Intro to DWDM

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© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Fiber Networks
• Time division multiplexing
Single wavelength per fiber Multiple channels per fiber 4 OC-3/STM1 channels in OC-12/STM4

Channel 1 Channel n

Single Fiber (One Wavelength)

4 OC-12/STM4 channels in OC-48/STM16 16 OC-3/STM1 channels in OC-48/STM16

• Wave division multiplexing
Multiple wavelengths per fiber 4, 16, 24, 40 channels per system Multiple channels per fiber
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l1 l2 Single Fiber (Multiple Wavelengths)

ln
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WDM Basics

ESCON Channel Fibre Channel Gigabit Ethernet

ESCON Channel Fibre Channel Gigabit Ethernet

DWDM creates parallel data channels over a common fiber by multiplexing disparate data streams onto an ITU defined grid of discrete wavelengths.
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Metro Enterprise DWDM Requirements
• Rich Interface support
Escon, FibreChannel, FDDI, Gigabit Ethernet, OC-3, OC-12, OC-48 Protocol and bit-rate independence

• Scalability & Ease of Adding Services • Protection architectures supported • Cost: 1st installed cost and life cycle cost • Size: Optimized for enterprise applications • Quality / Reliability / In Service Replacement
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TDM and DWDM Comparison
• TDM (SONET/SDH)
Takes sync and async signals and multiplexes them to a single higher optical bit rate E/O or O/E/O conversion

DS-1 DS-3 OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-48

SONET ADM

Fiber

• (D)WDM
Takes multiple optical signals and multiplexes onto a single fiber No signal format conversion
OC-12c OC-48c OC-192c DWDM OADM Fiber

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Lowering the Cost of Network

Reducing unnecessary layers of equipment significantly
Lowers equipment cost Lowers operational cost Simplifies architecture

IP ATM SONET/SDH OPTICAL

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DWDM characteristics
• Layer 1 based • Temperature controlled lasers and precision filters • 50,100,200 Ghz spacing on ITU-T G.692 grid • Many components are passive with very high MTBF • Very precise but fundamentally simplistic technology
1 to 1 remapping of various input λ to specific dwdm output λ
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Synchronization over DWDM
SONET Network
• Synchronization driven from network • Router interface timed to PRS via Rx OC-48c Ethernet T1 OC-48c Gigabit SONET Ethernet Network PRS OC-12c OC-48c OC-3c Fiber WDM

Point-to-Point DWDM
• All links are asynchronous to each other • Line synchronization driven from router • Far end derives timing from line Ethernet DS1

~ ~ ~ ~ REGEN

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WDM Concepts—λ Transformation
(1) 2.488 Gbps
...

1310nm/1550nm

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing λ 1λ 2λ 3 4 5 6 7 λ λ λ λ λ …λ

(16) 2.488 Gbps

8

16

1310nm/1550nm

1530-1565 nm Range 16 x 2.5 Gbps 40Gb/s

16 Uncorrelated Lasers
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16 Wavelength Stabilized Lasers
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Course WDM
• Coarse (or Wide) Wavelength Division Multiplexing refers to less expensive systems that use wider spacing between wavelengths, which is normally about 10 nm or greater spacing between wavelenths. • One very simple CWDM solution would be 1300 nm and 1550 nm wavelenths on a single fiber with a very simple filter. • Generally the further apart wavelengths are the more they interfere with each other which may limit the usable distances for CWDM

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Fiber Attenuation
• Telecommunications industry uses two windows: 1310 nm & 1550 nm • 1550 nm window is preferred for long-haul / DWDM applications
λ

1550 window 1310 window

Less attenuation Wider window

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ITU Wavelength Grid (G.692)

1528.77 nm (196.10 THz)

0.39 nm (50 GHz)

1560.61 nm (192.10 THz)

λ

• ITU-T λ grid is based on 193.10 THz + 50 GHz • Its purpose is to standardize lasers not DWDM systems • There is no standard for DWDM systems
Number and spacing of λ s are design variables

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DWDM Enabling Technologies

• Stable and narrow linewidth lasers Low-chirp and high-extinction ratio • High-selectivity wavelength filters Low-insertion loss and crosstalk • High-power optical amplifiers Low noise Wide, flat passband

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Anatomy of a DWDM System
Terminal A Terminal B

