Section 3 Peoples of North America

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I. The Desert Southwest A. Anasazi ± best-known society of the southwest 1. Lived in what is today Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah 2. Between AD 900 and 1300, they built large villages called pueblos 3. Pueblo Bonito ± remains still stand in New Mexico a.)Had a huge complex with 800 rooms that housed about 6,000 people b.) At the center was a plaza with a kiva ± a large underground chamber used for religious ceremonies

Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico

B. Cliff dwellings 1. Began building houses in the shadow of canyon walls, where the cliffs offered protection from raiders 2. The largest was at Mesa Verde (Colorado) which had 200 rooms 3. In the late 1200s, a long drought forced them to abandon their cliff dwellings 4. Attacks by Navajos and Apaches may have contributed further to their decline 

II. The Mound Builders

A. Cahokia greatest center of the Mississippians ‚ 1. By A.D. 800, these early cultures had disappeared ‚ 2. A new people, the Mississippians gained influence ‚ 3. The Cahokia was in present-day Illinois and housed as many as 40,000 people ‚ 4. It had about 60 mounds on which the homes of rulers and nobles stood B. Heirs of the Mound Builders ‚ 1. The Mississippians left no written records ‚ 2. Their traditions survived among the Natchez people

III. Diverse Regional Cultures  A. A Frozen World Far North
1. Inuits (Eskimos) adapted to a harsh climate 2. Small bands lived by hunting and fishing 3. Seals and other sea mammals provided them with food, skins for clothing, bones for needles and tools, and oil for cooking 4. They paddled kayaks or used dog sleds to transport good across the ice 5. They constructed igloos, or dome-shaped home made from snow and ice

Traditional Inuit clothing is made from animal skins

Inuit girls pose for a photo in 1913

Inuits lived in igloos during the coldest months and tent like huts during the warmer months

This Inuit woman is carrying her baby on her back. The hoods of women¶s parks were made extra long to fit an infant 

B. A Land of Plenty- Northwest coast
1. The rivers with salmon and the Pacific Ocean offered other fish and sea mammals 2. Hunters tracked deer, wolves, and bears in the forests 3. They built large permanent villages with homes made of wood 4. They traded their goods in ceremonies called potlatch a person a rank and wealth distributes lavish gifts to large numbers of guests. By accepting the gift, the person acknowledges the host s high status 

C. The Iroquois League Eastern woodlands

from the Atlantic Coast to the Great Lakes
1. They cleared land and built villages in forests 2. While women farmed, men hunted and warred against rival nations 3. The prophet Dekanawidah urged rival Iroquois nations to stop their constant wars

 A.) He became one of the founders of the unique political system known as the Iroquois League  B.) Although it did not always succeed in keeping peace, it was one of the bestorganized political group north of Mexico  C.) Only men sat on the council but each council had a clan mother  D.) The Iroquois League emerged at the time when Europeans arrived in the Americas  E.) The encounters with Europeans took a fearful toll on the peoples of N. America and toppled the Aztec and Incan empires