Titanium Alloy

Engr. Crisanto Crystal, ME

Auto manufacturers Porsche and Ferrari also use titanium alloys in engine components due to its durable properties in these high stress engine environments. However. spacecraft. Such alloys have very high tensile strength and toughness (even at extreme temperatures). medical devices. connecting rods on expensive sports cars and some premium sports equipment and consumer electronics. allowing it to undergo precipitation strengthening. extraordinary corrosion resistance.Titanium Alloy are metallic materials which contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. the high cost of both raw materials and processing limit their use to military applications. allowing much easier fabrication of a high-strength product. This mixture has a solid solubility which varies dramatically with temperature. This heat treatmentprocess is carried out after the alloy has been worked into its final shape but before it is put to use. and ability to withstand extreme temperatures. light weight. aircraft. for most applications titanium is alloyed with small amounts of aluminum and vanadium. typically 6% and 4% respectively. y . y Although "commercially pure" titanium has acceptable mechanical properties and has been used for orthopedic and dental implants. by weight.

the titanium undergoes an allotropic transformation to a body-centred cubic phase which remains stable to the melting temperature. iron. germanium.587. beta stabilizers). . Molybdenum. cobalt. gallium. chromium. manganes e.niobium. tantalum.e. At about 890°C.e. nickel. copper and silicon are beta stabilizers. alpha stabilizers) while others lower the transition temperature (i.Transition temperature y The crystal structure of titanium at ambient temperature and pressure is close-packed hexagonal phase with a c/a ratio of 1. carbon. Aluminium. vanadium. Some alloying elements raise the alpha-to-beta transition temperature[1] (i. oxygen and nitrogen are alpha stabilizers.

silicon or vanadium. near-alpha alloys are alloyed with 1-2% of beta phase stabilizers such as molybdenum. which are metastable and generally include some combination of both alpha and beta stabilisers. Alpha & Beta Alloys. . and which can be heat treated. which are metastable and which contain sufficient beta stabilisers (such as molybdenum.Categories Titanium Alloys are generally classified into four main categories Alpha alloys which contain neutral alloying elements (such as tin) and/ or alpha stabilisers (such as aluminium or oxygen) only. Beta Alloys. These are not heat treatable Near-alpha alloys contain small amount of ductile beta-phase. Besides alpha-phase stabilisers. and which can also be solution treated and aged to improve strength. silicon and vanadium) to allow them to maintain the beta phase when quenched.

low weight and resistance to high temperatures are important. but since alloys are usually categorized according to which element forms the majority of the material. Titanium is not easily corroded by sea water. and so may be considered a Ti-O alloy. missiles and rockets where strength. itanium alone is a strong. It is as strong as steel. beta-phase titanium is stronger yet less ductile and alpha-phase titanium is more ductile. pins for setting bones.Properties Generally. but 45% lighter. it and its alloys are used to create artificial hips. light metal. Oxide precipitates offer some strength (as discussed above). Alpha-beta-phase titanium has a mechanical property which is in between both. Titanium and its alloys are used in airplanes. and its formation is very energetic. It is also twice as strong as aluminium but only 60% heavier. Further. These two factors mean that all titanium except the most carefully purified has a significant amount of dissolved oxygen. these are not usually considered to be "titanium alloys" as such. rigging and other parts of boats that are exposed to sea water. and for other biological implants. . but are not very responsive to heat treatment and can substantially decrease the alloy's toughness. See the sub-article on titanium applications. Many alloys also contain titanium as a minor additive. since titanium does not react within the human body. and thus is used in propeller shafts. Titanium dioxide dissolves in the metal at high temperatures. See Titanium#Orthopedic_implants.

