Optical Technology and Systems for the Enterprise

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

1

Agenda and Presenters

Rob Miller • Market Conditions, Introduction to Optical Technology and Terminology, Single Wavelength Technologies John Seaton • SONET and Next Generation SONET Len Bontempi • Introduction to DWDM MFN in NJ / Fibertech in CT • Fiber Service Provisioning and Service Offering Karl Metzelaar • Next Generation DWDM – Cisco New DWDM Product

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Market Conditions Driving Optical Technology Deployment
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Velocity of Information Accumulation

Courtesy of EMC
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Storage Networking Key Drivers
“Most Storage Will Be Networked by 2005 (SAN …… NAS)”
50 40 30 20 10 0
98

($B)
• Externalization of storage on the network • Acceleration of higher bandwidth networking technologies (FibreChannel, IP,
Ethernet and Optical)

External Storage Internal Storage
99 00 01 02
5

• Need to share and protect information and storage resources • Access to storage is mission critical

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Markets and Drivers
Financial Community Utilities

Storage Connectivity

Government

Internet E-Business Revolution Content Streaming Migration to 10 GE Backbone Consolidation
Enterprise Backbones
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Education

Healthcare

6

Fiber Service Providers

• Manhattan
876 fiber cables per avenue; 24–36 per building $50–$750/fiber/mile/month

• Fiber is becoming available in all major metros in the US and Worldwide

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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One Plus One Equals Three

Sto rage Gro wth
1 60 1 40 1 20 1 00 80 60 40 20 0 O C -3 O C -12 O C -48 O C -19 2

Freedom from Metered Services

Metro DWDM Tornado
t

i vailab A Fiber

lity

s l o w co at

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Cisco Metro Optical
Data (IP, FR, ATM) Storage (FC, ESCON, iSCSI, outsourcing) Multimedia and Streaming Content Legacy and IP voice Ethernet Provisioning (MDU, MTU )

SERVICES

Available

Adaptive Adaptive

Management / Provisioning Management / Provisioning

Aggregation/Switching SONET
ONS 15454 Lambda GSR, OSR, DPT, Bricks Lambda

Scalable

IP

WaveMux
Satellites Lambda

Open Open

Metro 1500, ONS 15200, ONS 15540…….

Optical DWDM Dark Fiber

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Introduction To Optical Technology and Terminology
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Fiber Optic Transmission System

All Fiber Optics Systems Include:
  

Transmitter (Electrical to Optical) Optical Waveguide Receiver (Optical to Electrical)

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Transmitter
Electrical to Optical (E-O) Converter

Electrical In + Variable Intensity = Analog Blink On & Off = Digital Light Out

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Receiver
Optical to Electrical (O-E) Converter
Photodiode + (original signal) Light In Electrical Out

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Fiber Optic Systems - Components

Equipment

Patch Cable

Patch Panel

Fiber Cable

Splice Closure

Transmitter (Tx) or Receiver (Rx)
(E-O or O-E Converter)

Indoor
(Flame Retardant)

Simplex Duplex

Outdoor Couplers (Rugged) Aerial / Buried Rack / Wall Mount Splice Trays
14

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classifying Light

• Power (Watts or Decibel Milliwats)
dBm is typical measurement unit of optical power measured with an Optical Power Meter

• Color (Wavelength)
(and sometimes 1625nm)

300nm (blue) to 700nm (red) is visible to humans FO systems primarily use 850, 1310, & 1550nm

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Signal Quantity Measurements
Optical Gain or Loss expressed in Decibels Trivia: How did the decibel get it’s name? dB =10 log10 P1/P2
Allows gains or losses to be expressed simply and added easily rather than multiplying very large and very small numbers.
40 dB = 10000X power gain 30 dB = 1000X power gain 20 dB = 100X power gain 10 dB = 10X power gain + 3dB = 2X power gain 0 dB = no gain or loss - 3dB = ½ power loss - 10 dB = .1 power loss - 20 dB = .01 power loss - 30 dB = .001 power loss -40 dB = .0001 power loss
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

- 6 db TX .251

- 12 db

- 7 db

- 9 db RX

- 34 db Total Loss .000396

.063

.199

.126

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OpticalPower Power Optical
•Like a light bulb - more wattage = brighter light

•Optical Power expressed (or measured) in dBM which is power relative to 1 milliwatt. dBm = 10 log10 P1 / 1 milliwatt
100 W

50 dBm Light Bulb

FO transmitters: about 1mw (0 dBm) Power ranges: 20 dBm to -70 dBm
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Signal Quantity Measurements

