THE EVOLUTION OF HOFSTEDE¶S DOCTRINE

(BASED ON JOURNAL ARTICLE BY MICHAEL MINKHOV & GEERT HOFSTEDE)

Presented By: Rohit Kumar Singh Roll No: 38

HOFSTEDE AND HIS DOCTRINE
Dutch Social Psychologist and Organizational Anthropologist Gave a four-dimensional model of national culture. Model originated from his analysis of some 116,000 survey questionnaires administered to employees of the IBM corporation in 72 countries. Culture¶s Consequences: International Differences in WorkRelated Values (Hofstede, 1980)

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS OF ORIGINAL MODEL
³Unpackaging´ of culture Dimensions of national culture were constructed at the national level. Dimensions reflect stable national differences. First large collection of data demonstrating that national culture constrains rationality in organizational behavior and management philosophies and practices, and in society at large.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS OF ORIGINAL MODEL (CONTD.)
Dimensions were all constructed in such a way that they addressed basic problems that all societies have to deal with. These dimensions were:
1.

2.

3.

4.

Power distance: Social inequality, including the relationship with authority. Individualism-collectivism: The relationship between the individual and the group. Masculinity-femininity: The social implications of having been born as a boy or a girl Uncertainty avoidance: Ways of dealing with uncertainty, relating to the control of aggression and the expression of emotions.

EMERGENCE OF FIFTH DIMENSION
Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Hofstede(1991) In collaboration with Michael Bond from the Chinese University of Hong Kong By using a new questionnaire called Chinese Value Survey (CVS) administered to female and male students in 23 countries around the world. Uncertainty avoidance had no equivalent in the CVS instead CVS dimension combined values opposing an orientation towards the future to an orientation towards the past and present. Hofstede labeled it ³long-term versus short-term orientation´ (LTO) and adopted it as a fifth universal dimension.

EMERGENCE OF SIXTH DIMENSION
2004: The appearance of project GLOBE¶s main monograph (House et al., 2004) marked an interesting point in the development of Hofstede¶s doctrine. 2006: GLOBE¶s work, and its subsequent analyses by Smith and Minkov and Blagoev lead to better understanding of difference between personal values and norms for others. Demystification of Hofstede¶s uncertainty avoidance : Construct was about rule orientation for others

EMERGENCE OF SIXTH DIMENSION
2007: Minkhov¶s work based on World Value Survey identified three significant variables : 1. Happiness 2. Measures of life control 3. Importance of Happiness Additionally, Minkov (2009) showed that measures of life control and importance of leisure are the best predictors of happiness across more than 90 nations. These three variables form a strong dimension of national culture, which he labeled ³indulgence versus restraint´ Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (Hofstede et al., 2010), third edition

HOFSTEDE¶S DIMENSIONS TILL NOW
Six dimensions so far : 1) Power distance: This refers to the degree of inequality that exists ± and is accepted ± among people with and without power. 2) Individualism: This refers to the strength of the ties people have to others within the community. 3) Masculinity-femininity: This refers to how much a society sticks with, and values, traditional male and female roles. 4) Uncertainty avoidance: This relates to the degree of anxiety society members feel when in uncertain or unknown situations. 5) Long Term Orientation (LTO): This refers to how much society values long-standing ± as opposed to short term ± traditions and values. 6) Indulgence versus restraint

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