Transponder M Interfaces U X PostAmp Direct Connections Line Line Amplifiers Amp PreAmp

D E Transponder Interfaces M U X Direct Connections

Basic building blocks
Optical amplifiers Optical multiplexers Stable optical sources
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Typical configurations
7 x 20 dB 5 x 25 dB 3 x 33 dB
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DWDM Transponder Interfaces
From Terminal Equipment
DWDM TRANSMITTER
SR RCVR SONET 3R PM LR-2 XMTR

To Mux

To Terminal Equipment

DWDM RECEIVER
SR-1 XMTR SONET 3R PM LR RCVR

From DeMux

• One transponder required per wavelength • Full 3R functionality (re-amp, re-shape, re-time) • Terminal side is 1310 SR, line side is 15xx LR • Limited SONET/SDH performance monitoring
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Optical Filter Technology
Fiber Bragg Grating
n

λ 1 ,λ 2 ,λ 3 ,...λ

λ

2

λ 1, ...λ

,λ 3 ,
n

• Low cost, based on standard. Singlemode fiber • Ultranarrow, but hard to control filter shape
Dielectric Filter

λ 1 ,λ 2 ,λ 3 ,...λ λ
2

n

n • Well established technology, up to 200 layers

λ 1, ...λ

,λ 3 ,

• 100 GHz limit today, but good filter shape
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Optical Add Drop Multiplexer (OADM)
Terminal D E M U X Terminal
Drop Channel Wavelength Conversion

Amp

M U X

Amp

Wavelength Signal Filtering Splitting

Wavelength Combination

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Why DWDM—The Business Case
Conventional TDM Transmission—10 Gbps
40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR

OC-48 OC-48 OC-48 OC-48

DWDM Transmission—10 Gb/s
OA 120 km 120 km OA OA 120 km OA

OC-48 OC-48 OC-48 OC-48

4 Fibers 32 Regenerators
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1 Fiber 4 Optical Amplifiers
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DWDM Concepts— Optical Amplifier
Broadband DWDM Optical Amplification

...

...
λ 1 2 3 4λ 5λ 6 7 8…λ λ λ λ λ λ Attenuated Channels

16

λ 1 2 3 4λ 5λ 6 7 8…λ λ λ λ λ λ Amplified Channels

16

All Wavelengths Amplified Simultaneously
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Optical Amplifier
Pin

G

Pout = GPin

• 4 THz of optical bandwidth near 1550 nm • Nearly ideal noise performance • Low signal distortion, low cross talk • High-output saturation power • Simple and efficient
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EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier)

...

EDF
Optical Isolator Optical Filter

EDF

...
WDM Coupler
Optical Isolator

980 or 1480 Pump Laser

• Avoids opto-electrical conversion of a repeater • EDFAs amplify all λ s in 1550 nm window simultaneously • Pump laser is only active part
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The Limit of Optical Amplification
Total Power

OA Output Power

Signal Optical SNR Noise Number of OAs, Distance

• OAs can be cascaded over long distances • Limit imposed by noise accumulation and finite gain
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DWDM Multiple Spans
au l Long H

• OA noise and fiber dispersion limit total distance before regeneration
Optical-Electrical-Optical conversion Full 3R functionality: Reamplify, Reshape, Retime

• Longer spans can be supported using back to back systems
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First Generation Optical Protection
Working

Protect

• Basic system just provides capacity • Need protection—buy two DWDM systems • Relies on terminal equipment for switching • Applies mainly to Enterprise networks
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Second Generation Optical Protection
Working

Protect

• Protection migrates to DWDM equipment
Only one DWDM with protection modules needed Switching decision controlled by transponders Technologies include optical switching and OA gating
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Metro DWDM

Metro DWDM is an emerging market for next generation DWDM equipment • Metro DWDM is fundamentally different than long-haul DWDM
• Rapid-service provisioning Protocol/bitrate transparency Data-centric protected transport