Equipment Connectors Splices Cable

dBm or µ W dB dB dB

Transmitter Output Receiver Sensitivity Mated Pair Loss Back Reflections Splice Loss Fiber Attenuation Cable Length Location of Connections
18

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Optical Spectrum
UV Visible IR 125 GHz/nm

λ

• Light
Ultraviolet (UV) Visible Infrared (IR)

850 nm 980 nm 1310 nm 1480 nm 1550 nm 1625 nm

• Communication wavelengths
850, 1310, 1550 nm Low-loss wavelengths

C =ƒ x λ
Wavelength:

• Specialty wavelengths
980, 1480, 1625 nm
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

λ

Frequency:

ƒ

(nanometers) (terahertz)
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Optical Sources

LED
Launch Power
+10 dBm -30 dBm

Laser

50-100 nm

<1nm-10 nm

Wavelength Precision Measure Launch Power at Center Wavelength
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Fiber Characteristics and Types
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Optical Fiber Parameters
An optical fiber is made of three sections: Core carries the light signals Cladding keeps the light in the core - Coating protects the glass

Core
125 10 250

Cladding Buffer/Coating
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Optical Fiber Types
Coating (245 µm) About the size of a human hair Multimode fiber has a large core relative to the cladding diameter. Cladding (125 µm) Singlemode fiber has a smaller core relative to the cladding diameter. Core (50 or 62.5 µm)

Core (8 µm)

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Multimode vs. Singlemode

Multimode allows many paths (“modes”) for the light

Singlemode allows only one single path for the light

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Glass Purity Breakthrough
Fiber Optics Requires Very High Purity Glass
Window Glass Optical Quality Glass Fiber Optics 1 inch (~3 cm) 10 feet (~3 m) 9 miles (~14 km)

Propagation Distance Need to Reduce the Transmitted Light Power by 50% (3 Db)
25

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Manufacturing an Optical Fiber
• Start with liquid chemicals
Allows a high purity glass to be made

• React at high temperature to form “soot”
SiCl4 + O2 → SiO2 + 2 Cl2

• Soot “boule” is consolidated into a preform • Dopants are deposited on preform • Preform is drawn into fiber and coated
26

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Spectral Attenuation
Loss / km vs. Wavelength
2.0 dB/Km

OH- Absorption Peaks in Actual Fiber Attenuation Curve IR Absorption

Rayleigh Scattering
0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km
800

UV Absorption

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

Wavelength in Nanometers (nm)

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Historical Timeline

• 1950s
Free space links with gas lasers in lab

• 1960s
First 20 db/km fiber demonstrated in lab

• 1970s
Low-loss fiber developed Semiconductor laser invented

• 1980s
Distance-bitrate product doubles annually SONET/SDH standards set

• 1990s
EDFAs first deployed WDM then DWDM systems deployed

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Typical Connectors

ST Simplex Duplex SC SC
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FC

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Mechanics of Light
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Reflection & Refraction

• Reflection is a light ray BOUNCING off of the interface of two materials • Refraction is the BENDING of the light ray as it changes speed going from one material to another

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Reflections

REFLECTION
Some or all of the light that strikes a surface is reflected off at the same angle.

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Refraction & Reflection

If the angle the ray hits the surface is steep enough, most of the light passes thru and is REFRACTED (bent). The rest is reflected off the surface.

Angle of Refraction

REFLECTION

REFRACTION

air

glass

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Index of Refraction (n)

C (velocity of light in a vacuum) n= V (velocity of light in glass)
“C” is a constant. “V” depends on the density of “C” is a constant. “V” depends on the density of the glass. More dense glass causes light to go the glass. More dense glass causes light to go slower (smaller “V” => larger “n”). slower (smaller “V” => larger “n”).

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Refraction & Reflection in Fiber

Angle of Refraction

air glass
Angle of Incidence

“normal”

A ray of light in glass will bend (refract) away from the direction of travel as it escapes to the surrounding air. The amount of this refraction angle is constant. Some light is reflected off the glass-air surface back into the glass.

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Refraction & Reflection in Fiber

air glass
Critical Angle

When the ray of light reaches the Critical Angle, the refracted ray starts to travel Angle along the air-glass interface, and no light escapes into the air.

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Refraction & Reflection in Fiber

“TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION”
air glass
When the ray of light is shallower than the Critical Angle, all the light is now reflected back into the glass at the same angle. This is known as TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION. REFLECTION

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Refraction & Reflection in Fiber

“TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION”

As long as the light ray stays at the Critical Angle or less as it hits the air-glass interface, it will remain in the fiber until it reaches the other end. Reflections are lossless.

