switched off).

Implicitly Detached.MS Purged. 2.There types of detached subscribers are present: 1. GSM 112 .Power off mobile. 3.

.MS sends an IMSI detach message to it¶s the serving MSC/VLR. the system might not be able to decode the information. channel.on the SDCCH .Implicitly Detached: If the MS sends an IMSI detach message to the system and the radio link quality is poor.The VLR then performs GSM 113 an implicit detach . 3.1. If periodic registration is in use .In the VLR . . no further attempt is made .At power off the MS requests an SDCCH signaling channel.an IMSI detach flag is set for that subscriber.In this case .an 2.Power off mobile: 1.the system will soon determine that the MS is detached .the system still regards the MS as attached. 2.marking the MS as detached . Because no acknowledgement is sent to the MS.

3-MS purging: MS purging is used to inform the HLR that the VLR is about to remove the subscriber record from the VLR. This save unnecessary network signaling and database lookup GSM 114 . The HLR then sets the MS purged flag and treats the subscriber as un reachable .

If MS purging isn¶t used when a caller make a call to the MS .the subscriber is not active.For example . GSM 115 .the subscriber travels back to the UK .an UK MS travels to Australia and performs a location update in an MSC/VLR in Australia . Later .the HLR identifies the MS as unreachable and doesn¶t contact the Australian MSC/VLR.the MSC/VLR then informs the HLR that the subscriber is unreachable. If MS purging is used the UK subscriber¶s record will have been purged from the Australian MSC/VLR .the HLR identifies the MS as registered in Australian MSC/VLR and routes the call to it .During this period . when a call is made to the subscriber .which takes some time .

IMSI Attach This is performed by the MS to inform the network that it has re-entered an active state (switched on).VLR returns an acknowledgement to the MS . the same location area as it was before.MS sends an IMSI attach message to the serving MSC/VLR 3. GSM 116 .so the mobile is ready for normal call handling .MS requests allocation of an SDCCH . a normal location update is performed. 1. 4.and it is still in reon). 2.The MSC/VLR removes the IMSI detach flag . If the MS changes it location area while being switched off.on the SDCCH .

Periodic Location Updating is used if the MS doesn¶t perform any kind of location updating in a certain period so the network forces the MS to update its location information. GSM 117 .the MS is told how frequently it is required to register itself .if the parameters value is set to zero .3-Periodic Location Update.the MS receives information in whether periodic registration is used .periodic location update will not be used in the cell. The period between two consecutive registration is set up by the operator using a certain cell parameters . On the BCCH .If it is used .

This process depends on timers in both MS and MSC.then after another interval of safety . When the MS timer expires .the MS is forced to perform a location updating .the MSC marks this MS as Implicitly detached (probably out of coverage) GSM 118 . If the MS doesn¶t perform a location update after the specified period expires . and then the timers in both MS and MSC/VLR restart .

BSC is responsible for the decide of .and report this measurements to its serving BTS . During call setup and conversation .while adds its own measurements on the signal strength received from the mobile and sends them to the BSC .the MS performs measurements on the transmission quality of the neighboring cells .This process is called (HANDOVER). GSM 119 .BSC the handover.the network should keep the continuity of this call .Handover When a mobile subscribers moves from one cell to another while he is in a call .

There are four different handover cases: Intra cell : Handover between 2 traffic channels in the same cell. Intra BSC : Handover between 2 cells belonging to the same BSC. Inter BSC / Intra MSC : Handover between 2 cells belonging to different BSCs but to the same MSC. Inter MSC : Handover between 2 cells belonging to different BSCs and different MSCs.
GSM 120