weld and fabricability. and 310 MPa.2% (maximum) oxygen. also known as Ti6Al4V.[6] Among its many advantages.Young's modulus of 110 GPa. Marine. Grade 5. 69 GPa. It is also used in surgical implants. It is significantly stronger than commercially pure titanium while having the same stiffness and thermal properties (excluding thermal conductivity. it is used in applications up to 400 degrees Celsius. In consequence.[4] Generally. and tensile strength of only 570 MPa. 0. Ti-6Al-4V or Ti 6-4.25% (maximum) iron. which is about 60% lower in Grade 5 Ti than in CP Ti). They are used for corrosion resistance applications where cost and ease of fabrication and welding are important. . and the remainder titanium. The difference in their physical properties is primarily due to the quantity of interstitial elements. Generally the tensile and yield strength goes up with grade number for these "pure" grades. respectively. corrosion resistance. This grade is an excellent combination of strength.[5] It is used for connecting rods in ICEs. Grade 1-4 are unalloyed and considered commercially pure or "CP". It has a chemical composition of 6% aluminium. and tensile strength of 1000 MPa.[4] Grade 5 is used extensively in Aerospace. 0.[8] And tempered 6061 aluminium alloy has 2700 kg/m3.[7] By comparison. annealed type 316 stainless steel has a density of 8000 kg/m3. 4% vanadium. especially 316. modulus of 193 GPa. and Chemical Processing. its uses are numerous such as for military aircraft or turbines. Medical. Its properties are very similar to those of the 300 stainless steel series.Grades y The ASTM defines a number of alloy standards with a numbering scheme for easy reference. is the most commonly used alloy. it is heat treatable. It has a density of roughly 4420 kg/m3.

This alloy is used in airframes and jet engines due to its good weldability. Grade 9 contains 3. It is also known as Ti- y y y y 5Al-2.25% palladium.12 to 0.5% vanadium.5Sn.0% aluminium and 2. Grade 11 contains 0. The small quantity of palladium added gives it enhanced crevice corrosion resistance at low temperatures and high pH. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance. Grade 7H contains 0.5% tin.25% palladium.12 to 0. This grade is a compromise between the ease of welding and manufacturing of the "pure" grades and the high strength of Grade 5. .y Grade 6 contains 5% aluminium and 2. This grade is similar to Grade 2.12 to 0. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance. It is commonly used in aircraft tubing for hydraulics and in athletic equipment. Grade 7 contains 0. stability and strength at elevated temperatures.25% palladium.

Grade 18 contains 3% aluminium.5% vanadium and 0. 2. Grade 17 contains 0.05% ruthenium.08% palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance. This grade is identical to Grade 9 in terms of mechanical characteristics.3% molybdenum and 0. Grade 16H contains 0.04 to 0. and 15 all contain 0.5% nickel and y y y y 0.08% palladium. Grade 16 contains 0. .04 to 0. 14.04 to 0. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.04 to 0.08% palladium.y Grade 12 contains 0. The added palladium gives it increased corrosion resistance.8% nickel. y Grades 13.08% palladium.

and 0. and 4% molybdenum. Grade 20 contains 3% aluminium. Improved ductility and fracture toughness with some reduction in strength.04% to 0. 4% zirconium. 8% vanadium.7% niobium. 0. Grade 24 contains 6% aluminium. 4% vanadium. 6% chromium. Grade 23 contains 6% aluminium.13% (maximum) Oxygen.25% silicon. 2. Grade 21 contains 15% molybdenum. 3% aluminium.04% to 0. 8% vanadium. 4% molybdenum and 0. . 6% chromium.y Grade 19 contains 3% aluminium. 4% vanadium and 0.08% palladium.08% palladium. y y y y 4% zirconium.

y Grade 25 contains 6% aluminium. 4% vanadium and 0. . 2. Grade 32 contains 5% aluminium.08 to 0.3% to y y y y y 0.04% to 0. 4% vanadium and 0.8% molybdenum.8% nickel and 0.08% palladium.14% ruthenium. Grades 30 and 31 contain 0. and 27 all contain 0.05% palladium. 1% vanadium. Grade 28 contains 3% aluminium. Grades 26.08 to 0. and 0. 1% tin. 26H. Grade 29 contains 6% aluminium.5% vanadium and 0.14% ruthenium.14% ruthenium.3% cobalt and 0.08 to 0. 1% zirconium.

Grade 36 contains 45% niobium.y Grades 33 and 34 contain 0. and 1. 2. Grade 37 contains 1.5% aluminium. 1. and 0.015% palladium. 0. y y y y 0.3% silicon. 0.5% aluminium. .5% vanadium. Grade 38 contains 4% aluminium. and 0. 2% molybdenum.5% iron.025% ruthenium.6% vanadium. but has good cold workability similar to grade 9.15% chromium . This grade was developed in the 1990s for use as an armor plating.5% iron. Its mechanical properties are very similar to Grade 5. The iron reduces the amount of Vanadium needed as a beta stabilizer.4% nickel. Grade 35 contains 4.

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