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Reflections at Ends of Fiber

Up to 4% of Light Is Reflected at Each End Face
air glass

glass

air

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Optical System Performance Issues
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Optical Performance Limitations
Attenuation Dispersion Nonlinearity It May Be a Digital Signal, but It’s Analog Transmission

Transmitted Data Waveform
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Waveform After 1000 Km
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Optical Attenuation
• Specified in loss per kilometer (dB/km)
0.40 dB/km at 1310 nm 0.25 dB/km at 1550 nm
1310 Window

1550 Window

• Loss due to absorption by impurities
1400 nm peak due to OH ions

• EDFA optical amplifiers available in 1550 window

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Dispersion

Interference

• Dispersion causes the pulse to spread as it travels along the fiber • Modal dispersion limits use of multimode fiber to short distances – not to be confused with… • Chromatic dispersion is important for single mode fiber material vs. waveguide dispersion Depends on fiber type and laser used Degradation increases as (data-rate)2

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Impact of Dispersion on Bit-Rate OC-48
Dispersion Scales as (bit-rate)2

OC-192

Dispersion Effects SIXTEEN TIMES GREATER at OC-192
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Fiber Dispersion Characteristics
Normal Fiber Nondispersion Shifted Fiber (NDSF) >95% of Deployed Plant
20

Dispersion ps/nm-km

0 1310 nm 1550nm

Wavelength

λ

Reduced Dispersion Fibers Dispersion Shifted Fiber (DSF) Nonzero Dispersion Shifted Fibers (NZDSF)
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Dispersion Shifted Fibers

Dispersion (ps/nm -km)

+4 +2

Lucent TrueWave/Balanced + Lucent TrueWave

-2 -4

DSF

1530

1540

1550

1560

Corning LS

Lucent TrueWave/Balanced -

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Analog Transmission Effects
Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and Nonlinearities:
Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Signal detection and recovery is an analog problem

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Polarization Mode Dispersion
• Caused by ovality of core due to:
Manufacturing process Internal stress (cabling) External stress (trucks)

• Only discovered in the 90s • Most older fiber not characterized for PMD
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Polarization Mode Dispersion
• “Fast” axis of propagation and a “slow” axis • Travel down the fiber is desynchronized (out of phase) • PMD presents a greater problem to system performance because it can vary with time
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Fiber Geometry Problems

Off Center

Different Size

Non-Circular

All fibers are allowed a certain tolerance in the core/cladding geometry. This can cause light loss at joints between fibers.

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Dispersion Limits
35 30 Bandwidth (Gb/s)

OC-768? D=2 D=20
50 200 350 500 650 800 950

Dispersion Limited Bandwidth vs. Distance Curves for 1550 nm

25 20 15 10 5 0

NZ DSF SMF-28 OC-48 Is Easy

Distance (km)

• Dispersion limits TDM bandwidth • Chromatic dispersion can be managed, but generally is not • PMD is an issue for OC-192 on older fiber
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Combating Chromatic Dispersion

• Dispersion generally not an issue below OC-192 • New fiber types (NZ-DSF) greatly reduce effects
Dispersion mapping with NZ-DSF +/- segments (submarine systems)

• Dispersion compensation techniques
Dispersion compensation fiber Dispersion compensating optical filters Available in some optical amplifiers

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Dispersion Compensation
Cumulative Dispersion (ps/nm)

Total Dispersion Averages to Zero
Terrestrial Solution
+100 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 +300 +200 +100 0 -100 -200 -300

Submarine Solution

No Compensation With Compensation

No Compensation With Compensation

Distance from Transmitter (km) Dispersion Shifted Fiber Cable

Distance from Transmitter (km) Dispersion Shifted Fiber Cable

Transmitter Dispersion Compensators
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Transmitter Dispersion Compensators
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Fiber Nonlinearity

• Nonlinear effects are the ultimate limits to transmission performance • Today’s systems have longer interaction lengths
Attenuation can be amplified Dispersion can be compensated Nonlinearities just accumulate

• High-capacity systems require high optical power which causes nonlinear effects

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Effects of Nonlinearity
• A single channel’s pulses interact as they travel

Interference

Multiple channels interact as they travel

Interference
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Four-Wave Mixing

ω1 ω2 Into Fiber

2ω 1-ω

2

ω

1

ω 22ω 2-ω

1

Out of Fiber

• Channels beat against each other to form intermodulation products • Creates in-band crosstalk that can not be filtered (optically or electrically)