Mobile Terminated Call 1- The PSTN subscriber keys in the MS¶s telephone number
(MSISDN) .the MSISDN is analyzed in the PSTN ,which identifies that this is a call to a mobile network subscriber .A connection is established to the MS¶s home GMSC. 2- the GMSC analyzes the MSISDN to find out which HLR the MS is registered in ,and queries the HLR for information about how to route the call to the serving MSC/VLR. 3-The HLR translates MSISDN into IMSI ,and determines which MSC/VLR is currently serving the MS .The HLR also checks if the service ,´Call forwarding to C- number ³is Cactivated ,if so, the call is rerouted by the GMSC to that number.
GSM 121

4- The HLR requests an MSRN from the serving MSC/VLR. 5- the MSC/VLR returns an MSRN via HLR to the GMSC. 6- the GMSC analyses the MSRN and routes the call to the MSC/VLR. 7- the MSC/VLR knows which LA the MS is located in .A paging message is sent to the BSC¶s controlling the LA. 8-The BSC¶s distribute the paging message to the BTSs in the desired LA .The BTSs transmit the message over the air interface using PCH .To page the MS ,the network uses an IMSI or TMSI valid only in the current MSC/VLR service area . 9- When the MS detects the paging message ,it sends a request on RACH for a SDCCH . 1010- The BSC provides a SDCCH ,using AGCH 1111- SDCCH is used for the call set-up procedures .Over setSDCCH all signaling preceding a call takes place. GSM 122 This includes:

the connection. The BTS and MS are told to tune to the TCH.The MSC/VLR instructs the BSC/TRC to allocate an idle TCH.The authentication procedure. GSM 123 . 1616.Start ciphering.If the subscriber answers.Equipment identification. 1313. 1414.1212.Marking the MS as ³active´ in the VLR. The mobile phone rings . 1515.

GSM 124 .

Mobile Originated Call 1. .Checking if the subscriber has the service³ Barring of outgoing calls ³ activated. This includes : .The MS uses RACH to ask for a signaling channel.Sending the B-subscriber¶s number to the network. B.using AGCH. .Start ciphering. 3.over SDCCH all signaling preceding a call takes place.The BSC/TRC allocates a signaling channel . . . GSM 125 .Marking the MS as ³active´ in the VLR.The MS sends a call set-up request via SDCCH to the setMSC/VLR .Equipment identification.The authentication procedure. 2.

5.The MSC/VLR instructs the BSC/TRC to allocate an idle TCH.The MSC/VLR forwards the B-number to an exchange in Bthe PSTN .which establishes a connection to the subscriber. B- GSM 126 . The RBS and MS are told to tune to the TCH.the connection is established.If the B-subscriber answers .4. 6.

In order for a mobile subscriber to be able to make calls while roaming in a different GSM network .there must be an agreement . GSM 127 .Traffic Cases in case of international roaming One of the primary features of GSM is the ability to perform international roaming and to handle international call cases .there between the subscriber¶s home network operator .

but has identifies a forbidden network . which the subscriber¶s home operator doesn¶t have an international roaming agreement with . GSM 128 . If the MS doesn¶t find a permitted network .it displays the message ³Emergency Calls Only³. GSM 900) .is a forbidden network . If the network .the MS continuous to scan for a permitted network.The MS tunes to the BCCH carrier that has the strongest signal strength and reads its system information .This includes the identity of the network operator.which the MS has tuned to . The MS compares this network identity with the list of forbidden PLMN¶s in the SIM memory.It is searching 900) for a BCCH carrier.g.Location update: The MS is switched on and scans all GSM frequencies within one frequency band (e. This list contains all network identities.

2. GSM 129 .his location data will be updated and he will be marked as a visitor to Stockholm VLR. 4. 5.The MSC present in the airport will check whither this IMSI belongs to a series defined in it or not .Definition of IMSI series of foreign network is a part of the roaming agreement signed between them .If the MSC finds the IMSI series defined it will route a signaling message to the home HLR the subscriber resisted into and will check whither he is allowed to make roaming and international roaming.If the MS finds a permitted network .A copy from the HLR profile will be transferred to Stockholm VLR . message. 1. 3. it tunes to it and sends an IMSI attach message.If a permitted network is found .If the subscribers is allowed to make roaming and international calls .the MS will send a location update request by sending its IMSI.