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Cisco Metro 1500
• 32 channel system • 8 channels/shelf • Point-to-Point and Point-to-MultiPoint • Up to 2.5Gbps/channel, bit rate and protocol independent • 1+1 line level protection • SNMP manageable
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Cisco Metro 1500
• • • • • WCM with 3R Function (Retime, Regen, Reshape) WCM with 2R Function (Regen, Reshape) WDM 8 / 16 / 24 / 32 Channel (ITU-T G.692) Configurable Optical Add & Drop Network Element Manager Interface (NEMI) – Cisco Works Manageable – SNMP Agent – TELNET, PPP – GUI • AC 240V or 110V Auto Power
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Metro 1500 Chassis & WDM Channel Modules
• 8 WCM’s / shelf. 32 WCM’s in 4 shelves
5ru / shelf up to 9 shelves in a 7 ft rack

• 6 WCM card types, 32 channels each
–Low Speed Transparent,10-200Mbps,1310nm MM/SM –High Speed Transparent,100-1250Mbps, 1310nm MM to 100-200Mbit or SM 100-1250Mbit –OC-12, 622Mbps with clock, 1310nm SM –OC-48, 2.5Gbps with clock, 1310nm SM –Gigabit Ethernet/Fiber Channel with clock, 850nm MM –Coupling Link, 1062.5Mbps with clock, 1310nm
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Metro 1500 Interface Matrix
W MT e C yp L ow S eed p T s ran H S eed igh p T rans 622M b C p g ou lin L k in 1.062G b 850nm 1.062/1.25 G b (S /O ep ct) 3R R = etim e, R egen R ap , esh e 2R R = egen , R ap esh e 10 b E ern M it th et S lex T er ysp im 100M it E ern b th et 2R 2R 3R 3R 3R 3R 2.5G b/s 4P ort T M D EC N S O (S /O ep ct) (2 S lots) 2R

S /M M M S M S /M M M

N /A N /A S /M M M N eeds 5db attenuator on M 1500 local T x S /M M M N eeds 5db attenuator on M 1500 local T x S /M M M N eeds 5db attenuator on M 1500 local T x S /M M M N eeds 5db attenuator on M 1500 local T x S M N /A N /A S M N eeds 5dB attenuator on local F iber C annel T h x S M N eeds 5db attenuator on L ocal L /L X H G T bic x N /A

N /A N /A N /A

N /A N /A N /A

N /A N /A N /A

N /A N /A N /A

N /A N /A N /A

F D D I

S /M M M

N /A

N /A

N /A

N /A

N /A

O 3 C A M D /S N T /S H O E T EC N S O

S /M M M

N /A

N /A

N /A

N /A

N /A

S /M M M

N /A

N /A

N /A

N /A

S /M M M

F O IC N O 12 C IB C p g M ou lin L k in (G P ) DS F er C an el ib h n

N /A N /A N /A N /A

N /A S /M M M N /A N /A

N /A N /A S M N /A

N /A N /A N /A M M

N /A N /A N /A N /A

N /A N /A N /A N /A

G igabit E en th et

N /A

N /A

N /A

M M

N /A

N /A

O 48 C

N /A

N /A

N /A

N /A

S M

N /A

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Metro 1500 Optical Components
• 4 Mux/DMux card sets
–Channels 1-8, 9-16, 17-24, 25-32 Ch 1-16 C-Band, Ch 17-32 L-Band

• Band Splitter Module (BSM)
–trunk connection + 4 band connections

• Remote Switch Module (RSM)
–Trunk A, Trunk B, common
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Fiber Optic Budget
• Fiber Loss ~ 0.25 dB to 0.5dB / KM • 26 dB Budget in the System or 21 dB for OC48 WCM • 2dB Loss / BSM or 4dB for pass through in ring configurations • 3.5dB Loss / RSM
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Metro 1500 DWDM Operation
MUX DEMUX MUX DMUX

Ch 4

Ch 4

1) CPE input from std SM/MM laser into channel specific line card 2) Remap from std MM/SM λ to DWDM λ , e.g. channel 4 3) Transfer from line card to MUX via short external jumper 4) Aggregation of all λ s on MUX inputs into a single output connection 5) Output from MUX over dark fiber into DMUX, (Up to 100KM) 6) Separation of λ s into discrete paths by precision comb filter 7) Transfer of channel specific λ from DMUX to line card 8) Remap from DWDM λ to std MM or SM λ for connection to CPE
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DWDM Benefits

• DWDM provides hundreds of Gbps of scalable transmission capacity today Provides capacity beyond TDM’s capability Supports incremental, modular growth Transport foundation for next generation networks

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