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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FWM and Dispersion
Dispersion Ashes Out FWM Effects
0

FWM Efficiency (dB)

D=0 D=0.2 D=2 D=17
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

-10 -20 -30 -40 -50

Channel Spacing (nm)
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Different Solutions for Different Fiber Types
SMF-28
• • • • • • • • Good for TDM at 1310 nm Bad for TDM at 1550 nm OK for WDM at 1550 nm May have TDM limit due to PMD Good for TDM at 1550 nm Bad for WDM at 1550 nm Good for TDM and DWDM at 1550 nm Great for TDM and DWDM in L and C bands

DSF NZ-DSF Next Gen

The Difference Is in the Dispersion Characteristics
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Dispersion Benefits
Dispersion Limited Distance Dispersion Multichannel Nonlinearity

Nonlinearity Limited Distance

• Dispersion mitigates nonlinearities • Enables larger number of DWDM channels at tighter spacing • To balance TDM and WDM requirements
Maintain zero-average dispersion at end of link Avoid local zero-dispersion points

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Some Rules of Thumb for Attenuation in Cable Plant
• Fiber Loss Specified as .24 dB per Km for 1550 nm signal on SMF-28 (very conservative – typical measured loss is .16 dB/Km) • Fiber Loss Specified as .34 dB per Km for 1300 nm signal on SMF-28 (very conservative – typical measured loss is .18 dB/Km) • Lose about .1dB per splice • Lose about 1 dB for two connectors (launch and receive or center patch) • Often figures between .25 to .30 dB per Km are used as rough orders of magnitude for fiber plant including splices and patches. It is best to get dB figures from your Fiber service provider rather than distances.

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LAN Extension, ATM, POS
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Single Wavelength Optical Overview
•When to Use Single Wavelength Optical •Many Different interface types are not required •Bandwidth provided by a single wavelength is adequate •Traditional Uses of Single Wavelength Optical: •Extending LAN Coverage Area •ATM LAN/WAN Connections •New Uses for Single Wavelength Optical: •Sonet for the Enterprise •Packet over Sonet •Dynamic Packet Transport
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LAN Extension
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LAN Extension
•Optical links can simply extend distances on LAN connections – Gigabit Ethernet •Layer 1 – Optical fiber is transparent to higher level protocols •1000Base-LX/LH and ZX GBIC for many Cisco Catalyst Switches
LX - GBIC 1310 nm Laser 10 Km / 6.2 miles ZX - GBIC 1550 nm Laser 70 Km / 43 miles NDSF (Standard Single Mode) 100 Km / 62 miles DSF

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Example Customer
•Sites located just beyond the reach of ZX Gigabit Ethernet •Provisioned dark fiber and managed collocated Catalyst 4000 acting as a repeater

70 Km / 43 miles

70 Km / 43 miles

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ATM
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End-to-End ATM Solutions
• Workgroup/Campus ATM switches working with ATM WAN switches • Sub-E1/T1 speeds to OC-48c and other circuit types (Frame Relay, T1 CE, V.35 TDM etc.) • End-to-end enterprise ATM—uplinks, switches, routers • End-to-end telco/service providers/ CLECs ATM solutions – LAN to WAN • Cisco ATM Switches are available with XLR 1550 nm interfaces capable of 100 Km • Can be extended over DWDM with other traffic types

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Packet over Sonet
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Packet Over Sonet

• Packet over SONET (PoS) allows efficient transport of IP over SONET/SDH
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POS Continued

• PoS has low overhead -- averaging about 3 • Core Network Technology -- efficient link

percent, significantly lower than the 15 percent average for the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) cell tax. utilization coupled with high-bandwidth capacity make PoS a preferred technology for building the core of data networks.

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POS to Sonet Networks

WAN PoS links are provisioned as point-to-point circuits over carrier SONET/SDH networks and the circuits are dropped off from ADMs. Routers are connected to the ADMs via PoS interfaces.