Mobile Originated and Mobile Terminate calls When an MS is roaming internationally and a call is made to it . the procedures used is identical to when the MS is in their home network. GSM 130 . Agreements will specify the charging method and tariff classes used in exchanging signaling and traffic channels between the countries. The only major difference is that the GMSC and HLR used are in the home network .while the MSC/VLR is in a network in another country.

Short Message Service GMSC ( SMS-GMSC) SMS.Short Message Service Inter-working MSC Inter(SMS(SMS-IWMSC) GSM 131 .Short Messages The short message service (SMS) allows a mobile subscriber to send and receive text messages composed of 160 characters at most.so short message can be received while a call is in progress The short message sent or received are handled by Short Message Service Center (SMSC). which consists of three parts : . most.Service Center (SC) . These messages can be read on phone¶s LCD panel and they are delivered using the signaling channel (SACCH) .

fax . The short message service inter-networking MSC: interreceives the mobile originated short message from any MSC in the network and receives an alerts message from the HLR to inform the SC that a mobile subscriber who was absent during a previous short message attempt is reachable again GSM 132 . The Short Message Service GMSC: interrogates the HLR to determine the location of a mobile subscriber and forwards the short message to a mobile subscriber via its serving MSC.creates billing files and monitors events and alarms. It stores the short messages . which can be any originator or receiver of short message such as mobile .etc.The Service Center: handled the delivery of short messages to/from Short Message Entities (SME).«. .

MSC1 3. 6. SMSMSC2 8. SMS5.SMS ±IWMSC passes the short message to the SC which checks the message format and if correct stores it on a hard disk .MSC1 forward the short message to the SMS ±IWMSC. 2.SMS-GMSC sends the short message to MSC2. 7. 4.MSC2 forward the short message to the target mobile.SMS-GMSC interrogate the HLR for the location of the SMSdestination mobile by sending the message ³Send Routing Info.Short message is sent to MS 1.SC sends the short message with the destination MSISDN address to the SMS-GMSC. For SM´. and then MSC2 it will be deleted from the SC. For SM´ .HLR responds with the VLR address of the target mobile by sending the message ³ Send Routing Info. GSM 133 .Short Messages Delivery Process: 1.

GSM 134 .

and the SMSC will try to deliver the message by using one of the following methods: 1.Unsuccessful Delivery If the target mobile is switched off or out of service. . 2.Usage of ³Alert service Center´ in the HLR.Retry Method.the HLR responds to the SMS-GMSC with the SMSmessage ³ Absent subscriber´. . service.then the SMS-GMSC sends the delivery failure result SMSto the SC . GSM 135 .

the for the short message (default value is three days) during which it will attempt to deliver the short message until an attempt is successful.the SMS will assign the validity period . GSM 136 .1.Retry Method: Method: In this method . If the validity period expires the short message will be removed from the short center.

which sends the message ³Note MS present´ to the HLR to inform it that the mobile is reachable again.2. 3.HLR sends the message ³Alert Service Center´ to the SMSSMS-IWMSC in order for the SMSC to retry sending the short message again.Usage of ³Alert service Center´ in the HL: HL: 1-SMS-GMSC sends the message ³Set Waiting Data´ to SMSthe HLR .This is to make it possible for the HLR to inform the SMSC when the subscriber is available again. 2.when destination mobile becomes available again. it register itself onto MSC . GSM 137 .

5-HLR responds with the VLR address of the target mobile. 6-SMS-GMSC sends the short message to MSC2. GSM 138 .4-SC asks the SMS-GMSC to interrogate the HLR for the SMSlocation of the target mobile. SMSMSC2 7-MSC2 forwards the short message to the terminated MSC2 mobile.

Thanks! GSM 139 .