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POS to Dark Fiber

IP routers are connected directly to dark fiber using PoS interfaces. Regenerators can be inserted into the link to maintain signal integrity and provide appropriate jitter control across long distances

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Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT)
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Dynamic Packet Transport Technology
Objectives
Cisco 12000 Cisco 12000 Cisco 12000

Regional Metro IP
Cisco 12000

• Scalable Internet Service • Reliable IP-aware Optical Transport • Simplified Network Operations
74

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

DPT - Packet Optimized IP Rings
Technology Overview

• Consists of two counter-rotating fibers • Runs transparently over all key fiber transport infrastructures Dark fiber, WDM, SONET • Utilizes major new protocol to maximize ring bandwidth multiplication: Spatial Reuse Protocol (SRP) • Utilizes major new feature set to maximize robustness, resiliency, and <50ms restoration: Intelligent Protection Switching (IPS)

Working

DPT Ring
(over dark fiber)

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DPT - Scalability and IP Service Optimization
Outer Ring
GSR

Outer Ring • Dual counter rotating rings w/ high speed data transport on both rings Data

Cisco 75XX

Inner Ring Control

• No dedicated pt to pt connections • Control messages carried in opposite direction from data- no reserved bandwidth for protection, robust protection guarantees Maximized efficiency for IP services

Cisco 75XX

Outer Ring Control Inner Ring Data

Cisco 75XX

GSR

Cisco 75XX

Maximized bandwidth availability

Inner Ring
Cisco 75XX

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Spatial Reuse Protocol
• SRP - New Layer 2 MAC technology
Uses SONET/SDH framing Destination stripping Fairness (SRP-fa) Multiple nodes transmit concurrently Scalable Fast protection switching and service restoration Multicasting and priority
Path Section Concatenated plus Line OverPayload Overhead head

MAC IP Packet MAC IP Packet

GSR GSR 75XX 75XX

75XX 75XX

DPT-Based LAN/MAN/WAN

75XX 75XX

75XX 75XX 75XX 75XX

GSR GSR

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Spatial Reuse

• Bandwidth consumed only on traversed segment • Unicast packets travel along ring spans between source and destinations nodes only
Destination stripping

A

B

D

C

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SRP Fairness Algorithm

• SRP-fa is the mechanism that ensures
Global Fairness—each node gets a fair share of the ring bandwidth Local Optimization—node maximally leverages the spatial reuse properties of the ring Scalability—the ability to build large rings with many nodes that spans across large geographically distributed area

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Intelligent Protection Switching
• Like SONET/SDH, DPT provides
Proactive performance monitor and self-healing via ring wrapping Fast 50-ms restoration Protection switching hierarchy

Fiber Cut
GSR

• Unlike SONET/SDH, DPT provides
signaling via explicit control messages Multilayer awareness and elastic cooperation differentiated handling by priority enhanced pass-through mode Fast IP service restoration on large rings No dedicated protection bandwidth and intelligent rehoming after wrap Minimal configuration and provisioning

Cisco 75XX

Cisco 75XX

GSR Cisco 75XX

Cisco 75XX

Detects Alarms and Events and Wraps Ring ~50 ms

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DPT Multicasting Support
Source

• Packet flow
Sourced onto ring with multicast bit set Received by appropriate routers on ring Stripped from ring by source
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GSR Cisco 75XX

Cisco 75XX

Cisco 75XX

Cisco 75XX

GSR

Cisco 75XX
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DPT Transport Flexibility

DPT

Dark Fiber

SONET

WDM

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DPT Transport Flexibility
DPT over Dark Fiber
DPT Running Directly over Dark Fiber

Cisco 12000 GSR

Cisco 72xx/75xx

Dark Fiber

GSR

Cisco 12000

Cisco 72xx/75xx

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DPT Transport Flexibility
DPT over SONET/SDH
Cisco 7xxx

DPT Ring Running within SONET/SDH Ring

SONET ADM

Cisco 7xxx

SONET ADM

SONET/SDH
SONET ADM

SONET ADM

GSR

Cisco 12000

Cisco 7xxx
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DPT Transport Flexibility
DPT and SONET/SDH over DWDM
Cisco 12000

DPT and SONET/SDH running in parallel on two separate lambdas
SONET ADM

GSR

DPT
SONET ADM

Cisco 12000

GSR

DWDM Rings
SONET ADM

GSR

Cisco 12000

SONET
SONET ADM

GSR
Cisco 12000
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Metropolitan IP Access
Product Portfolio

Cisco 7500 series ONS 15190 Cisco uBR 7200 series

ONS 15104 Cisco 7200 series
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Cisco 12000 series

And Growing...
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RUNet 2000 Design Model
Data Model
New Brunswick MAN
Busch Campus

College Avenue Campus OC-48 DPT Livingston Campus

Cook/Douglass Campus
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RUNet 2000 Design Model
Data Model
Core Layer
Legacy Network MAN Services Core Services OC-3 POS New Brunswick MAN OC-48 DPT Primary Core GEC OC-3 ATM MAN Services MAN Services
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GEC Newark MAN GEC

T1 Camden MAN GEC GEC
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